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THE IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY 
AND POLITICS 



THE 

IOWA JOUEML 

OF 

HISTORY AND POLITICS 



EDITOR 

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 



VOLUME XIX 
1921 



PUBLISHED QUARTERLY BY 

THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OP IOWA 
IOWA CITY, IOWA 
1921 



COPYRIGHT 1921 BY 
THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 



CONTENTS 
Number 1 — January 1921 

Providing for a State Constitutional Convention 

John F. Sly 3 

History of Taxation in Iowa 1910-1920 John E. Brindley 44 
Tihe Operation of the Primary Election Law in Iowa 

Frank Edv^^ard Horack. 94 

Some Publications 125 

- Western Americana 130 

lowana 132 

Historical Societies 146 

Notes and Comment 154 

Contributors 156 

Number 2 — April 1921 

Official Encouragement of Immigration to Iowa 

Marcus Lee Hansen 159 
The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 (I) Louis Bernard Schmidt 196 

Letters of Governor John Chambers on Indian Affairs, 1845 246 

Some Publications 287 

Western Americana 289 

lowana 290 

Historical Societies 309 

Notes and Comment 315 

Contributors 318 



vi CONTENTS 

Number 3 — July 1921 

Iowa and the Diplomatic Service John E. Briggs 321 

Kasson and the First International Postal Conference 

John E. Briggs 366 

Mechanics' Institutions Clarence Ray Aurner 389 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 (II) Louis Bernard Schmidt 414 

Some Publications 456 

Western Americana 462 

lowana 463 

Historical Societies 477 

Notes and Comment 483 

Contributors 486 



Number 4 — October 1921 

The Legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly of 

Iowa John E. Briggs 489 

Some Publications 667 

Western Americana 673 

lowana 674 

Historical Societies 690 

Notes and Comment 698 

Contributors 702 

Index 703 




Iowa 



H i storj^and Politics 




JANUARY 1921 




Published Quaa^erlyby 

THE SIATE HISTORICAL SOCIE 

lowa^. City Iowa. 



Entered Deeeinlwr 28 1902 at Iowa CHy lov-i a; omj 



'■! of 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 
Associate Editor, JOHN C. PARISH 



Vol XIX JANUARY 


No. 1 


CONTENTS 




Providinc; for a State Constitutional Convention 

John F. Sly 


3 


History of Taxation in Iowa 1910-1920 

John E. Brindley 


44 


The Operation of the Frimai-y iLileotion Law m Iowa 

Frank Edward Horack 


94 


Some Publications ....... 


125 


VV estf.rn AinericftDA ....... 


J 


lowana .... .... 


132 


Historical Societies .... 


146 


Notes and Comment ...... 


154 


Contributors ...... 


156 


Copyright 19gl iy The Statt Historioal Society of Iowa 





THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Published QTiA.a.TB&LY 

AT IOWA CITY 

STJBSCKirTION ]*R1CE: $2.00 SiHOLE NUUBBH: 50 CBNTB 

Addrett oil Commrtnioatiotu to 
'J ii£ axATE HisTQ&iCAL Soounr Tova Citt Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

JANUARY NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY ONE 
VOLUME NINETEEN NUMBER ONE 



VOL. xrs — 1 



PROVIDING FOR A STATE CONSTITUTIONAL 
CONVENTION 

Since the people of Iowa at the general election in 1920 
voted in favor of a convention to revise the fundamental 
law of the State, it becomes the duty of the General As- 
sembly in 1921 to make proper provision in a convention 
act for the assembling of a constitutional convention. A 
discussion of what may properly be embodied in such an 
act, the usages in other States, and the historical precedents 
in Iowa, is therefore of timely interest. 

WHAT MAY PEOPEELY BE EMBODIED IN A CONTENTION ACT 

When the revision of a State Constitution is deemed de- 
sirable, interest at once centers in the procedure preliminary 
to the meeting of the constitutional convention. In Iowa, 
constitutional provisions concerning revision of the funda- 
mental law are found in Article X, Section 3, which reads : 

At the general election to be held in the year one thousand eight 
hundred and seventy, and in each tenth year thereafter, and also at 
such times as the General Assembly may, by law, provide, the 
question, "Shall there be a Convention to revise the Constitution, 
and amend the same?" shall be decided by the electors qualified to 
vote for members of the General Assembly ; and in case a majority 
of the electors so qualified, voting at such election, for and against 
such proposition, shall decide in favor of a Convention for such 
purpose, the General Assembly, at its next session, shall provide by 
law for the election of delegates to such Convention. 

From these simple provisions it is clear that the duty of 
providing for the constitutional convention is imposed upon 
the legislature which is confronted with the practical ques- 

3 



4 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tion of what may properly be embodied in a convention act 
under the constitutional clause which empowers the Gen- 
eral Assembly to "provide by law for the election of dele- 
gates ' '. 

In the discussion of this question, distinctions in the 
structure and functions of legislative assemblies and con- 
stitutional conventions are important. Both may be classed 
as law-making bodies. The legislature is intrusted with 
the enactment of statute law; while the convention under- 
takes the task of framing or revising the fundamental law 
of the State. Both the convention and the legislature are 
responsible to the electorate, although with somewhat dif- 
ferent degrees of directness: both are selected by the 
electorate to perform their particular functions. The legis- 
lature is bound absolutely by the provisions of the existing 
Constitution ; while the convention, ordinarily bound by the 
Constitution, may exercise constituent power, subject to 
ratification by the electorate.^ Again, it appears that the 
modem legislature is usually composed of an upper and a 
lower house ; while the convention is universally composed 
of a single chamber. Finally, the members of the constitu- 
tional convention are, in the absence of constitutional pro- 
visions, qualified by legislative act ; likewise the time, place, 

1 Judge John A. J ameson in an exhaustive study of constitutional conven- 
tions, took the position that a convention is completely bound by restrictions 
placed upon it in the legislative act. He did this because he thought it neces- 
sary that the convention be subordinate to the existing government. But, as 
Mr. Walter Fairleigh Dodd points out, * ' even he hesitated to push this doctrine 
to its extreme limits; for example, he thought that a convention might dis- 
regard a legislative requirement that its work be not submitted to the people, 
and also took the position that the legislative limitations upon a convention 
'must be in harmony with the principles of the convention system, or, rather, 
not inconsistent with the exercise by the convention, to some extent, of its 
essential and characteristic functions.' " — Dodd's The Bevision and Amend- 
ment of State Constitutions, p. 73; Jameson's CoiistitutioTial Conventions, p. 
364. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



5 



and manner of the assembling of the convention are usually- 
statutory 

In the Constitution of Iowa there is no provision which 
aims to restrain the convention in any way. While the 
phrase to ''provide by law for the election of delegates" 
would seem to imply the minimum of legislative action, this 
simple provision necessarily includes the power to define 
the number and qualifications of delegates and their proper 
apportionment. Indeed, the most careful consideration 
should be given to this matter by the legislature in framing 
a convention act. The number of delegates should be such 
as to provide a convention small enough to assure efficient 
action and large enough to permit of an adequate repre- 
sentation of State opinion; the qualifications of delegates 
should be such as to obtain the advantage of experience 
coupled with an intimate knowledge of the requirements of 
the State ; and the apportionment of delegates should be so 
arranged that the convention will contain persons having 
more than local interests. 

Likewise it is essential that proper regulations concern- 
ing the nomination and election of delegates be embodied in 
the convention act. In so far as possible the existing State 
laws should be utilized ; but a careful examination of their 
applicability will be necessary, and perhaps some changes 
provided to assure to the convention the safeguards that its 
high importance demands. 

Thus, the time, place, and possibly the manner in which 
the convention shall convene should be provided with care- 
ful attention to the seasonableness of the call, the place in 
which the convention shall at first assemble, and sugges- 
tions concerning preliminary organization and procedure. 

Again, it is not to be overlooked that adequate appropri- 
ations — both for the proper remuneration of the delegates 

2 Jameson's Constitutional Conventions, pp. 356, 357. 



6 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and for meeting the expenses incidental to the functioning 
of a constitutional convention — should be arranged, coupled 
with an indication of such method of certification as would 
seem expedient to protect the expenditure of public funds. 

In brief, a convention act should provide for all matters 
that require definite settlement before the delegates con- 
vene, and should be of such breadth as to insure in all 
respects an unhampered convention.^ Otherwise, the pur- 
pose of holding such a convention would be defeated. 

With the same purpose in view, the legislature may prop- 
erly insert in its convention act clauses that tend to facili- 
tate convention procedure; but in doing this it should 
impose no undue restraint upon independent action. In the 
convention acts of the last decade such provisions as the 
following are found : * * The Governor shall call the conven- 
tion to order at its opening session and shall preside over 
it until a temporary or permanent presiding officer shall 
have been chosen by the delegates " ; ^ the delegates ' ' shall 
proceed to organize themselves in Convention, by choosing 
a president and such other officers .... as they may 
deem expedient";^ the "journal and proceedings of the 
said convention shall be filed and kept in the office of secre- 
tary of state and the "doors of the convention shall be 
kept open to the public during all of its sessions."' 

Furthermore, the legislature sometimes assumes to con- 
fer upon the convention powers of a positive nature. Thus, 
the convention "and its committees, shall have the same 
power to compel the attendance of witnesses, or the produc- 
tion of papers, books, records and public documents, as is 

s JamcBon's Constitutional Conventions, p. 275. 

■* Ulinoia convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 7. 

6 Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 6. 

8 Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), Sec. 18. 

'Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 7. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



7 



now exercised by the General Assembly, and its commit- 
tees";^ it shall have authority to determine its own rules 
of proceeding, and to punish its members for disorderly 
conduct, to elect such officers as it may deem necessary for 
the proper and convenient transaction of the business of 
the convention, and to prescribe their duties or it is 
authorized to ''make provisions for the publication of its 
proceedings or any part thereof ; and for the securing of a 
copyright of any such publication for the state Some- 
times express authority for the performance of its func- 
tions is found in a clause stating that the convention "may 
take into consideration the propriety and expediency of 
revising the present Constitution of the Commonwealth, or 
making alterations or amendments thereof."" 

Such restrictions as those above enumerated would seem - 
to have no other purpose than that of facilitating the work 
of the convention. In so far as this principle is observed, 
there is little danger of friction. Mr, Walter F. Dodd ably 
expresses this conclusion in these words: 

Legislative acts are usually necessary for the assembly of con- 
ventions, but this dependence of conventions upon legislatures has 
as yet caused few conflicts. The good sense of the people has 
ordinarily caused both legislatures and conventions to restrict them- 
selves to their proper spheres. The general obedience of conven- 
tions to the legislative acts under which they were called has been 
due to the fact that legislative acts have usually required only 
those things which the convention would have done without legis- 
lative requirement; cases of conflict arise only when a legislature 

8 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 12. 

9 Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), Sec. 4. 

10 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 14. 

11 Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 6. 

In Massachusetts there was no constitutional provision for calling a conven- 
tion. There are at present twelve States that have no express provision cover- 
ing this matter ; but conventions have been held in eight of them without serious 
difficulty. — Hoar's Constitutional Conventions, p. 41. 



8 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



attempts to restrict a convention in such a manner as to interfere 
with its proper functions, and such cases have not been numerous." 

Sometimes, however, legislatures have incorporated in 
convention acts provisions that give rise to confusion and 
delay — although it would seem that such objectionable re- 
quirements have been due more to over-zealousness in 
behalf of the general welfare than to any intention of ex- 
tending their proper authority. In this connection atten- 
tion may be called to three such questionable provisions. 
The first of these has to do with the nature and the neces- 
sity of a fidelity oath to bind the convention delegates in 
the performance of their duties ; the second deals with limi- 
tations as to the length of the convention session, coupled 
with a refusal of remuneration after a specified time; and 
the third concerns detailed requirements as to submitting 
the findings to the people for approval. 

The Convention Oath. — The Constitutions of Colorado, 
Illinois, and Montana contain express provisions to the ef- 
fect that delegates to a constitutional convention shall take 
an oath to support both the State and the Federal Constitu- 
tion. Where such a provision is found in the fundamental 
law, there can be little doubt of its propriety — at least it 
appears that its propriety has not been disputed.^^ Judge 
Jameson asserts that of the convention proceedings acces- 
sible to him, about one-half indicate that an oath has been 
administered to the delegates.^* The question, however, 
does not seem to be so much concerning the propriety of an 
oath, as the proper oath to be administered.^"^ 

In the Iowa convention of 1857 a pointed discussion took 

i^Dodd's The Bevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 91. 
1* Hoar's Constitutional Conventions, p. 189. 
14 Jameson's Constitutional Conventions, p. 280. 
■«> Hoar's Constitutional Conventions, p. 188. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



9 



place upon this very question. The convention act approved 
on J anuary 24, 1855, contained no provision in the matter ; 
and the delegates themselves had difficulty in coming to an 
agreement. As first presented the resolution pertaining to 
this question provided that the ''members elect, of this Con- 
vention, be and they are hereby required, severally, to take 
an oath to support the Constitution of the United States, 
and to faithfully discharge their duties as delegates to this 
Convention." An amendment proposing that the words 
''and the Constitution of the State of Iowa" be inserted 
after the words ' ' United States ' ', precipitated a heated but 
rather academic debate. One member asserted that inas- 
much as his intention towards the existing State Constitu- 
tion was ' ' to alter it, break it down, tear it to pieces, and 
build it up again", he could see no reason why he should 
swear to support it. The debate, covering almost two pages 
of the record, resulted in the adoption of the original reso- 
lution.^* Although legislative supremacy was not in this 
instance at issue, the discussion is indicative of the attitude 
of the delegates toward such requirements. 

Judge Jameson mentions the North Carolina conventions 
of 1835 and 1875, as well as the Illinois conventions of 1862 
and 1869, as important examples relating to this question. 
The acts under which these conventions assembled definitely 
prescribed the oath to be taken. In both of the North Caro- 
lina conventions the oath was objected to, but was subse- 
quently administered — even though important restrictions 
were formally placed upon the conventions by the legis- 
lature and no delegate was permitted to take his seat until 
bound by oath. The members of the Illinois convention of 
1862, however, refused to take the oath required by the con- 
is The Dehates of the Constitutional Convention of the State of Iowa, 1857, 
Vol. I, pp. 8, 9. 

The member who made the statement quoted in the text was Mr. J. C. Hall 
of Des Moines County. 



10 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



vention act, and the members of the convention of 1869 took 
it only in a modified form.^' 

The Virginia convention of 1901-1902 refused by a vote 
of fifty-six to thirty-eight to take the oath laid down in the 
existing Constitution, because it not only required the sup- 
port of both the United States and the State Constitutions, 
but also bound the * * officers of this State ' ' to accept and to 
recognize ' * the civil and political equality of all men before 
the law."^^ The argument that the delegates were not 
"officers" within the meaning of the Constitution of 1870 
formed a convenient ground for evasion, inasmuch as the 
principal purpose of the convention was to effectively dis- 
franchise the negro.^® 

The Alabama convention of 1901 was likewise restricted 
by legislative act both as to functions and to oath. Declar- 
ing support of the Constitution of the United States and 
fidelity to the duties of a delegate, the required oath was 
taken by the members, but inasmuch as it made no refer- 
ence to the legislative act, the restrictive provisions therein 
contained were not fully observed. The controversy led to 
the positive assertion in the new Constitution that ' ' nothing 
herein contained shall be construed as restricting the juris- 
diction and power of the convention, when duly assembled 
in pursuance of this section, to establish such ordinances 
and to do and perform such things as to the convention may 

1"' Jameson 's Constitutional Conventions, pp. 283, 284. 

In at least the South Carolina convention of 1835, Judge Jameson indicates 
that the ' ' Act rested not alone on the authority of the legislature, but on that 
of the people to whom it had been submitted." This view seems to be the one 
that finally persuaded the members to take the oath. 

18 McKinley 's Two New Southern Constitutions in the Political Science Quar- 
terly, Vol. XVIII, pp. 506, 507. 

The article referred to gives interesting data concerning the Alabama and 
Virginia conventions that convened in 1901. 

isDodd's The Bevision and Amendmerit of State Constitutions, p. 81. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION H 



seem necessary or proper for the purpose of altering, re- 
vising, or amending the existing Constitution. "^^ 

The Louisiana act under which the convention of 1913 
convened contained elaborate restrictions upon the powers 
of the convention through an oath which concluded with the 
words: "I will observe and obey the limitations of author- 
ity contained in the act under which this convention is 
assembled". In this instance, the act was previously sub- 
mitted to the electorate. Since, however, both the provi- 
sions for the election of delegates and the question as to the 
desirability of a convention were embodied in the same 
statute and submitted at the same time, it can hardly be 
said that such an act emanated from the people.^^ 

In convention acts of the last decade, oaths are not 
usually prescribed — unless required by higher authority 
than legislative enactment. The Illinois Constitution of 
1870 requires delegates to a convention to "take an oath to 
support the constitution of the United States and the State 
of Illinois, and to faithfully discharge their duties as mem- 
bers of the convention. "22 Michigan, Missouri, and New 
York the State Constitutions — otherwise complete as to 
provisions for convening a convention — fail to mention the 
oath.2^ Of some fifteen States that have passed convention 

zoDodd's The Revision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 82; Con- 
stitution of Alabama, 1901, Art. VIII, Sec. 286, in Kettleborough 's The State 
Constitutions, p. 51; Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion (Alabama), 1901, p. 5; McKinley's Two New Southern Constitutions in 
the Political Science Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, p. 507. 

21 Dodd 's The Revision and Amendment of State Constitutions, pp. 75-77 ; 
Official Journal of the Proceedings of the Constitutional Convention of the 
State of Louisicma, 1913, p. 4. 

^2 Constitution of Illinois, 1870, Art. XIV, See. 1, in Kettleborough 's The 
State Constitutions, p. 406. 

23 Constitution of Missouri, 1875, Art. XV, Sec. 3, in Kettleborough 's The 
State Constitutions, p. 813 ; Constitution of New York, 1894, Art. XIV, Sec. 2, 
in Kettleborough 's The State Constitutions, pp. 1001, 1002; Constitution of 
Michigan, 1908, Art. XVII, Sec. 4, in Kettleborough 's The State Constitu- 
tions, p. 708. 



12 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



acts since 1900, few have required an oath to bind the dele- 
gates. It would seem that in the absence of a higher sanc- 
tion a specified oath has no proper place in the convention. 

Length of Convention Session: Compensation of Dele- 
gates. — In several convention acts of recent date is to be 
found an attempt to restrict the length of the convention 
session, supplemented by a further provision that at the 
end of a certain time remuneration of the delegates shall 
cease. The act providing for the Alabama convention of 
1901 declared that members should draw pay for not to 
exceed fifty working days. Upon the expiration of this 
period the task of the convention was hardly half com- 
pleted. The members, however, decided to remain in ses- 
sion until the work was finished and to draw pay at the rate 
authorized by the legislature for the first fifty days.^* The 
convention that met in New York in 1894, finding itself in a 
similar situation, continued its session, but without com- 
pensation.^^ In Louisiana the convention act of 1913 stipu- 
lated "that no compensation shall be allowed to delegates 
after fifteen (15) days to which the convention is hereby 
limited." The convention met on November tenth and 
obediently adjourned on the twenty-second. In this case it 
should be noted that the convention act had been submitted 
to a vote of the people.^^ In the case of New Mexico and 

In spite of no mention of the oath in the constitutional requirements for a 
convention, both the New York act of 1915 and the Michigan act of 1907 men- 
tion the administering of "the constitutional oath of oflSce" to the delegates. 
— 'Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6; New York con- 
vention act (approved March 17, 1915), Sec. 2. 

2*McKinley's Two New Southern Constitutions in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, pp. 509, 510. 

2t>Dodd's The Eevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 82. 

28 Louisiana convention act (approved September 12, 1913), Sec. 6; Election 
Proclamation, November 7, 1913, in the Official Journal of the Constitutional 
Convention of the State of Louisiana, 1913, pp. 6-9; Official Journal of the 
Constitutional Convention of the State of Louisiana, title page. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



Arizona it appears that in the enabling act which permitted 
the people to elect delegates to draft a Constitution, Con- 
gress provided protection against possible dilatory conven- 
tions. The sum of $100,000 was appropriated with the 
provision that any expense incurred in excess of that 
amount should be paid by the "State" and that the dele- 
gates should receive compensation for the period they were 
actually in session "but not for more than sixty days in 
all. "27 The Michigan convention act of 1907 declared that 
"no per diem shall be paid for any services rendered after 
January thirty-first, nineteen hundred eight." Here the 
convention met on October 22, 1907, and completed its work 
on March 3, 1908.28 

It would seem that such restricting provisions are, for 
the most part, unnecessary. Where a State Constitution 
provides that no money shall be paid from the treasury 
otherwise than through legislative act, legislative restric- 
tions in the convention act may prove to be annoying.^^ 
Practically all convention acts of the last two decades have 
fixed the compensation of the convention delegates and 
made adequate provision for certification and payment. 
Sufficient safeguard is found in such phrases as, "The dele- 
gates of the convention shall be entitled to the same com- 
pensation and mileage for their services as is allowed by 
law to members of the general assembly for one year";^° 
"The members of the Constitutional Convention shall re- 
ceive the same pay and mileage as members of the Legis- 
lature receive for a regular Session" or the convention 

27 Enabling act for Arizona and New Mexico (approved June 20, 1910), 
Sees. 2, 17, 20, 35, in United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXXVI, pp. 558, 
568, 569, 578, 579. 

28 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6. 

29Dodd's The Bevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, pp. 103, 104, 

30 Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), Sec. 20. 

31 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 19. 



14 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"shall establish the compensation of its officers and mem- 
bers, which shall not exceed seven hundred and fifty dollars 
for each member of the Convention as such."^^ 

Time and Manner of Submitting the Constitution. — 
Among the most annoying restraints placed upon conven- 
tions by legislatures is the provision requiring that the 
proposed Constitution shall be submitted at a prescribed 
time and in a particular manner. A recent controversy on 
this subject took place in the Virginia convention which 
assembled in 1901. The convention act required the sub- 
mission of the work of the convention to the people, al- 
though the Constitution of 1870, under which the convention 
was called, was silent on the subject.^^ Debate arose con- 
cerning the propriety of disregarding the injunction. * ' The 
consciences of the members were burdened not only by the 
general custom in earlier Virginia conventions and by the 
solemn promises of the last Democratic state convention, 
but also by the precise terms of the act of the legislature 
calling the convention. "^^ 

After much debate the convention took a recess, and the 
delegates returned to constituent mass-meetings for popu- 
lar expression as to the proper course of action. On May 
22, 1902, the convention reconvened, and a few days later 
voted in favor of the promulgation of the Constitution 
through proclamation. Regarding this action it has been 
said that "The law of the legislature was more easily set 
aside, in the opinion of the majority of the convention, than 
the party pledge ; and some of those who to the last favored 
submission, on the grounds of the pledge, admitted the 

32 Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 7. 

ssDodd's The Bevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 86. 

a* McKinley 's Two New Southern Constitutions in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, pp. 507, 508. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 15 



right of the convention to act independently of the enabling 
acts of the legislature."^^ 

The broader question might be raised — in Iowa, for 
example — as to whether in the absence of constitutional 
provisions a legislature may, in its convention act, require 
that the findings of the convention be submitted to the peo- 
ple. There appears to be little authority for such action on 
the part of the legislature. To accept the proposition that 
the legislature may dictate how the work of the convention 
is to be submitted, would be to impair seriously the efforts 
of that body as an independent organ of the electorate.^^ 

In this connection the Michigan case of Carton v. Secre- 
tary of State is of special interest.^'^ The Constitution of 
1850 under which the constitutional convention of 1907 was 
called, contained provisions on amendment and revision 
very similar to those found in Article X, Sections 1, 2, and 
3 of the present Constitution of Iowa. Both documents give 
the legislature authority to provide by law for the election 
of delegates, and neither contains any express provision 
that the work of the convention shall be submitted to the 
people, although both instruments specifically provide that 
amendments originating through legislative action shall be 
subject to popular ratification. 

The Michigan convention act of 1907 stipulated that "The 
revised constitution shall be submitted by the convention to 
the people for adoption or rejection as a whole, on the first 
Monday in April, nineteen hundred eight." Since, how- 
ever, the convention did not complete its work until Febru- 
ary 21st, the convention deemed it expedient to extend the 
time of submission to the following November. George A. 

35 McKinley 's Two New Southern Constitutions in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, pp. 507-509. 

asDodd's The Bevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, pp. 87, 88. 
3T Carton v. Secretary of State, 151 Michigan 337. 



16 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Prescott, the Secretary of State, refusing to act under the 
order of the convention, a mandamus was sought to compel 
compliance. The question at issue was: "Which body [the 
legislature or the convention] has the power and is charged 
with the duty to prescribe the time and manner for sub- 
mitting to the electors 1 ' ' 

After reviewing the precedents in the constitutional his- 
tory of Michigan and pointing out that the convention act 
of 1907 was "the first attempt on the part of the legislature 
to fix the time and manner of submission" of a State Con- 
stitution, Chief Justice Grant in his opinion observed : 

The sole power conferred upon the legislature, in regard to 
changes in the Constitution, is confined to three things: (1) To 
submit to the people single amendments. Section 1, article 20. 
(2) To submit to the electors the question whether they desire a 
general revision of the Constitution. Section 2, article 20: (3) If 
the electors so desire, to "provide by law for the election of such 
delegates to such convention." Section 2, article 20. 

By necessary implication, the legislature is prohibited from any 
control over the method of revising the Constitution. The conven- 
tion is an independent and sovereign body whose sole power and 
duty are to prepare and submit to the people a revision of the Con- 
stitution, or a new Constitution to take the place of the old one. It 
is elected by the people, answerable to the people, and its work 
must be submitted to the people through their electors for approval 
or disapproval .... I find no language in the Constitution 
from which any implication can arise that this power was vested in 
the legislature.^^ 

From a study of the case it seems that the question 
whether or not the Constitution must be submitted to a 
vote of the electors was never for a moment in doubt. The 
statement by Chief Justice Grant that the work of the con- 
vention "must be submitted to the people" was simply the 
expression of an accepted fact. To anyone who is inter- 
as Carton v. Secretary of State, 151 Michigan 337, at 340, 341, 343. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



ested in this aspect of the convention problem the opinion 
of Chief Justice Grant and the opinions of Justices Blair 
and Carpenter, who agreed with the Chief Justice in grant- 
ing the writ, are worth careful reading. 

There is little danger that a convention in Iowa would 
refuse to submit its work to the people. In the early period 
of our country's history, the promulgation of Constitutions 
without ratification by the people was common enough to be 
termed frequent. Since 1890, however, only six such docu- 
ments appear to have been promulgated without ratification 
by a vote of the people; and when it is noted that these 
came from conventions in Mississippi, South Carolina, 
Delaware, Louisiana (twice), and Virginia, it would seem 
that such practice has been decidedly sectional, and may, in 
view of the known attempts to disfranchise the negro, be 
treated as exceptions.^^ In fact, conventions in the South 
have many times taken to themselves greater powers than 
similar bodies in the North — especially in regard to this 
matter of convention promulgation of fundamental law. 
During the Virginia controversy a convention was at the 
same time in session in Connecticut ; but, though the defeat 
of its new Constitution seemed imminent (a foreboding 
later fulfilled at the polls), not a hint concerning promulga- 
tion by the convention was entertained.**' 

Seventeen State Constitutions require that no new funda- 
mental law shall go into effect unless ratified by the elec- 
torate.*^ Since the year 1900, some fifteen States have held 

39Dodd'8 The Eevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 68. 

The Constitution framed by the Kentucky convention of 1891 was altered by 
the convention without submission to a popular vote, after the new document 
had been ratified by the people. — Dodd's The Eevision and Amendment of 
State Constitutions, p. 86; Dealey's Growth of American State Constitutions, 
pp. 144, 145; Cleveland's Organized Democracy, p. 278. 

40 McKinley 's Two New Southern Constitutions in the Political Science 
Quarterly, Vol. XVIII, p. 510. 

« Dodd's The Eevision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 69. 

VOL. XIX — 2 



18 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



conventions, and it appears that in all except Virginia in 
1901 and Louisiana in 1913 the findings of the conventions 
were submitted to a vote of the people. In the case of only 
two States, Delaware and Mississippi, can it be said that 
the practice of long years seems to sanction constitutional 
change through proclamation. "Submission of a constitu- 
tion to the people", writes Mr. Dodd, "may be and is the 
more proper policy, but it would seem to be a matter within 
the discretion of the convention itself, unless submission is 
required by the existing constitution. ' ' There can be little 
doubt that in view of the political temperament of the peo- 
ple and the constitutional precedents in this State, an Iowa 
convention would have no thought other than to refer its 
work to the electorate. Thus, it would seem that the proper 
procedure for the General Assembly would be to leave the 
time and manner of submission entirely to the convention. 

Summary. — From this discussion of what may properly 
be embodied in a convention act, one seems justified in 
drawing the conclusion that constitutional conventions exer- 
cise constituent power, subject to the ratification of the 
people. In actual practice they are limited by both the 
Federal and the State Constitutions, and, in the absence of 
a defined sphere, are subject to such limitations as are im- 
plied from their functions — that is, as "a regular organ 
for the expression of state will with reference to the state's 
fundamental law."*^ Thus a convention act may properly 
contain (1) provisions essential to the nomination and elec- 
tion of delegates; (2) provisions facilitating procedure, but 
which in no way unduly hamper the convention; (3) provi- 
sions conferring discretionary power in matters pertaining 
to organization, records, and ratification by the electorate; 

42 Dodd 's The Revision and Amendment of State Constitutions, pp. 70, 92. 

43 Dodd 's The Revision and Amendment of State Constitutions, p. 72. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



and (4) provisions for the remuneration of the delegates 
and the expenses incident to the convention. 

CONVENTION ACTS OF EECENT YEARS 

Between the years 1900 and 1920 the States have shown 
considerable activity in the matter of constitutional re- 
vision. Conventions have been held in Alabama and Vir- 
ginia in 1901 ; Connecticut in 1902 ; Oklahoma and Michigan 
in 1907; Arizona and New Mexico in 1910; Ohio in 1912; 
New Hampshire in 1902, 1912, and 1918 (the latter conven- 
tion adjourned until after the war and planned to reconvene 
in 1919) ; Louisiana in 1913; New York in 1915; Massachu- 
setts in 1917; Arkansas in 1917; Nebraska in 1919; and 
Illinois in 1920. In addition, the legislatures of Indiana 
and Connecticut, in 1911 and 1907 respectively, proposed 
Constitutions.** 

As a whole the work of these constitutional conventions 
has been successful: new Constitutions were adopted in 
Alabama, Virginia, Oklahoma, Michigan, Arizona, New 
Mexico, and Louisiana — although in New York, Connecti- 
cut, and Arkansas the work of the conventions was rejected. 
The work of the Indiana legislature in drafting a Constitu- 
tion in 1911 was never submitted, owing to a legal injunc- 
tion ; and the Connecticut proposal of 1907 was rejected by 
the people. In Ohio and Massachusetts, and in New Hamp- 
shire in 1902 and 1912, amendments were submitted rather 
than complete revisions of the fundamental law. The Ne- 
braska convention of 1919 submitted forty-one amendments 
to the electorate ; while the Illinois convention has not yet 
completed its work. The Virginia and Louisiana conven- 
tions did not submit their findings to the people, but adopt- 
ed and promulgated new Constitutions upon their own 

** Dealey 's Growth of American State Constitutions, pp. 89-115, gives an ex- 
cellent summary of constitutional activities between 1886 and 1914. See also 
Constitutional Convention Bulletins (Illinois), 1920, p. 36. 



20 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



authority. In view of this activity, legislative acts from 
which to draw comparative data as to modern methods of 
providing for a constitutional convention are abundantly 
available; and it is the purpose to present in this paper 
such usages in the several States as may serve to indicate 
general practices in recent times.*^ 

Number and Apportionment of Delegates. — The number 
of delegates composing constitutional conventions in recent 
years may be said, generally, to approximate 100 ; but one 
finds such extremes as 413 in New Hampshire and 52 in 
Arizona.*^ A fair per cent show such figures as 96, 102, 
119; while several record an even 100. These numbers 
seem to suggest, first, a desire to provide a flexible body 
thoroughly representative of the State ; and second, an en- 
deavor to recognize as far as possible existing political 
divisions. The first of these considerations is a matter of 
judgment based on a knowledge of State conditions, partic- 
ularly the number and distribution of the population, the 
character and extent of the revision or amendment contem- 
plated, and contemporary usage under similar conditions ; 
the second involves the question of apportionment — the 
number of delegates being determined, in part, by the num- 
ber of State divisions from which they are to be elected. 

As to the political units from which delegates are to be 
chosen, convention acts have quite uniformly designated 
either the State senatorial or the State representative dis- 
tricts. If the senatorial division is selected, it seems usual 
to provide for the election of two or more candidates from 

*5 State Constitutional Developments since 1900 in Constitutional Convention 
Bulletins (Illinois), 1920, p. 36. 

■*8Updyke's New Hampshire Constitutional Convention in The American Po- 
litical Science Feview, Vol. VII, p. 134; Enabling act for Arizona and New 
Mexico (approved .Tune 20, 1910), Sec. 19, in United States Statutes at Large, 
Vol. XXXVI, p. 568. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 21 



each district; while in utilizing the smaller representative 
division, it is generally required that each district shall 
choose delegates equal to the number of representatives to 
which such district is entitled in the State legislature. It 
would seem that the senatorial district as a basis for appor- 
tionment is in general the more satisfactory. Within cer- 
tain limits the larger district will provide men of higher 
qualifications in point of interest and acquaintance, thereby 
tending to assure candidates of wide experience coupled 
with a knowledge of both State and local needs. The con- 
vention act sometimes emphasizes this point with a provision 
that the "Delegates shall possess the same qualifications 
as State senators",*^ or with greater laxity it may simply 
provide that the delegate be a "male citizen of this state 
above the age of twenty-one years, who is a resident of the 
district in which he is chosen."*^ The choice of the sena- 
torial district will also generally permit, as has been indi- 
cated, the selection of two or more delegates from each 
district. This latter advantage tends to destroy the strict 
partisan alignment that might result from a convention of 
the same composition as the State legislature^^ — a condi- 
tion to be avoided, if possible, since State parties, divided 
as they often are on transient issues, have little place in a 
convention whose function is to write fundamental and last- 
ing regulations. 

Time and Place of Meeting. — As to the time at which the 
convention is to convene it is necessary to consider care- 
fully the seasonableness of the call — that is, to provide for 
the assembling of the members at such a time as will most 
nearly suit the convenience of the delegates. With this end 

47llKnois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 2. 

48 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), See. 5. 

49 Dealey 's Growth of American State Constitutions, p. 144. 



22 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



in view the late fall or winter is frequently stipulated, parr 
ticularly in agricultural States. The provisions generally 
allow an interval of from thirty to sixty days between the 
election of delegates and the assembling of the convention, 
and a period varying greatly from one month to a year 
between the approval of the convention act and the election 
of delegates. It is evident, however, that local conditions 
will considerably influence these provisions. Moreover, the 
time should be so arranged as to avoid conflict with the 
session of the State legislature ; for aside from the fact that 
some members of the legislature will be almost certain to 
have seats in the convention, practically every convention 
act provides that the place of meeting shall be in the Hall 
of the House of Eepresentatives. Moreover, it is some- 
times provided, in order to assure adequate preparation for 
the delegates, that the ''Secretary of State shall take such 
steps as may be necessary to prepare the hall of the Repre- 
sentatives for the meeting of the convention",^'' or the 
board of state auditors, previous to the meeting of the 
convention, shall prepare the hall of representatives and the 
senate chamber and the rooms connected therewith, for the 
use and occupation of the convention during its session. "^^ 
In some instances there is no mention of such preliminary 
preparation, the matter evidently being left to the authori- 
ties ordinarily responsible for such arrangements. 

Purpose and Procedure. — Nearly every recent conven- 
tion act contains a clear declaration of the purpose for 
which the convention is called, procedure for calling the 
meeting to order, and the manner of selecting its officers, 
along with some indication of the rules of procedure to be 
followed. Concerning the first of these provisions, usage 

60 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 1. 
81 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 7. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



shows little variation: *'to revise, alter or amend the Con- 
stitution of the State of Illinois "take into consider- 
ation the propriety and expediency of revising the present 
Constitution of the Commonwealth, or making alterations 
or amendments thereof" or *'for the purpose of making 
a general revision of the constitution of the state of Mich- 
igan."^* 

The regulations concerning the call to order are equally 
uniform, differing principally in regard to the official to 
whom the task is intrusted. The Governor, the Chief Jus- 
tice, the Secretary of State, or the oldest delegate present 
may he designated for this duty; or the act may simply 
stipulate that the convention * ' shall organize by the election 
of one of their own number as president and one as presi- 
dent pro tem. "°^ Occasionally a convention act contains 
the further requirement "that the Secretary of State shall 
attend the opening of the said convention and call the roll 
of delegates ",^*^ or he shall "call the roll thereof according 
to the returns on file in his office, which shall be certified to 
the convention by him, to administer the constitutional oath 
of office to the members, and to preside at all meetings 
thereof until a president has been elected and has taken his 
seat".^'^ 

Closely related to the preliminary organization of the 
convention is the selection of officers. This is uniformly 
left to the convention itself ; but mention of the matter is 
usually made in some such phrase as to "organize by elect- 
ing a president and all other necessary officers" or "the 

52 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), See. 1. 

53 Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 6. 
5* Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 1. 

56 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6. 

56 Louisiana convention act (approved September 12, 1913), Sec. 5. 

57 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6. 

58 Indiana convention act (approved February 1, 1917), Sec. 13. 



24 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



delegates shall elect one of their own number as president 
of the convention, and they shall have the power to appoint 
a secretary and such employes as may be deemed neces- 
sary";^^ or there may be a still more elaborate provision, 
as in the Michigan act of 1907 which directs that the con- 
vention ''shall also choose such secretaries, sergeants-at- 
arms, clerks, and official stenographer, who shall choose his 
assistants, messengers and other attendants as they may 
deem necessary for the proper transaction of business."^'' 
A single phrase is usually deemed sufficient to provide 
that the convention shall have full authority to determine 
its own rules of procedure; but frequently more detailed 
regulations are embodied in the convention act, such as the 
requirement that a majority shall constitute a quorum, that 
the journal and proceedings shall be filed in the office of the 
Secretary of State, or that such proceedings shall be kept 
and printed daily. In the same category one finds permis- 
sive clauses to the etfect that the convention shall be the 
sole judge of the election and qualifications of its members, 
that it may compel the attendance of witnesses, or punish 
its members for disorderly conduct. But more generally 
such provisions are left to the convention itself as part of 
the discretionary power proper to any assembly of a repre- 
sentative character. 

Ratification by the Electorate. — Among the most impor- 
tant provisions of a convention act are those relating to the 
ratification of the proposed Constitution by the people. It 
has already been pointed out in this paper that a constitu- 
tional convention is a constituent assembly, and as such can 
not be bound absolutely by legislative requirements. Any 
regulation imposed by the convention act can have, there- 

69 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 7. 
00 Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



fore, only a facilitating influence. The moment a stipula- 
tion is made that restricts the convention in its proper work, 
it ceases thereby to facilitate, and so defeats the purpose 
for which it was provided. While practically all convention 
acts contain some liberal injunction concerning the ultimate 
disposition to be made of the work of the convention, it is 
safe to say that the usual practice is to leave the time, place, 
and manner of submission of the newly drafted Constitu- 
tion to the determination of the convention itself. Often 
the process of ratification is embodied in some such phrase 
as ''The Convention shall fix and prescribe the time and 
form and manner of submitting to the electors of the state 
any proposal to revise, amend or change the Constitu- 
tion",®^ or, as the Massachusetts act of 1916 provided, 
"Any such revision, alterations or amendments, when made 
and adopted by the said Convention, shall be submitted to 
the people for their ratification and adoption, in such man- 
ner as the Convention shall direct ".^^ Sometimes, however, 
regulations of a general nature are included, requiring, 
perhaps, that "the election at which said submission shall 
be made, shall be held and conducted the same as elections 
for members of the house of representatives, so far as prac- 
ticable, and the vote for and against such proposed revision, 
alterations or amendments .... shall be entered on 
the tally sheet, counted, certified, transmitted and canvassed 
and the result thereof declared in the manner prescribed by 
law .... for the election of members of the house of 
representatives so far as applicable";®^ or, to give assur- 
ance that every phase of the process will receive adequate 
protection, a provision is inserted stating that ' ' all laws in 
force governing elections and not inconsistent with the pro- 
si Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), See. 16. 

62 Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 6. 

63 Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), See. 5. 



26 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



visions of this Act, or with powers exercised under the 
terms hereof, shall apply to and govern elections held under 
the terms of this Act."^* 

It would seem that since the convention usually would 
have no desire other than to utilize to the fullest possible 
extent the existing election machinery in submitting its 
work to the voters, such provisions in the convention act 
are entirely proper as indicating to both the convention and 
to the electorate the procedure that should be regularly fol- 
lowed to secure the best results. If, however, in the absence 
of constitutional provisions, restrictions as to the time of 
submission, or a detailed method as to how the conven- 
tion's findings were to be presented, or a kindred require- 
ment that might be difficult or impossible to meet, should be 
placed in the act, unnecessary friction might result. 

Preliminary Preparation: Collection of Information and 
Research. — At this point mention may be made of a ques- 
tion which, while not strictly a matter of procedure, has 
much to do with the ease and efficiency with which the con- 
vention may carry on and complete its work. It is of the 
utmost importance that information and materials relating 
to the subject-matter of modern Constitutions be made ac- 
cessible and available for the immediate use of the delegates 
when they convene. Frequently the convention acts recog- 
nize this necessity by providing that '4t shall be the duty 
of every State, County and municipal officer in the State to 
transmit without delay, any information at his command 
which the Convention by resolution or otherwise, may re- 
quire of him";^^ and a penalty for disobedience is some- 
times provided. Such a provision is doubtless both de- 
sirable and effective, and may properly appear in the 

6* Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 10. 

05 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 20. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



27 



convention act; but unaided, it would fail to place at the 
disposal of the convention, without great loss of time, the 
particular data requisite for an intelligent handling of the 
important problems involved in a revision of the fundamen- 
tal law. The Nebraska act of 1919 frankly recognized this 
condition by providing that ''for the purpose of aiding the 
Convention in the discharge of its duties, the supreme court 
of the State of Nebraska, shall, within thirty days after this 
act takes effect, appoint a preliminary survey Committee to 
consist of five members. The committee so appointed shall 
compile and tabulate information relative to State Consti- 
tutions of the different States or of other constitutional 
governments and such other information as the said Com- 
mittee shall deem pertinent to the problems to be dealt with 
by the Constitutional Convention. "^^ Traveling expenses 
and other charges incurred in the performance of duties, 
and an additional remuneration of $1200 were provided for 
each member of the committee.^"^ Other States have adopt- 
ed similar arrangements either through special statute or 
through the provisions of the convention act itself. The 
convention of Michigan in 1907-1908, of Ohio in 1912, of 
New Hampshire in 1902 and 1918, of New York in 1915, of 
Massachusetts in 1917-1919, and of Illinois in 1920, all en- 
joyed the advantages of extensive preparation made pre- 
vious to their assembly.^^ 

Sometimes, to do this important preliminary work, a spe- 
cial board has been created; in other cases an existing 
agency of the State has been utilized. The Indiana con- 
vention act of 1917 (although never put into effect) di- 
rected that "the bureau of legislative and administrative 

66 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), See. 21. 

67 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 22. 

68 Work in Preparation for the Constitutional Convention in Constitutional 
Convention Bulletins (Illinois), 1920, p. 9. 



28 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



information shall collect, compile and prepare such in- 
formation and data as it may deem useful to the delegates 
and the public, including digests of constitutional provi- 
sions of other states and an annotation of the present 
constitution", and further stipulated that the ''Indiana 
historical commission shall furnish for the use of each mem- 
ber a copy of the volume entitled 'Constitution Making in 
Indiana' printed by the commission if the same shall be 
available."®^ In Illinois, this work, in accordance with 
statute law, was intrusted to the Legislative Reference 
Bureau, and a very complete and adequate set of bulletins 
was provided for the use of the convention^" It would 
seem that the best results from both the standpoint of econ- 
omy and of service would be obtained by placing such work 
in the hands of a well organized and experienced State 
agency — some body thoroughly familiar with the methods 
of research and equipped to do the work. Extensive library 
facilities, highly trained researchers, and sufficient time for 
thorough study of the problems seem to be the principal 
requirements. 

Nomination of Delegates. — The provisions that usually 
receive detailed attention in convention acts are, of course, 
those which deal with the nomination and election of dele- 
gates. This is a question with which the convention has 
nothing to do. The entire procedure is provided either in 
the general election laws of the State or in special provi- 
sions contained in the convention act. As has been indi- 
cated, the existing election machinery is, as far as possible, 
usually employed; but modifications, especially in methods 
of nomination, may be found necessary. 

Since the advent of the primary, the States have com- 

«9 Indiana convention act (approved February 1, 1917), Sec. 17. 

''0 Constitutional Convention Bulletins (IHinois), 1920, Introduction. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



monly used, at least in a modified form, that method in 
selecting candidates for constitutional conventions. In 
Illinois in 1919 a blanket clause was placed in the conven- 
tion act to the effect that ' ' all provisions of law in force at 
such time, and applying to the nomination of candidates 
for the office of State senator, shall to the extent that they 
are not in conflict with the terms of this Act, apply to the 
primary election herein provided for."^^ This was supple- 
mented with general provisions providing for the filling of 
vacancies, independent nominations, qualifications of voters, 
registration, and protection against fraudulent voting, each 
usually in accordance with the stipulations of existing laws. 
Some convention acts, however, have gone into much greater 
detail. 

The more recent provisions frequently start with a state- 
ment that "candidates for members of the Constitutional 
Convention shall be nominated by nominating petitions " ; ''^ 
and sometimes a phrase without party or political desig- 
nation" is added.'^^ The next requirements usually em- 
brace the directions that all petitions shall be in writing; 
that they shall be signed by **not less than two per cent of 
the qualified electors of said county 'V* or "signed by not 
less than five per cent (5%) of the qualified electors of the 
representative district", but "in no case shall the number 
of signers .... be less than one hundred ";'^^ that 
they shall, when properly signed, be addressed to some 
designated officer (usually to the County Clerk, or his 
equivalent, in districts that include a single county, or to 
the Secretary of State if the district includes more than 

71 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 3. 

72 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 3. 

73 Massacliiisetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 3. 
7* Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), Sec. 7. 

75 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 3. 



30 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



one) ; and tliat such petition shall be filed on or before a 
certain day. The petitions themselves are sometimes speci- 
fied in detail ; and any special declaration or provision that 
may be required is carefully set forth. In some acts, how- 
ever, the matter is disposed of by a general provision that 
the nominations of candidates for members of the conven- 
tion may be made by nomination papers, as now provided 
by law for members of the House of Representatives, and 
that all qualified electors, whether their party affiliation is 
registered or not, may sign such papers."''^ In all these 
requirements it is evident that each State has its own pecu- 
liar problems which must be decided in accordance with 
local conditions, and through an intimate knowledge of the 
election laws. 

As a general rule the more recent convention acts that 
designate nomination by petition make provision for the 
subsequent primary. Sometimes, however, a primary is 
provided by inserting a provision in substance as follows : 
"If in any representative district, the number of persons 
nominated by nominating petitions, equals or exceeds three 
times the number to be elected delegates to the Constitu- 
tional Convention from such district, a non-partisan pri- 
mary shall be held in such district on the third Tuesday 
after the first Monday in September."" It seems that such 
a requirement has the value of providing that only in those 
districts where a large number of candidates file petitions 
(in the above instance, three times the number to be elect- 
ed), will a primary be held; otherwise, the petitioners' 
names will appear on the election ballot. It would appear 
that such a regulation otfers the advantages (1) of mate- 
rially reducing the expense of nomination, (2) of avoiding 
the discouragement of attempting to secure a popular ex- 

T6 Louisiana convention act (approved September 12, 1913), See. 8. 
77 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 9. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



pression when there is a number of candidates equal or 
only slightly in excess of the positions to be filled, and (3) 
of discouraging, through the threat of a primary, a pro- 
miscuous filing of petitions. The process of the primary 
itself is usually arranged by a general provision that it 
shall be "held under the general primary election law";^^ 
or there is a more elaborate direction to the effect that ''the 
primary and other elections provided for in this Act shall 
be held at the places fixed by law for the holding of general 
elections and shall be conducted by the officials, judges and 
clerks charged with the duty of conducting general elec- 
tions. 

Election of Delegates. — The regulations governing the 
election of delegates seem subject to the same general con- 
siderations that appear to govern the primary, that is, 
there is evidenced an attempt to conform with the existing 
election laws. In almost every instance a proclamation 
giving notice of the election is provided, and the proper 
person to issue such proclamation is designated. Some- 
times this provision is a general statement to the effect that 
it shall be made by the "same persons and in the same 
manner, as in general elections ' or, more definitely, ' ' the 
Governor shall make proclamation, giving notice of the 
election to be held under this act, at least twenty (20) days 
before the date of the said election. "^^ 

The qualifications of the electorate are usually contained 
in a general provision to the effect that, "Every person 
who, at the time of the holding of any primary or other 
election provided for in this Act, is a qualified elector under 

^8 Louisiana convention act (approved September 12, 1913), Sec. 8. 
T9 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 10. 

80 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), See. 2. 

81 Louisiana convention act (approved September 12, 1913), Sec. 7. 



32 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the Constitution and laws of this State, shall be entitled to 
vote in such election. "^^ Registration, fraudulent voting, 
and the tabulation, returns, and canvass of the ballots are 
also generally embraced in phrases designating in effect 
that *'the election shall in all respects be conducted, the 
returns thereof made and the result thereof certified as is 
provided by law in the election of representatives to the 
Legislature, except as otherwise provided herein. "^^ Va- 
cancies in the convention are generally filled as provided by 
law in the case of a similar situation in the General As- 
sembly ; and contested elections, when mentioned at all, are 
generally left to the convention itself. The day upon which 
the election is to be held is, of course, designated ; and it is 
commonly placed in the fall of the year — in September, 
October, or November. For the reason that so important 
a task as selecting delegates to a constitutional convention 
should be, as far as possible, unhampered by the multitude 
of candidates and issues presented at the regular elections, 
special elections are frequently provided. 

In an endeavor to exclude partisan influence or the undue 
advantage resulting from a favorable position on the elec- 
tion ballot, some States, notably Ohio, Indiana, and Ne- 
braska, have in their convention acts gone into detail 
concerning the preparation of the ballots. The following 
Nebraska provisions are typical of the regulations enacted : 
"The whole number of ballots to be printed for the County 
shall be divided by the number of candidates for members 
of the Constitutional Convention. The quotient so ob- 
tained, shall be the number of ballots in each series of bal- 
lots to be printed. The names of candidates shall be 
arranged in alphabetical order and the first series of ballots 
printed. Then the first name shall be placed last and the 

82 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 10. 
8s Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 2. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



next series printed, and the process shall be repeated in 
the same manner until each name shall have been first. 
These ballots shall then be combined in tablets with no two 
of the same order of names together, except where there is 
but one candidate."^* Other States, however, relying upon 
the laws already in force, insert a clause to the effect that 
''such election shall be conducted in conformity with the 
laws then in force relating to elections for State senators, 
to the extent that such laws are applicable. "^^ 

Appropriations for Expenses of Convention and Com- 
pensation of Delegates. — All convention acts provide in 
some manner adequate appropriations to defray the neces- 
sary expenses of the convention; but usage differs widely 
as to details. The Nebraska convention act of 1919 pro- 
vided that delegates should receive **the same pay and 
mileage as members of the Legislature receive for a regular 
Session " ; the Illinois act of the same year required that 
* * each delegate shall receive for his services the sum of two 
thousand dollars, payable at any time after the convention 
is organized. The delegates shall be entitled to the same 
mileage as is paid to the members of the General Assembly, 
to be computed by the Auditor of Public Accounts. The 
delegates shall receive no other allowance or emoluments 
whatever, except the sum of fifty dollars to each delegate, 
which shall be in full for postage, stationery, newspapers, 
and all other incidental expenses and perquisites."^'^ In 
the same act the salary of the secretary of the convention 
was placed at $15.00 a day.®^ In Massachusetts in 1916 a 
still different course was followed by stipulating that the 

8* Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), See. 18. 

85 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 4. 

86 Nebraska convention act (approved March 24, 1919), Sec. 19. 

87 Illinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 6. 

88 niinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 7. 

VOL. XIX — 3 



34 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



convention itself shall establish, the compensation of its 
officers and members, which shall not exceed seven hundred 
and fifty dollars for each member of the Convention as 
such";®^ while the Michigan act of 1907 required that "the 
compensation of the delegates of said convention shall be 
ten dollars per day during the session of the convention, 
and ten cents per mile for every mile traveled by the near- 
est practicable route in going to and returning from the 
place of holding the convention". It would seem, in spite 
of the wide differences as herein noted, that the provision 
most common to the convention acts of recent years makes 
the pay and mileage of delegates the equal of that received 
by members of the General Assembly for a regular legis- 
lative session. 

The payment of such compensation or expenses inciden- 
tal to the functions of the convention is generally protected 
by either providing that it shall be paid ' ' in the same man- 
ner as is provided by law for the payment of similar claims 
in the legislature",®*^ or by prescribing that particular 
preparation be made for certification by some specified 
officer. In this particular in the Ohio act it was provided 
that **no warrant shall issue on the state treasurer for such 
compensation, or for money for uses of the convention, 
except on order of the convention and certificate of the pre- 
siding officer thereof" and the Illinois legislation pro- 
vides with equal clarity that ''the sum of five hundred 
thousand dollars ($500,000), or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, is hereby appropriated for the payment of sal- 
aries and other expenses properly incident to the consti- 
tutional convention. The Auditor of Public Accounts is 
hereby authorized and directed to draw warrants on the 

«» Massachusetts convention act (approved April 3, 1916), Sec. 7. 
»o Michigan convention act (approved June 27, 1907), Sec. 6. 
91 Ohio convention act (approved June 6, 1911), See. 20. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



State Treasurer for the foregoing amount or any part 
thereof, upon the presentation of itemized vouchers certi- 
fied to as correct by the president of the constitutional 
convention or the acting president of the convention. "^^ 

CONVENTION ACTS IN IOWA 

Iowa is not without experience in preparing for and 
holding constitutional conventions: four convention acts 
have been placed upon the statute books and three consti- 
tutional conventions have been held in this State. More- 
over, the documentary sources of information relative to the 
several conventions and constitutions have been published 
by The State Historical Society of Iowa in Shambaugh's 
Documentary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 131-287 ; and more recently the pages containing 
these documents have been bound separately under the title 
of Some Documentary Material Relating to the History of 
the Constitutions of Iowa. A narrative account of the four 
convention acts, the three conventions, and the three Con- 
stitutions may be found in Shambaugh's History of the 
Constitutions of Iowa. 

The first legislation in Iowa relative to a constitutional 
convention was embodied in **An Act to provide for the 
expression of the opinion of the people of the Territory of 
Iowa as to taking preparatory steps for their admission 
into the Union. Approved by the Governor on July 31, 
1840, this legislation provided only for a vote of the electors 
on the question of calling such a convention. The returns 
of the election, which was held in August, 1840, showed a 
large majority against the pjoposition.''* 

»2 Ulinois convention act (approved June 21, 1919), Sec. 13. 

93 An Act to provide for the expression of the opinion of the people of the 
Territory of Iowa as to taking preparatory steps for their admission into the 
Union (approved July 31, 1840), reprinted in Shambaugh's Documentary Ma- 
terial JBelating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 135. 

8* Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 136, 137. 



36 IOWA JOUENAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Convention Act of 1842. — Two years later the Legisla- 
tive Assembly passed another act which, besides enabling 
the people to vote on the propriety of a constitutional con- 
vention, contained provisions regulating the election of 
delegates and the holding of such convention in the event 
of a favorable vote on the convention proposition.®^ Thus 
the act of 1842 was properly a convention act, containing 
provisions usual to such legislation. It provided for a con- 
vention consisting of eighty-two delegates to be elected from 
the organized counties of the Territory. A maximum of 
eleven delegates each was to be chosen from the counties of 
Lee and Van Buren, and a minimum of one delegate each 
from the counties of Jones and Delaware. The manner of 
issuing the proclamation for the election, which was to be 
held on the second Tuesday in October following the ap- 
proval of the convention by the people, and all proceedings 
connected therewith were to be "in accordance with the 
provisions of the law, providing for the election of the mem- 
bers of the Council and House of Representatives in this 
Territory, so far as the same may be applicable."®^ 

Delegates chosen under the convention act of 1842 were 
to meet at Iowa City on the first Monday in November. It 
was provided that the Secretary of the Territory should 
secure a "suitable room for the meetings of the Conven- 
tion", and that he should "provide the same with furniture, 
stationery, and all other things necessary"®'^ for the com- 
fort and convenience of the delegates. The act clearly 
states the process to be followed in submitting the Consti- 
tution to a vote of the people after its adoption by the 
convention. Following such adoption by the convention the 
new document was to "be published in all the newspapers 

«6 Iowa convention act (approved February 16, 1842), Sees. 1-3, 4-14. 
«8 Iowa convention act (approved February 16, 1842), Sees. 4, 5. 
9^ Iowa convention act (approved February 16, 1842), Sees. 7, 13. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



printed in this Territory;" and ''at the next general elec- 
tion .... the electors .... who are qualified 
to vote for members of the Legislature .... shall be 
and they are hereby authorized, to vote 'For the Constitu- 
tion,' or 'Against the Constitution.' '"^^ 

The vote in 1842 again showed marked opposition to a 
constitutional convention, as each of the seventeen counties 
participating in the election returned a majority against it. 
Indeed, it was not until 1844 that the people of Iowa through 
a favorable expression at the polls, sanctioned the calling 
of a constitutional convention.^® 

Convention Act of 1844. — The convention act of 1844 
was very similar to the one of 1842, notwithstanding several 
differences in detail. As voted upon by the electors the act 
provided for the election of seventy delegates. The largest 
representation was allotted to Lee, Des Moines, and Van 
Buren counties which were to elect eight delegates each; 
while Wapello, Davis, Keokuk, and Mahaska were to elect 
one each.^*''' Subsequently, however, the original act was 
amended so as to provide that the convention should consist 
of seventy-three members and that "the counties of Davis, 
Wapello, and Mahaska shall each be entitled to two mem- 
bers"."^ The election of the delegates was to be conducted 
"in accordance with the provisions of the law providing for 
the election of members of the Council and the House of 
Representatives in this Territory, as far as the same may 
be applicable "; and the delegates so chosen were in- 

«8 Iowa convention act (approved February 16, 1842), Sec. 8. 
»» Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 141-143, 147-149. 

100 Iowa convention act (approved Tebruary 12, 1844), See. 5. 

101 Amendment to Iowa convention act (approved June 19, 1844), Sec. 1, 
reprinted in Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Belating to the History of 
Iowa, Vol. I, p. 149. 

102 Iowa convention act (approved February 12, 1844), See. 4. 



38 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



structed to meet at Iowa City on the first Monday in Octo- 
ber following their election ''and proceed to form a consti- 
tution and state government for the Territory of lowa."^^^ 
The Secretary of the Territory was to make suitable prep- 
aration for the meeting and to provide all things necessary 
for ''the comfort and convenience of the Convention. 

Provisions for popular ratification of the Constitution 
drafted by the convention were substantially the same as 
those of the convention act of 1842. Thus, publication of 
the new fundamental law in all newspapers of the Territory 
was required; and at the township elections in the April 
following the session of the convention the electors quali- 
fied to vote for members of the legislature were authorized 
to vote for or against the proposed Constitution.^''^ One 
provision not found in the legislation of 1842 appears in the 
act of 1844 : ' ' the members of said Convention shall be en- 
titled to such compensation as the Convention may direct, 
not exceeding three dollars per diem, and three dollars for 
every twenty miles travel to and from the place of holding 
said Convention. "^'^^ 

When the Constitution as drafted by the convention of 
1844 was submitted to Congress that body passed an act to 
admit Iowa to statehood with several qualifying conditions, 
one of which provided for the curtailment of the boundaries 
of the new State on the north and west; and so great was 
the dissatisfaction caused by this provision that a majority 
of the people voted against the adoption of the new Consti- 
tution when it was submitted to them for ratification. In 
view of this fact the Governor in his message to the Legis- 
lative Assembly on May 5, 1845, stated that the rejection of 

103 Iowa convention act (approved February 12, 1844), See. 7. 

104 Iowa convention act (approved February 12, 1844), See. 12. 
108 Iowa convention aet (approved February 12, 1844), Sec. 8. 
100 Iowa convention aet (approved February 12, 1844), See. 13. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 39 



the Constitution by the people imposed upon the Assembly 
"the necessity of further legislation preparatory to pre- 
senting anew to Congress, our claims to admission into the 
Union ' ' — that is to say, in his opinion a new convention act, 
a new convention, and a new Constitution were necessary.^^^ 
There were, however, many who favored a resubmission 
of the rejected Constitution. And so, an act to resubmit 
this instrument to the people was passed over the Gov- 
ernor's veto and declared to be a law on June 10, 1845.^*'^ 
It contained the provision "That the ratification of the 
Constitution, as aforesaid, shall not be construed as an ac- 
ceptance of the boundaries fixed by Congress in the late act 
of admission, and the admission shall not be deemed com- 
plete until whatever condition may be imposed by Congress, 
shall be ratified by the people. ' ' The August election of 
1845 resulted in another defeat for the Constitution as 
drafted by the convention of 1844. In his message of 
December 3, 1845, the Governor deplored the result of the 
August election; and, while asserting it to be "the recorded 
judgment of the people", he promised "hearty co-opera- 
tion" in any steps that might be taken towards the incor- 
poration of Iowa into the Union."'' 

Convention Act of 1846. — The third convention act, which 

if>r An extract from the Governor's Message of May 5th, 184)5, reprinted in 
Shambaugh's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, 
pp. 177-179. 

!«« Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, p. 182. 

109 An Act to submit to the people the draft of a Constitution formed by the 
late Convention (declared a law June 10, 1845), Sec. 8, reprinted in Sham- 
baugh's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 
181, 182. 

i-fo An extract from the Governor's Message of December 3rd, 1845, re- 
printed in Shambaugh's Documentary Material Belating to the History of 
Iowa, Vol. I, pp. 182, 183. 



40 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



appears in the statute books above the date of January 17, 
1846, states quite definitely in its title that it was * * to pro- 
vide for the election of Delegates to a Convention to form 
a Constitution and State Government. "^^^ According to 
its provisions the proposed convention was to consist of 
thirty-two delegates, elected one from each county, except 
that Des Moines, Lee, and Van Buren were to have three 
each; Jefferson and Henry were given two each; and Du- 
buque, Delaware, Buchanan, Fayette, and Black Hawk were 
to be collectively represented by two.^^^ The delegates 
elected were to convene at Iowa City on the first Monday in 
May, 1846, and "proceed to form a Constitution, and State 
Government for the future State of lowa."^^^ The Secre- 
tary of the Territory was, as usual, intrusted with the nec- 
essary preparations for the me ting. The method of 
election of delegates was provided in the customary re- 
quirement that it should be "in accordance with the provi- 
sions of the law providing for the election of members of 
the Council and House of Representatives in this Territory, 
so far as the same may be applicable."^" Members of the 
convention were to receive three dollars per day and three 
dollars for every twenty miles traveled to and from the 
place of meeting, and the money was " to be paid in the way 
and manner as may hereafter be provided for by the Legis- 
lative Assembly of the Territory or State of lowa."^^^ 

Upon the adoption of a Constitution by the convention, 
it was required that the document be published ; and at the 
next general election the qualified electors were authorized 
to vote for or against the new document.^^® Upon ratifica- 

111 Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846). 

112 Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sec. 2. 

113 Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sec. 4. 
11* Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sees. 1, 9. 
ii« Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sec. 10. 
119 Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sec. 5. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 



tion the new Constitution was to be presented to the Con- 
gress of the United States as a step preliminary to the 
admission of Iowa into the Union.^i'^ The Constitution 
drafted in accordance with the provisions of this act was 
approved by the people on August 3, 1846, by a safe ma- 
jority; and subsequent acceptance by Congress permitted 
the admission of Iowa to statehood on December 28, 1846."^ 

Convention Act of 1855. — Hardly had the new State gov- 
ernment been organized before agitation was begun having 
for its object the amendment or revision of the Constitution 
so recently adopted. A clause prohibiting the organization 
of any corporation whose function was to exercise "the 
privileges of banking"^^^ had been inserted in the Consti- 
tution to protect the Stat against the evils of paper money 
that had proved so serious in the banking operations of the 
time. In practice, however, this inhibition denied the bene- 
fits of properly controlled banks without curtailing the 
evils, since neighboring States easily circulated their depre- 
ciated paper money in Iowa. In accordance with what ap- 
peared to be wide dissatisfaction concerning this provision, 
the Fifth General Assembly in 1855 passed an act providing 
— subject to popular approval — for the "revision or 
amendment of the Constitution of this State, "^^o ijij^g 
procedure as set forth in this fourth convention act was 
based on the Constitution of 1846, Article XI of which 
contained the following provisions : 

If at any time, the General Assembly shall think it necessary to 

117 Iowa convention act (approved January 17, 1846), Sec. 8. 

118 Shambaugh 's Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 185, 186. 

119 Constitution of Iowa, 1846, Art. IX, Sec. 1, reprinted in Shambaugh 's 
Documentary Material Belating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 205. 

1*0 Shambaugh 's Bocumenta/ry Material Belating to the History of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 217-221. 



42 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



revise or amend this constitution, they shall provide by law for a 
vote of the people for or against a convention, at the next ensuing 
election for members of the General Assembly, in case a majority 
of the people vote in favor of a convention, said General Assembly 
shall provide for an election of Delegates to a convention, to be 
held wiithin six months after the vote of the people in favor there- 
of. 121 

In accordance with the provision to "provide for an elec- 
tion of Delegates" the convention act of January 24, 1855, 
stipulated that the number and apportionment of delegates 
to be elected should ' ' correspond to the number of Senators 
in the General Assembly, according to the apportionment at 
the time of the election of said delegates, and each senatorial 
district shall constitute a district for the election of dele- 
gate. "^^^ The election was to "be conducted, and the 
returns made according to the provisions of the Code, regu- 
lating general elections. "^^^ Delegates were to have the 
same qualifications as State senators. The convention was 
to meet at Iowa City in "the then Capitol of the State, on 
the third Monday in January, A. D. 1857, for the purpose of 
revising or amending the constitution of the State. 
Due preparations for the convention were to be made by the 
Secretary of State.^^^ In case of vacancies in the conven- 
tion, the Governor was directed to issue writs of election in 
the manner prescribed for similar action in case of vacan- 
cies in the General Assembly. Each delegate was to 

121 Constitution of lotva, 1846, Art. XI, Sec. 1, reprinted in Shambaugh's 
Documentary Material Relating to the History of Iowa, Vol. I, p. 207. 

122 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), See. 5. Thirty-six 
delegates were elected to the Convention. — Shambaugh 's History of the Con- 
stitutions of Iowa, p. 335. 

123 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), Sec. 4, 

124 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), See. 6. 

125 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), Sec. 12. 
120 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), Sec. 7. 



CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION 43 



receive three dollars * * for each day 's attendance ' ' and three 
dollars for every twenty miles traveled in attending the 
convention. ^2 

The convention was given the power to appoint its own 
officers, to fix their compensation, and to provide for neces- 
sary printing. It was directed to keep a journal of its pro- 
ceedings, and upon completion, to file such journal in the 
office of the Secretary of State.^^^ A further provision 
required that the revised or amended Constitution should 
be submitted to a vote of the people — the convention to fix 
both time and manner of submission with the qualification 
that **all elections contemplated in this Act, shall be con- 
ducted, as nearly as practicable, in the same manner as 
provided by law for the regulation of general elections in 
this State. "129 

John F. Sly 

The State University of Iowa 
Iowa City 

127 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), See. 8. 

128 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), See. 9. 

129 Iowa convention act (approved January 24, 1855), Sees. 10, 11. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 
1910-1920 

In his History of Taxation in lowa'^ the writer brought 
the narrative to 1910 and also added a somewhat detailed 
comparative study of tax reform in other States, particu- 
larly from the standpoint of fiscal administration. The 
purpose of this paper is to bring the historical study down 
to date, concluding with only a brief reference to those 
developments in other States which appear to have a direct 
bearing upon pending tax problems in Iowa. 

The History of Taxation in Iowa, which, among other 
things, suggested a flat tax on moneys and credits as a 
partial substitute for the personal property tax and cen- 
tralized fiscal administration in the form of a county asses- 
sor and tax commission system, was placed on the desks of 
each member of the Thirty-fourth General Assembly.^ 
Much interest was taken in the subject of tax reform. Bills 
were introduced providing for a tax commission, a flat tax 
on moneys and credits, a revision of the collateral inherit- 
ance tax law, and numerous minor changes that can not be 
presented in this brief review. 

Senate File 156, introduced by Senator H, W. Spaulding, 
provided for a permanent State tax commission with real 
administrative power and authority based upon the best 
experience of the more progressive States.^ On March 11th, 

1 Published in two volumes by The State Historical Society of Iowa, Iowa 
City, Iowa, 1911. 

2 A concurrent resolution was adopted by the General Assembly requesting 
that The State Historical Society of Iowa supply "each member of the House 
and Senate" with a copy of the work. — Journal of the House of Bepresenta- 
tives, 1911, p. 180; Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 155. 

3 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 290. 



44 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



45 



tliis bill with minor amendments was recommended for 
passage by the Committee on Ways and Means ; but having 
an appropriation attached, it was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Appropriations.'* The Committee on Appro- 
priations reported a substitute bill which reduced the 
appropriation from $30,000 to $25,000 ; but in other respects 
the measure was improved and perhaps strengthened.^ 
The fact that strong measures of this character could be 
reported for passage by the two leading committees indi- 
cated real sentiment in favor of tax reform in the upper 
house of the General Assembly. On March 29th the report 
of the Committee on Appropriations proposing the substi- 
tute measure was adopted;^ but after receiving some minor 
amendments, the bill was finally defeated as the result of 
quiet rather than noisy opposition."^ Debates were brief, 
and even the daily papers were unusually silent about so 
important a matter.^ 

In the meantime Senate File 137, introduced by Senator 
A. C. Savage,® was being considered by the Committee on 
Ways and Means. It was reported out by the committee on 
April Ist,^" was amended by having the appropriation re- 
duced from $15,000 to $10,000, and in that form passed the 
Senate on April 10th with only three negative votes.^^ It 
passed the House two days later, though with a greater 
opposition indicated by thirty-three negative votes.^^ The 

4 Journal of the Senute, 1911, pp. 764, 765. 

5 Journal of the Senate, 1911, pp. 1003-1009. 
^Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1132. 

I Journal of the Senate, 1911, pp. 1138, 1139. 

8 Only brief formal references were made to a State tax commission. Con- 
siderable publicity however was given to the flat tax on moneys and credits. 

9 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 232. 

10 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1243. 

II Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1555. 

12 Journal of the Bouse of Bepresentatives, 1911, p. 1907. 



46 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



fact that the House was more hostile to tax reform than the 
Senate is apparent also from the fate of the permanent tax 
commission bill introduced by Representative Ralph Sher- 
man as a companion measure to the Spaulding bill already- 
discussed. After receiving very little real support and 
encountering determined opposition, particularly from 
rural members, the bill was withdrawn by its author.^'* 

The tax commission provided for in the Savage bill as 
enacted into law was temporary in character. It was to be 
composed of five members appointed by the Governor, not 
more than three of whom should belong to the same polit- 
ical party. The appropriation, as noted above, was fixed 
at $10,000 and the powers and duties of the commission 
were thus defined: 

It shall be the duty of said commission to examine into tax assess- 
ment, tax levy and tax collection laws of the state of Iowa, and of 
other states, and use such means and make such investigations as it 
shall deem best to secure information, for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing whether the present laws of the state of Iowa regulating the 
assessment, levying and collection of taxes may not be improved, 
and to report its findings together with such recommendation as it 
may deem desirable, to the governor not later than October 1, 1912, 
together with bills intended to carry its recommendations, and a 
detailed statement of the expenses of the commission as provided 
herein. The report and recommendations of the commission shall 
be transmitted by the governor to both branches of the general 
assembly of 1913, and copies of said report and recommendations 
shall be printed by the state printer and bound by the state binder 
in such quantity as the executive council may determine and a copy 
sent by the governor to each member of the general assembly by 
December 1, 1912.15 

The most important substantive change in the tax laws 

13 Journal of the House of Representatives, 1911, p. 317. 
1* Journal of the Kouse of Representatives, 1911, p. 1457. 
15 Laws of Iowa, 1911, Ch. 204. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



47 



of Iowa made by the Thirty-fourth General Assembly re- 
lates to the taxation of moneys and credits, bank stock, and 
moneyed capital in competition with banks. The demand 
for a modification of the personal property tax along this 
line had crystallized and could no longer be resisted. Bills 
were introduced by the Committee on Ways and Means in 
both the House and the Senate." As amended in the 
Senate, the bill — which was in fact a substitute measure — 
consisted of two distinct parts : first, a flat tax of five mills 
on the dollar of actual valuation of moneys and credits, the 
same to be in lieu of all other taxes upon this class of per- 
sonal property; and second, the assessment of the shares 
of stock of national. State, and savings banks, and of loan 
and trust companies, and of moneyed capital in competition 
with banks at twenty per cent of the actual value.^^ The 
twenty per cent provision as contrasted with a general tax- 
able valuation of twenty-five per cent was inserted as a 
concession to banks on the theory that bank stock had been 
assessed relatively higher than other classes of personal 
property. 

In fact an earnest effort was made to obtain even greater 
concessions to the shares of stock of banks, loan and trust 
companies, and moneyed capital in competition with banks. 
Some members in each house of the General Assembly held 
that stock of this character belonged in the same class as 
moneys and credits and should be taxed at the flat rate of 
five mills on the dollar of actual valuation. The amend- 
ment which was presented by Senator James A. Smith and 
adopted, specifically excluded the ''shares of stock of na- 
tional, state and savings banks and loan and trust com- 
panies, and moneyed capital as hereinafter defined" from 

16 Journal of the Rouse of Bepresentatives, 1911, p. 1085. 

"i-T Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 766. 

18 Journal of the Senate, 1911, pp. 1036-1038. 



48 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the operation of the five mill tax on moneys and credits. 
In a separate section of the amendment it was distinctly 
provided that "said shares of stock and moneyed capital 
shall be assessed upon the basis of twenty per cent, of the 
actual value ascertained as herein provided, which twenty 
per cent, of the actual value shall be taken and considered 
as the taxable value and taxed as other property in such 
taxing district. ' ' 

The twenty per cent, however, was not satisfactory to 
those members who believed that bank stock would still be 
taxed relatively higher than other classes of property. 
Senator Le Monte Cowles presented an amendment pro- 
viding that bank stock should be taxed "upon the uniform 
basis throughout the state of twelve and one-half (12i/^) 
mills in the dollar of actual valuation" but this amend- 
ment was defeated after a spirited debate, receiving, how- 
ever, a substantial minority vote.^^ In the House, Mr. 
William F. Stipe sought to accomplish the same purpose by 
offering an amendment to assess bank stock at fifteen in- 
stead of twenty per cent of its actual value which in the 
case of special charter cities meant sixty per cent and not 
eighty per cent of the assessed value.^^ The amendment, 
however, was lost and the bill providing for a flat tax of five 
mills on the actual valuation of moneys and credits and a 
twenty per cent assessment for the shares of stock of na- 
tional. State, and savings banks, loan and trust companies, 
and moneyed capital in competition with banks passed the 
House by an almost unanimous vote on March 29th.2^ It 
had already passed the Senate with only five negative 

18 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1038. 
^0 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1039. 

21 Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1061. 

22 Journal of the House of Representatives, 1911, p. 1312. 

23 Journal of the Ho^i-se of Bepresentatives, 1911, p. 1313. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



49 



After being recalled by the House to attach cer- 
tain amendments the measure was finally approved and 
became law on April 6, 1911.^^ 

Four distinct facts should be clearly understood regard- 
ing this very important tax law: first, the old personal 
property tax as applied to moneys and credits was abol- 
ished, and in lieu thereof a flat rate of five mills ''on the 
dollar of actual valuation" was substituted, said tax to "be 
divided between the various funds upon the same pro rata 
basis as other taxes"; second, moneyed capital as defined 
by section (5219) of the revised statutes of the United 
States was placed in the same class for assessment and 
taxation as bank stock; third, that the shares of stock of 
national, State, and savings banks, loan and trust com- 
panies, and moneyed capital should be "assessed and taxed 
upon the taxable value of twenty per cent of the actual 
value thereof"; and finally, that debts might be deducted 
from the amount of moneys and credits listed for taxation, 
but not from shares of bank stock and moneyed capital. 
The five per cent concession to bank stock and the reason 
for granting the same — other property except moneys and 
credits being taxed at twenty-five per cent of the listed 
value — is apparent from the language of the law which is 
as follows: 

For the purpose of placing the taxation of bank and loan and 
trust company stock and moneyed capital as nearly as possible upon 
a taxable value relatively equal to the taxable value at which other 
property is now actually assessed throughout the state as compared 
with the actual value thereof, it is hereby provided that state, 
savings and national bank stock and loan and trust company stock 
and moneyed capital shall be assessed and taxed upon the taxable 
value of twenty per cent of the actual value thereof, determined as 

Journal of the Senate, 1911, p. 1063. 
25 Laws of Iowa, 1911, Ch. 63. ! 

VOL. xrx — 4 



50 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



herein provided, which twenty per cent of the actual value shall be 
taken and considered as the taxable value and shall be taxed as 
other property in such taxing district.^^ 

The collateral inheritance tax law was quite thoroughly 
revised by the Thirty-fourth General Assembly ^'^ primarily 
for the purpose of strengthening the same from an adminis- 
trative standpoint. Experience had shown that the tax was 
not being collected in an efficient manner. The law was 
materially strengthened and has remained practically un- 
changed to the present date. The rate remained the same — 
five per cent on collateral heirs residents of the United 
States, and twenty per cent on collateral heirs who are non- 
residents of the United States ''except when such foreign 
beneficiaries are brothers or sisters of the decedent owner, 
when the rate of tax to be assessed and collected therefrom 
shall be ten (10) per centum of the value of the property or 
interest so passing."-® There has been very little public 
sentiment in Iowa favorable to a direct inheritance tax such 
as long ago has been adopted in many States ; but it is quite 
probable that this important source of revenue will not much 
longer be neglected. Necessary and very substantial addi- 
tions to the State revenue might be made by the enactment 
of a direct inheritance tax law. 

The Special Tax Commission authorized by the Thirty- 
fourth General Assembly was appointed by Governor B. F. 
Carroll on May 17, 1911. Mr. M. H. Cohen of Des Moines, 
who was elected president, Mr. C. N. Voss of Davenport, 
vice president, Mr. A. C. Eipley of Garner, Mr. B. E. Stone- 
braker of Rockwell City, and Mr. J, H. McConlogue of 
Mason City constituted the Commission. The writer was 
appointed to act as secretary.^^ 

20 Laics of Iowa, 1911, Ch. 63, Sec. 5. 

27 Laws of Iowa, 1911, Ch. 68. 

28 Laivs of Iowa, 1911, Ch. 68, Sec. 1. 

29 Beport of the Special Tax Commisaioii to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 5. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



51 



The Commission held twenty-one meetings and was in 
session fifty-five days, during which time a very careful 
study was made of the tax laws of Iowa and other States. 
Meetings were held at Richmond, Virginia, during a confer- 
ence of the National Tax Association, and later at Topeka, 
Kansas, in order to make a special study of the practical 
working of the county assessor and tax commission system 
of that State. The members of the Commission very soon 
recognized the necessity of thorough administrative reforms 
and were interested in the experience of Kansas — a neigh- 
boring State with quite similar conditions and a very suc- 
cessful revenue system. 

A particular effort was made to get in touch with the 
taxpayers of Iowa, learn their views, and receive the benefit 
of their counsel and advice. Delegations representing dif- 
ferent economic interests appeared at the regular meetings 
held in the State House at Des Moines and at the special 
meetings in Sioux City and Davenport. A session lasting 
eight days was held at Des Moines in January, 1912, for the 
special purpose of giving interested taxpayers an oppor- 
tunity to be heard. Not being satisfied that these meetings 
had given sufficient publicity to the work of the Commission 
to insure a proper understanding by the public at large of 
its plans and proposed recommendations. Governor B. F. 
Carroll was requested to call a State Tax Conference to 
meet in Des Moines. The account of this important confer- 
ence, which should be recorded in some detail, is based 
largely upon the private files of the writer, who kept a care- 
ful record of the proceedings.^** 

The first, and up to date, the only State Tax Conference 
which has convened in Iowa, met at the Savery Hotel in Des 
Moines on Wednesday, March 20, 1912. While the confer- 
so Records of State Tax Conference, 1912, in the Economics Seminar Library, 
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. 



52 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ence was open to all taxpayers of the State, it was especially 
desired that local assessors, boards of review, county and 
State officials and members of the General Assembly attend. 
Following the experience of other States and the National 
Tax Association, the official representation was arranged 
on the following basis : 

In order to make the Conference representative in character and 
to insure an equal voice in the deliberations and in voting upon 
any resolution which may be proposed, each county will be entitled 
to three delegates, each of whom shall be entitled to one vote, such 
delegates to be named by the county auditor; and each university 
or college, maintaining a regular four year course, will be entitled 
to one vote, the delegate to be named by the president of such 
institution. 

The members and Secretary of the Executive Council and of the 
State Tax Commission, one member of the board of supervisors for 
each county, to be designated by the respective boards, and the 
county auditor of each county will be ex-ofifieio delegates to the 
Conference and entitled to vote and to participate in the deliber- 
ations.^i 

It is obvious that every effort was made to make the Con- 
ference representative in a real sense and open to any tax- 
payer in the State. In fact, the purpose of the meeting was 
to ascertain public sentiment regarding the various prob- 
lems of taxation by bringing the Special State Tax Com- 
mission more closely in touch with the people, and at the 
same time affording the people themselves an opportunity 
to become more thoroughly acquainted with the purposes 
and plans of the Commission. While a regular program 
was prepared in order to direct the discussions along def- 
inite channels, at least half of the time was given over to a 
general discussion by the members themselves. In other 
words, the Commission had in mind at least two distinct 

31 Records of State Tax Conference, 1912, in the Economies Seminar Library, 
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



53 



things : first, the necessity of making a definite outline of 
the defects in our present revenue system and the remedies 
for the same; and second, the desirability of giving the 
members of the Conference an opportunity of discussing 
said defects and proposed remedies. The program in a 
word, was carefully balanced with a view of giving com- 
plete freedom of discussion on the one hand, and at the 
same time insure the careful presentation of fundamental 
principles on the other. 

These facts are mentioned because at the very beginning 
of the Conference an unwarranted amount of suspicion was 
apparent. For some reason, many members of the Confer- 
ence were led to believe that a deal had been arranged for 
the purpose merely of passing resolutions favorable to the 
Commission. Of course, there was absolutely no ground 
for any such suspicion since, as already explained, every 
effort had been made to make the Conference representative 
in a real sense and give any and every taxpayer an oppor- 
tunity to be heard. If the Special Tax Commission had had 
any desire whatever to force a certain program of reform 
through the General Assembly without taking the people of 
Iowa into its confidence no general State Tax Conference 
would ever have been called. The meeting was held for the 
■definite purpose of making the public thoroughly familiar 
with the plans and purposes of the Commission in order to 
give the people a chance of offering criticisms and making 
suggestions that would be helpful in the solution of the 
important problems of taxation. 

The fact that the people were giving serious attention to 
the necessity of revising the tax laws is apparent from the 
large number of delegates who attended the Conference 
and the interest manifested. The report of the Committee 
on Credentials, of which Mr. C. F. Terhune of Muscatine 
was chairman, shows that seventy-four counties were 



54 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



officially represented at the Conference, The number of 
voting delegates, in accordance with the call made by 
Governor B. F. Carroll, was two hundred and eighty-one, 
which list included one representative from each of the 
following educational institutions : Drake University, Grin- 
nell College, the State Teachers College at Cedar Falls, 
and the Iowa State College at Ames. More than one hun- 
dred additional taxpayers were present from all quarters 
of the State and attended the sessions of the Conference. 
In other words, the fact that about four hundred men, 
representing nearly every county of the State, attended this 
Conference at their own expense furnishes conclusive proof 
of the deep interest which the people generally manifested 
in the proposed revision of the tax laws. The Special Tax 
Commission was greatly pleased at the large attendance and 
the intelligent interest manifested by the delegates in the 
general discussions. 

After the opening address had been made by the Gov- 
ernor, Chairman M. H. Cohen appointed a committee on 
organization composed of Attorney E. M. Haines of Des 
Moines (chairman). Attorney J. H. McConlogue of Mason 
City (a member of the Commission), and Hon. David Jay 
of Blakesburg. The committee on organization reported 
the selection of Hon. W. E. Fuller, Ex-Congressman from 
the Fourth District, as permanent chairman of the Confer- 
ence. The chairman appointed two additional committees : 
one on credentials and the other on resolutions, each com- 
mittee being composed of one official delegate from each 
Congressional district. 

The committee on resolutions, whose report made during 
the second day of the Conference precipitated a somewhat 
spirited discussion, was composed of the following mem- 
bers : W. M. Keeley, First District ; D, V. Jackson, Second 
District; W. B. Robinson, Third District; S. K. Kolsrud, 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



55 



Fourth District; E. E. Strait, Fifth District; Prof. J. W. 
Gannaway, Sixth District; W. W. Cardell, Seventh District; 
Wm. Glattley, Eighth District; Charles T. Launder, Ninth 
District; J. W. Holden, Tenth District; and W. H. Deegan, 
Eleventh District. 

After holding at least three somewhat lengthy sessions, 
this committee concluded that it would not be desirable or 
in fact necessary to present any resolution favoring the 
establishment of a permanent tax commission or the crea- 
tion of the office of county assessor. A large majority of 
the committee believed that the delegates were not pre- 
pared to pass final judgment on so important a matter, and 
they felt that it would be better to leave this question to the 
further consideration of the Special Tax Commission and 
the General Assembly. Nine out of the eleven members, 
however, were favorable to the idea of having a permanent 
tax commission and a county assessor ; and the two remain- 
ing members would have voted in the negative largely be- 
cause they were instructed to do so by the delegates from 
their respective Congressional districts. In a word, the 
members of the committee on resolutions after a thorough 
discussion of the problem were greatly impressed with the 
strength of the arguments in favor of a more efficient sys- 
tem of assessment and equalization. 

The following resolution was submitted and signed by 
every member of the committee: 

Be it resolved by this tax convention: That we recognize the 
great importance of the questions in reference to taxation now be- 
fore the temporary tax commission of the state of Iowa. 

That we recognize the ability and integrity of the members of 
that commission and the thorough and impartial manner in which 
they are investigating the questions now confronting them. 

That we have the fullest confidence in their desire and ability to 
make a fair and proper recommendation to the next legislature, and 
that this convention is willing to leave the question of tax reform 



56 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to the legislature to act as it deems best upon the report of the 
commission. 32 

No sooner had the above resolution been presented by 
Professor Gannaway than one of the delegates rose and, 
claiming to be a friend of the farmers, offered the following 
amendment to the resolution: **But this Conference is not 
at the present time and with its present information favor- 
able to the creation of a Permanent State Tax Commis- 
sion." 

A somewhat animated debate followed in which J. H. 
McConlogue declared that the author of the resolution was 
not sincere in his expressions of friendship for the farmers. 
The discussion was closed by a very admirable address 
made by A. C. Ripley, who informed the delegates that the 
Special Tax Commission did not need a certificate of char- 
acter, and that the Conference was called not to pass reso- 
lutions, but rather to insure an open and frank discussion 
of the various phases of the tax question. In other words, 
the convention was purely educational in character and 
from that standpoint he considered that it had been a great 
success. The Conference then laid on the table by an 
almost unanimous vote the resolution including the amend- 
ment as above noted. The delegates did not go on record 
either for or against the desirability of creating a perma- 
nent tax commission, wisely considering that this question 
should receive careful study on the part of the Special Tax 
Commission and the General Assembly. 

The Conference adjourned with the delegates feeling 
good natured and well repaid for their time and expense. 
Perhaps the most important result of the meeting was the 
coming together of many minds with conflicting opinions 
and motives, which in itself convinced the great majority 

82 Eecords of State Tax Conference, 1912, in the Economies Seminar Library, 
Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



57 



present that after all, the tax question is very complicated 
and requires careful research and sound judgment if the 
State is to establish an equitable revenue system. Many 
delegates went to the Conference thoroughly convinced 
that they knew exactly how the tax question should be 
solved, but after a two days' session went home doubting 
just a little their own wisdom. This in itself was a great 
gain. The feeling of suspicion, so apparent at the begin- 
ning of the meeting, was likewise removed ; and in the judg- 
ment of the writer practically all of the delegates returned 
to their homes with more open minds, willing to believe that 
something was really wrong with the revenue system and 
that the Special Tax Commission was doing its best to 
ascertain the defects and provide an adequate remedy for 
the same. 

Lastly, but most important of all, many representatives 
from the rural districts, leaders in their respective com- 
munities, who were delegates at the Conference, discovered 
that assessment on a more uniform basis under the super- 
vision of county assessors and a permanent State tax com- 
mission was not a reform which would injure the farmer, 
but, on the contrary, that it was a progressive measure 
opposed chiefly by the representatives of special corporate 
interests. Unfortunately, all the rural taxpayers of Iowa 
could not be present at the State Tax Conference and learn 
at first hand these simple facts. 

All students of public finance know that the success or 
failure of a tax on property depends upon accuracy of 
assessment. If the assessment is uniform, the tax will be 
equitable as between the holders of property subject to ad 
valorem taxation. If the assessment is not uniform, the 
property of certain persons in a given locality being listed 
relatively higher, perhaps double the amount of similar 
property owned by other persons, the tax will be unjust 



58 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and inequitable. Statistical tables were carefully prepared 
by the Special Tax Commission showing gross inequalities 
in the aggregate assessment of counties and also in the 
assessment of individual farms. The taxable value of farm 
land ranged from seven to thirty-five per cent of the sale 
value. Variations of fifty to a hundred per cent were the 
rule rather than the exception.^^ 

The Commission was therefore not long in discovering 
that, while many changes in detail should be made in the 
tax laws, the most fundamental change required was more 
thorough and efficient State and county supervision of local 
assessment. After describing the exact method of listing 
property by local assessors, followed by local, county, and 
State review and the making out of the tax list, the Com- 
mission made the following significant statement : 

At the basis of the fiscal pyramid, we have the work of more than 
two thousand local assessors and the correction of individual assess- 
ments by local review boards composed of more than six thousand 
officials. Add to this long list the county boards of supervisors, 
county treasurers and auditors and the State Executive Council 
and we have an army of assessment and taxation officials composed 
of about ten thousand men without any central supervision or con- 
trol either in the county or state. 

It should be noted especially that the only authority which has 
power to correct errors made by the local assessors is the local board 
of review of which there are from eighteen to thirty in the average 
county of Iowa. This means that the township or other minor civil 
division is the important unit of local government from the stand- 
point of assessment on the one hand and the review or correction of 
individual assessments on the other. The county board of super- 
visors under such a system is absolutely powerless to bring about 
anything approaching uniformity among the minor subdivisions of 
a county. In fact, no adequate authority is now provided in the 
revenue laws of Iowa whereby the county is able to guarantee uni- 

33 Eeport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, pp. 
29, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37-45. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



59 



formity of assessment within its borders. For these and other 
reasons the Executive Council, acting as a State Board of Review, 
is not able to bring about uniformity of assessment as between the 
various counties of the state without doing great injustice to many 
individual taxpayers. The necessity of having uniformity as be- 
tween the minor sub-divisions of the county and at the same time 
among the various counties of the state is the basis of the recom- 
mendation of this Commission that a county assessor or supervisor 
of local assessments and a permanent state tax commission be 
created.^* 

The necessity of providing for a county assessor and tax 
commission system was based upon the following facts: 
first, the existence of low assessment at an average of about 
one-eighth of the sale value; second, gross inequalities of 
assessment which have not been improved but, on the con- 
trary, have become progressively more inequitable; third, 
the evils of the ex officio plan or rather planless system of 
fiscal administration under which no county or State officer 
gives any real time and thought to this important function 
of government ; fourth, the possibilities offered by scientific 
State assessment, in place of the listing in a mere per- 
functory manner of the property of public service corpora- 
tions, which in Iowa amounts to hundreds of millions of 
dollars ; and fifth, the more efficient listing of moneys and 
credits when subjected to the flat tax of five mills on the 
dollar of actual valuation — it being estimated that 
$1,000,000 was lost annually on this class of property alone 
as a result of antiquated methods of assessment. 

The Commission reached the conclusion that "uniformity, 
however, has been the exception, and inequality the rule, 
wherever under assessment has prevailed and recom- 
mended that property be assessed at its actual value, the 
tax rates to be adjusted so as not to increase the burden of 

34 Report of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 24. 

35 Beport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 60. 



60 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



taxation. This second recommendation — that assessment 
be made at actual value — is based upon sound experience 
in the majority of progressive States; but commendation of 
the practice is not universal, a number of able students of 
taxation holding that greater uniformity can be secured by 
assessment at a fraction of actual value, a practice which 
prevails in Iowa and certain other States. They maintain 
that the psychology of the taxed public demands at least 
"a concession", and that assessors are able to secure the 
listing of property at more nearly the actual value required 
both by law and common sense if the property owner is 
assured that the taxable value will be placed at a third, 
fourth, or fifth of the listed or actual value. 

Knowing the logic of democracies, one is obliged to 
acknowledge that there is a grain of truth in this conten- 
tion. Be this as it may, it is simply stealing from Peter to 
pay Paul, as the rate must be increased the exact amount 
that the assessment is decreased. The important thing is 
neither the rate nor the assessment considered separately 
but rather the amount of tax voted by the people or their 
authorized representatives for a certain purpose. It should 
be distinctly noted at this point that the Commission safe- 
guarded the taxpayers against any increase of taxation 
resulting from assessment at actual value rather than a 
fraction of actual value, by writing into their revenue bill 
the following: 

Should the assessed valuation of the property of the state, or any 
county, township, city, town, district or other political or municipal 
corporation, for the year 1914 or subsequent years, exceed the 
average assessed valuation for the years 1912 and 1913, the maxi- 
mum rates of levy for the state, or for any county, to^vnship, city, 
town, district or other political or municipal corporation, for each 
of the various purposes for which taxes are levied, shall, until 
otherwise provided by law, be so reduced that the amount of taxes 
raised for each of said purposes shall not exceed the amount which 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



61 



might have been raised on the average assessed valuation for the 
years 1912 and 1913 under the maximum rates of levy existing, and 
the percentage limitation of indebtedness of such corporation shall 
be so reduced that such indebtedness shall not exceed the amount 
vs^hich by law might have been incurred on the assessed valuation 
for the year 1913.36 

Finally the Commission called attention to other tax 
problems, such as the income tax, direct inheritance tax, 
and a partial separation of revenue sources, but made no 
definite recommendation, rightly holding that such matters 
ought to receive more careful study on the part of a perma- 
nent tax commission in case one was created. Attorney 
General George Cosson, on request, submitted a legal 
opinion that separation of revenue sources based upon the 
exclusive State taxation of the property or earnings of 
certain classes of public service corporations could be se- 
cured only by amending Article VIII, Section 2, of the 
Constitution of Iowa which reads as follows: **The prop- 
erty of all corporations for pecuniary profit, shall be subject 
to taxation, the same as that of individuals."^'^ 

As there can be no revenue system in Iowa that is efficient 
from the point of view of administration and equitable from 
the point of view of the taxpayer, until a permanent State 
tax commission is created as a separate body, or by clothing 
the Executive Council with the necessary power and author- 
ity, and at the same time providing for county assessment 
or at least county supervision of local assessment, the reader 
should carefully note the provisions of the revenue bill 
submitted by the Special Tax Commission to the Governor 
and General Assembly of Iowa relating to these important 
matters. The exact language of the bill is just as applicable 

seBeport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 
128. 

37 Beport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 72. 



62 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

in 1921 as it was in 1913, and could safely and wisely be 
enacted into law by the present General Assembly. It will 
be equally brief and more to the point, therefore, to quote 
in some detail from the revenue bill prepared by the Special 
Tax Commission in 1913. 

After providing for a permanent State tax commission of 
three members to be appointed by the Governor "by and 
with the advice and consent of the senate", and transferring 
to said board the assessment and review duties of the 
Executive Council, it was further stipulated, following the 
best experience of many progressive States, that the com- 
mission should have and exercise the following additional 
powers and duties: 

(1) . To have and exercise general supervision over the adminis- 
tration of the assessment and tax laws of the state, over assessors, 
boards of review, boards of supervisors and all other officers or 
boards of assessment and levy in the performance of their official 
duties, to the end that all assessments of property and taxes levied 
thereon be made relatively just and uniform in substantial com- 
pliance with law. 

(2) . To prepare forms and cause to be printed and bound at 
the cost of the state, suitable assessment rolls and assessors' books, 
and furnish to each county assessor, prior to the first day of De- 
cember in each year, a sufficient supply thereof to make the assess- 
ment in his county for the succeeding year. It may also from time 
to time prepare and furnish, in like manner, any and all other 
blanks, memoranda or instructions which it deems necessary or 
expedient for the use or guidance of any of the officers over which 
it is authorized by law to exercise supervision ; provided, however, 
in the year 1913, such assessment rolls and assessors' books shall be 
furnished to the county auditor and by him delivered to the county 
assessor upon his qualifying. 

(3) . To confer with, advise and direct assessors, boards of 
supervisors, boards of review, and others obligated by law to make 
levies and assessments, as to their duties under the laws of the state. 

(4) . To direct proceedings, actions and prosecutions to be insti- 
tuted to enforce the laws relating to the penalties, liabilities and 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



63 



piinisliment of public officers, persons and officers or agents of cor- 
porations for failure or neglect to comply with the provisions of the 
statutes governing the return, assessment and taxation of property, 
and to cause complaints to be made against assessors, members of 
boards of review, boards of supervisors or other assessing, reviewing 
or taxing officers, in the courts of proper jurisdiction, for their re- 
moval from office for official misconduct or neglect of duty. 

(5) . To require the attorney general or county attorneys in 
their respective counties, and it shall be the duty of such attorneys, 
to assist in the commencement and prosecution of actions and pro- 
ceedings for penalties, forfeitures, removals, and punishments of 
violations of the laws of the state in respect to the assessment and 
taxation of property, or to represent the commission in any litiga- 
tion in which it may become involved in the discharge of its duties. 

(6) . To require city, town, township, county, state or other 
public officers to report information as to the assessment of prop- 
erty, collection of taxes, receipts from licenses, or other sources, the 
expenditure of public funds for all purposes and such other infor- 
mation as may be needful or desirable in the work of the commis- 
sion in such form and upon such blanks as the commission may 
prescribe. 

(7) . To summon and compel witnesses to appear and give testi- 
mony and to compel said witnesses to produce for examination, 
records, books, papers and documents relating to any matter which 
the commission shall have the authority to investigate or determine ; 
provided, however, that no bank, officer or employee thereof, shall 
be compelled to testify as to the contents of any of the records of 
such bank, or produce the same for the purpose of examination in 
any matter relating to assessment or taxation. 

(8) . To cause the deposition of witnesses residing within or 
without the state or absent therefrom to be taken upon notice to 
interested parties, if any, in any like manner that depositions of 
witnesses are taken in civil actions pending in the district court, in 
any matter which the commission shall have authority to investigate 
or determine. 

(9) . To investigate the work and methods of assessors, boards of 
review and boards of supervisors, in the assessment, equalization 
and taxation of all kinds of property, by visiting the counties or 
localities when deemed necessary so to do. 



64 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



(10) . To consider the complaint made by a taxpayer of any 
county where it is claimed that the assessment in said county is 
higher than the assessment in other counties and make such change 
as the commission may deem just and equitable. 

(11) . To require any county board of equalization at any time 
after its adjournment to reconvene and to make such orders as the 
tax commission shall determine are just and necessary, and to 
direct and order such county board of equalization to raise or lower 
the valuation of the property, real or personal, in any township or 
city, and to order and direct any county board of equalization to 
raise or lower the valuation of any class or classes of property, and 
generally to do and perform any act or to make any order or direc- 
tion to any county board of equalization or any assessor as to the 
valuation of any property, or any class of property in any town- 
ship, town, city or county, which in the judgment of the commission 
may seem just and necessary, to the end that all property shall be 
valued and assessed in the manner and according to the real intent 
of the law. 

(12) . To carefully examine into all cases where evasion or viola- 
tion of the law for assessment and taxation of property is alleged, 
complained of, or discovered, and to ascertain wherein existing 
laws are defective or are improperly or negligently administered. 

(13) . To investigate the tax system of other states and countries 
and to formulate and recommend such legislation as may be deemed 
expedient to prevent evasion of assessment and tax laws, and to 
secure just and equal taxation and improvement in the system of 
taxation in this state. 

(14) . To consult and confer with the governor of the state 
upon the subject of taxation, the administration of the laws in rela- 
tion thereto, and the progress of the work of the commission, and to 
furnish the governor from time to time such information as he may 
require. 

(15) . To transmit biennially to the governor and to each mem- 
ber of the legislature, thirty days before the meeting of the legis- 
lature, the report of the commission, covering the subject of assess- 
ment and taxation, the result of the investigation of the commission, 
its recommendations for improvement in the system of taxation in 
the state, together with such measures as may be formulated for the 
consideration of the legislature. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 65 

(16) . To publish in pamphlet form the revenue laws of the state 
and distribute them to the county assessors, who shall in turn dis- 
tribute the same to the local assessors and boards of review of their 
respective counties. 

(17) . To exercise and perform such further powers and duties 
as may be granted to or imposed upon the commission by law.^s 

The coniity assessor provided for in the revenue bill was 
to be elected by the people for a term of four years and 
exercise the following general duties: first, list omitted 
property, special provision being made for listing moneys 
and credits that had been escaping all taxation; second, 
"have and exercise general authority over the local asses- 
sors of his county in all matters pertaining to their duties 
as such local assessors ' ' ; third, collect data on sales of farm 
lands and town lots which will aid local, county and State 
boards of review in bringing about greater uniformity of 
assessment; fourth, review and equalize local assessments 
with the approval of the county board of supervisors ; and 
fifth, serve as a necessary administrative link between local 
and State authorities in all matters relating to assessment 
and taxation.^^ Just as the county engineer is necessary in 
a comprehensive Statewide plan of road administration, so 
the county assessor, acting as a county supervisor of local 
assessment, is essential to any efficient State supervision of 
assessment and taxation. 

The most essential provisions of the revenue bill relating 
to the duties of the county assessor, which, in the judgment 
of the writer, should form a part of any scientific plan of 
assessment reform in Iowa are the following 

38 Eeport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, pp. 
88-90. 

S9 Beport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, pp. 
90-92, 123. 

40 Beport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, pp. 
!)1, 92, 123, 125. 

VOL. XIX — 5 



66 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



See. 19. It shaU be the duty of the county assessor, as far as 
practicable, to make a careful examination of all records and files in 
the offices of his county, and to co-operate with the tax commission, 
and through it with the county assessors of other counties, in order 
to obtain all available information which may assist him in listing 
and assessing at its true value, and to the proper persons, any and 
all taxable property which may have been omitted by the local 
assessor. In making such examination, particular attention shall be 
given to all intangible property such as tax certificates, mortgages, 
debts, judgments, claims, and allowances of courts, legacies, and 
property in the hands of administrators, executors, guardians, as- 
signees, receivers, trustees and other fiduciaries. 

Sec. 22. It shall be the duty of the county assessor to furnish, 
upon request, to the tax commission, or to the county assessor of 
any other county, any information pertaining to the discovery of 
taxable property which may be obtainable from the records of his 
county. 

Sec. 23. The county assessor shall have and exercise general 
authority over the local assessors of his county in aU matters per- 
taining to their duties as such local assessors. He shall make such 
rules for the guidance of the local assessors and give to them such 
advice, orders and directions, not inconsistent with law or the in- 
structions to the tax commission, as will insure the listing and 
assessment of all property assessable within his county at its actual 
value and in strict compliance with all laws and regulations pre- 
scribing the duties of local assessors. 

See. 24. Between the first and second Mondays in January, the 
county assessor shall call an annual meeting of the township, town 
and city assessors in order to direct and instruct them in the duties 
of their office, furnishing the uniform assessment blanks as prepared 
and submitted by the tax commission. Each local assessor shall be 
required to attend said meeting and for this purpose shall be al- 
lowed pay for one day 's work together with the necessary traveling 
expenses. 

Sec. 25. The county assessors shaU prepare and keep up to date 
a tabulated list of sales of farm and unplatted lands and town lots 
in and various townships, towns and cities of their respective coun- 
ties, the same to be done according to rules and regulations formu- 



HISTORY OP TAXATION IN IOWA 



67 



lated by the tax commission. At the annual meeting of the town- 
ship, town and city assessors, just prior to the assessment of real 
estate, said list of sales as prepared and tabulated for the entire 
county during the preceding biennial period shall be submitted to 
the assessors in each taxing district to serve as a guide in their work 
of assessment, and may also, as far as practicable, be made use of by 
the county assessor, county board of supervisors, and the tax com- 
mission, in their work of review, adjustment and equalization. The 
county assessor shall be required to submit a copy of said list of 
sales of real estate, to the tax commission not less than thirty days 
prior to the time when said commission acts as a state board of 
review. 

Sec. 121. The county assessor shall review the assessments made 
by the local assessors in the several assessing districts of his county, 
as shown by the assessment rolls returned to him, and shall equalize 
the same in such manner that all items, classes and kinds of prop- 
erty shall be listed and assessed at their true and actual amounts 
and values. For the purpose of equalizing the valuation of the 
property as herein provided, the county assessor is authorized and 
required to raise or lower the assessment of any item, class or kind 
of property by him found to be incorrectly valued or assessed. He 
may also make such clerical or other corrections in the assessment 
rolls as may be found necessary to a just and equitable equalization 
of all property assessed. 

Sec. 129. The county assessor shall meet with the board of super- 
visors while sitting as a county board of review, and shall submit to 
said board of review the completed assessor's books, together with 
the assessment rolls returned by the local assessors. He shall also 
lay before such board of review the tabulated lists of sales of real 
estate as prepared by him, together with such other information he 
may possess, which will aid the board of review in performing its 
duties in equalizing and adjusting the assessments of the several 
townships, towns and cities, and determining the rights of indi- 
viduals where appeals have been taken to said board of review. 
The county assessor shall make such changes in the assessor's books 
as may be ordered by said board of review. 



When the Thirty-fifth General Assembly convened in 



68 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



January, 1913, there was a strong sentiment in favor of 
reform in the administration of the State's tax system. 
The revenue bill as introduced by the Committee on Ways 
and Means in both the House and the Senate was in 
some important respects a stronger and more progressive 
measure than that drafted by the Special Tax Commission. 
Two points will serve to indicate this fact. The county as- 
sessor was to be appointed by a county board composed of 
the county auditor, county treasurer, county recorder, clerk 
of the district court, and chairman of the county board of 
supervisors, and not elected by the people.*^ From the 
standpoint of administration this was a distinct improve- 
ment as compared with the plan recommended by the Spe- 
cial Tax Commission. 

Several changes were made in the duties of the tax com- 
mission which tended to strengthen the power and authority 
of that body. It will be recalled, for example, that, among 
the powers of the proposed tax commission as given above, 
was the authority to require "any county board of equali- 
zation at any time after its adjournment to reconvene and 
to make such orders as the tax commission shall determine 
are just and necessary, and to direct and order such county 
board of equalization to raise or lower the valuation" of 
any property or classes of property.** Not content with 
merely stating that this power existed, the Committee on 
Ways and Means of the House gave the proposed commis- 
sion the additional authority to bring action of mandamus 
or injunction or any other proper action in the district 
court, or before any judge thereof, to compel the perform- 

41 House File, No. 644, 1913. See also Journal of the Mouse of Bepresenta- 
fives, 1913, p. 1129. 

42 Senate File, No. 442, 1913. See also Journal of the Senate, 1913, p. 880. 

43 House File, No. 644, See. 14, 1913. 

44 Eeport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 89. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



69 



ance of any order made by said commission or to require 
any assessor or board of equalization or any other officer or 
person to perform any duty required by this act."*^ 

While the Committee on Ways and Means were working 
faithfully on the revenue bill, which was reported for pas- 
sage in the Senate on April 2, 1913,*^ and in the House on 
March 31st,*'^ the opposition was actively engaged in print- 
ing at Des Moines thousands of petitions against a perma- 
nent tax commission for circulation largely among the 
farmers of Iowa, As these manufactured petitions began 
to roll into the General Assembly, the sentiment in favor of 
replacing the provisions of the Code of 1673 by a modern 
tax system rapidly weakened, and the friends of the revenue 
bill realized that tax reform had again been defeated. 

Four quite distinct forms of petition were prepared by 
the opposition. For the sake of convenience these forms 
may be designated A, B, C, and D, Inasmuch as these 
petitions contain the arguments used to defeat the bill, the 
taxpayers of Iowa as well as the historians will be inter- 
ested in the exact language of the documents. They are 
worded as follows : 

[Form A] 
PETITION 

TO THE MEMBERS OF THE IOWA LEGISLATURE : 

The duties and powers of the State Executive Council pertaining 
to taxation are not well understood. They are more than a Board 
of Review to equalize taxes among the several counties. The law 
provides that they shall adjust the value of property by adding to 

45 House rile, No. 644, See. 13 (11), 1913. 

Journal of the Senate, 1913, p. 1544. 

Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1913, p. 1703. 

48 Documents in the Economics Seminar Library, Iowa State College of Agri- 
culture and Mechanic Arts, Ames, Iowa. 



70 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



or taking from the valuation of each, kind and class of property 
such percentage in each case as will bring the same to its taxable 
value. 

What greater powers can be given to a Permanent Tax Com- 
mission? What reason for creating a high salaried, centralized 
commission to assume duties which already belong to men elected 
by the people? 

We do not favor the radical changes in our revenue system which 
are proposed under the name of Permanent Tax Commission nor 
do we favor any Tax legislation that shall take away from the peo- 
ple the right to assess, collect and disburse their own local taxes in 
their own way. 

We respectfully and urgently petition your honorable body to 
vote in harmony with us in this important matter. 

NAME ADDRESS 



[Form B] 

PETITION 

To the Members of the Senate, 

Thirty-fifth General Assembly. 

We are opposed to a Permanent Tax Commission for Iowa. 
Wherever it has been tried, the farmers' and land owners' taxes 
have been radically increased. It is a needless expense and sub- 
versive of the peoples' right to assess and disburse taxes as their 
special needs require. 

The small inequalities that now affect the state tax do not justify 
changing our tax system and taking from the people the control of 
the local assessment machinery and placing it in a Centralized 
Commission to be appointed by the governor for six year term with 
practically the power to perpetuate itself. 

We respectfully and urgently petition your honorable body that 
you do not enact the Permanent Tax Commission bill into law, or 
any similar measure that would materially increase our taxes either 
by levy or unfair increase of valuation. 

NAME ADDRESS. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



[Form C] 

PETITION 

TO THE MEMBERS OF THE 

THIRTY-FIFTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF IOWA : 

Claims are being made that our farm lands and farm property 
are now under-assessed and unequally assessed for taxation, and 
that a Permanent Tax Commission with a County Assessor for 
every County is the only means of reforming these supposed evils. 

Since nearly all the taxes our people pay are for our own schools, 
roads and other purposes of local government, about which the 
people of each local community can best judge for themselves, and 
since the Tax Commission plan has not proved satisfactory where 
tried, but has shown greater varieties and inequalities of methods 
and assessments than does the present revenue system of Iowa, 

Therefoee, We do not favor a Tax Commission, which will add 
enormous burdens of taxation, and take away from the people of 
our local communities the right to assess and pay out their own 
taxes in their own way. The small inequalities that now effect the 
State tax do not justify a sweeping change that will place this 
important function of government in a centralized commission. We 
respectfully and urgently petition your honorable body not to enact 
any such tax system. 

NAME. ADDRESS. 

[Form D] 
PETITION. 
To the General Assembly of Iowa : 

We, the members of the Com Belt Meat Producers' Association, 
and other tax payers of Iowa, respectfully and urgently petition 
your Honorable Body not to enact the Permanent Tax Commission 
bill reported by the Temporary Tax Commission into law. 

It is objectionable because of its great expense, because it takes 
away from local communities the handling of their own tax busi- 
ness, and because wherever tried, as in Kansas, Wisconsin, and 
Minnesota, has not proved satisfactory, and has materially in- 
creased farmers' taxes. 



72 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



We annulled the "Tax Ferret" law and this would be its equiva- 
lent under another name. Our state Executive Council has just as 
much power as the Legislature could grant to a tax commission. 
Why should they not exercise this power and thereby save this 
quarter million annual outlay. We approve of no system of taxa- 
tion which does not impose upon every species of property its full 
and equitable share of the burden of taxation, including moneys 
and credits. 

NAMES ADDRESSES. 

Form A, it will be observed, gives five alleged reasons 
why a permanent tax commission should not be created: 
first, the State Executive Council already has sufficient 
power and authority under existing law; second, the law 
already provides for valuation at the "taxable value"; 
third, high salaries ; fourth, centralized authority to assume 
duties which under present laws belong to ''men elected by 
the people ' ' ; and finally, the people should have the right to 
''assess, collect and disburse their own local taxes in their 
own way". The framer of this petition, whose identity has 
never been known, was certainly a shrewd judge both of 
human nature and of democracy, and was also a reasonably 
good psychologist. It is well known that the people in gen- 
eral have very distinct prejudices against increasing taxes, 
high salaried public officials, and centralized power and 
authority vested in appointive officers. 

To any person reasonably well informed on the subject of 
taxation in Iowa the answer to the above arguments is 
simple and obvious. The State Executive Council is not at 
present clothed with sufficient power and authority in mat- 
ters of assessment and equalization; nor can the limited 
power which that body does possess be made effective for 
the reason that proper county fiscal administration as a 
necessary connecting link has not been established. In the 
second place, the present law provides for assessment at 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



73 



the actual value, a fact which is purposely distorted in the 
petition. 

Eegarding high salaries, it should be stated that the small 
number of additional offices created would represent almost 
an imperceptible expenditure as compared with the more 
than eighty millions of dollars of State and local taxes 
collected for the year 1920. Moreover, if the permanent tax 
commission and county assessor system had been created as 
recommended, millions of dollars in taxes would have been 
collected on moneys and credits alone, which under the 
present antiquated system have entirely escaped the burden 
of taxation. In the fourth place, experience has demon- 
strated over and over again that administrative authority 
to be efficient and therefore just must be more or less cen- 
tralized, and preferably should be vested in appointive 
officers subject to civil service regulations. 

Finally, the reader should observe that we do not "as- 
sess" taxes, but we ''assess" property and levy taxes. 
Assessment is an administrative function, properly vested 
in appointive officers, because what is wanted is efficiency 
which means uniformity of assessment. The levy of taxes, 
on the other hand, is a legislative function which must be 
vested in the people themselves or their chosen representa- 
tives. Permanent tax commissions, county assessors, and 
local assessors as such have nothing to do with the increase 
or decrease of taxes. There is no connection between the 
existence of permanent tax commissions and either the in- 
crease or decrease of taxation. This simple distinction, if 
clearly understood, will enable the reader to appreciate the 
most important fallacy in this petition. 

Forms B, C, and D are similar to A in that all object to 
centralized authority and high taxes, and demand that the 
people control their own local affairs in their own way. 
Form A, however, is of a general character intended to 



74 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



benefit almost any taxpayer, whether rural or urban, and to 
safeguard the interests of any class of property; while 
the other three petitions all relate specifically to farm lands. 
The reference in form D to the increase of taxes and general 
unsatisfactory results under the operation of a State Tax 
Commission in Kansas, Wisconsin, and Minnesota conveys 
an impression that will not bear scrutiny when the facts are 
examined. A discussion of the workings of the commis- 
sions in these States and a tabulation of their tax statistics 
compared with those of Iowa will be given later in this 
paper. 

The forces arrayed against the revenue bill, working per- 
sistently along the lines indicated above and by means of 
other forms of literature widely distributed throughout the 
State, were successful in defeating the measure. The oppo- 
sition to administrative reform of the tax system of Iowa 
was, indeed, very efficiently organized ; it operated through 
representatives of both major political parties, made exten- 
sive use of the press, and circulated from forty to fifty 
thousand petitions for signatures throughout the State.*^ 

It will be recalled that the Special Tax Commission sug- 
gested that before anything approaching a complete sepa- 
ration of revenue sources in this state is possible" it would 
be necessary to amend Article VIII, Section 2 of the Con- 
stitution,^" In the Thirty-fifth General Assembly there was 
a substantial sentiment favoring at least a partial separa- 
tion of revenue sources in order to expand the revenue for 
State purposes without increasing the general tax levy on 
property. Joint resolutions to amend the Constitution 
along this line were promptly introduced in both houses. 
House Joint Eesolution No. 4 proposed an amendment as 
follows : 

*o The Eegister and Leader (Des Moines), March 9, 11, 1913. 

BO Beport of the Special Tax Commission to the Governor of Iowa, 1912, p. 71. 



HISTORY OP TAXATION IN IOWA 



Section 1. That the following amendment to the Constitution of 
the State of Iowa be, and the same is hereby proposed : To add, as 
Section thirty-nine (39) to Article three (3) of said Constitution, 
the following, to- wit: 

"Section 39. For the purpose of providing revenue for state 
purposes, the General Assembly may provide for the exclusive tax- 
ation of such classes of property as it may deem proper. When 
any class of property is exclusively taxed for state revenue pur- 
poses, such class shall not be otherwise taxed for general county, 
township or municipal purposes." 

Sec. 2. That the foregoing proposed amendment to the Consti- 
tution of the State of Iowa be, and the same is hereby referred to 
the Legislature to be chosen at the next general election for mem- 
bers of the General Assembly, and that the Secretary of State 
cause the same to be published for three months previous to the day 
of such election, as provided by law. 

Resolved further, That should said proposed amendment be 
agreed to by a majority of the members of the said succeeding 
General Assembly, the said proposed amendment shall be submitted 
to the electors of the State of Iowa at the general election in the 
year 1914.51 

Senate J oint Eesolution No. 4 proposed somewhat differ- 
ent amendments for the same purpose as follows : 

That the following amendments to the Constitution of the State 
of Iowa be and the same are hereby proposed and referred to the 
Thirty-sixth General Assembly: 

First: Amend article three (3) of said constitution by adding 
thereto as section thirty-nine (39) thereof the following: 

* ' Sec. 39. The General Assembly may provide by statute for the 
exclusive taxation of such classes of property as it may deem proper, 
for the purpose of providing revenue for state purposes. Property 
thus selected by the legislature for exclusive taxation for state pur- 
poses, and so taxed, shall not be otherwise taxed by any subdivision 
of the state or municipality, for general purposes. ' ' 

Second: And amend section two (2) of article eight (8) of said 
constitution so that the same will read as follows : 

"The property of all corporations for pecuniary profit shall be 

61 Journal of the House of Eepresentatives, 1913, p. 118. 



76 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



subject to taxation the same as that of individuals, except when the 
same is taxed exclusively for state purposes. "^^ 

The Senate joint resolution was indefinitely postponed,^* 
but the House joint resolution was reported for passage on 
February 8th.^* With slight amendment correcting the 
date of submitting the amendment to the people, the reso- 
lution passed the House by a vote of 58 to 43, with seven 
members absent or not voting.^^ In the Senate, however, 
more opposition developed. The resolution was reported 
unfavorably and indefinitely postponed,^^ only to be recon- 
sidered later and passed by a vote of 32 to 17 with one 
member absent or not voting.^'^ Quiet influences had been 
at work to defeat the amendment ; but other quiet influences, 
at the same time, were working more efficiently in favor of 
this particular reform. 

The amendment as adopted was in the form of the House 
joint resolution above noted.^® Two years later, as re- 
quired by law and by the Constitution itself, the amendment 
in this form was brought before the Thirty-sixth General 
Assembly.^* At that time the World War was in progress. 
People had forgotten about the desirability of a partial 
separation of revenue sources in Iowa. Few members of 
the General Assembly took an active interest in the amend- 
ment proposing exclusive State taxation of certain classes 
of property. The * * silent method ' ' of treatment was all on 

62 Journal of the Senate, 1913, p. 190. 

63 Journal of the Senate, 1913, p. 1540. 

64 Journal of the Rome of Bepresentatives, 1913, p. 435. 

66 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1913, pp. 504-506. 

66 Journal of the Senate, 1913, p. 1539. 

6T Journal of the Senate, 1913, pp. 1987, 1988. 

68 House Joint Eesolution No. 4. — Laws of Iowa, 1913, pp. 422, 423. 

60 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1915, pp. 235, 236; Journal of 
the Senate, 1915, pp. 704, 705. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



77 



the side of the opposition and, as a consequence, the amend- 
ment was defeated.^" 

The period 1914^1919 was one of war, not of reform in 
the field of State and local taxation — at least that was true 
in Iowa. Only minor changes in detail were made in 1915. 
Two years later the Thirty-seventh General Assembly 
passed a law providing that the amount of taxes as such 
should be certified to the county auditor in dollars and not 
by rate, and that, after the readjustment of taxable valua- 
tion by various boards as required by law, the county 
auditor should spread upon the records a rate which would 
raise the amount required by a given taxing district.^^ In 
1919 the Thirty-eighth General Assembly permitted banks 
to deduct United States bonds from the assessed value of 
their bank stock — a very unpopular law, which is almost 
certain to be repealed _ ^nd provided that certain loan 
corporations, conforming to definite conditions as shown by 
annual reports made to the Auditor of State, might be as- 

eo Journal of the Senate, 1915, pp. 1596, 1597; Journal of the House of Hep- 
resentatives, 1915, p. 887. 

61 Laws of Iowa, 1917, Ch. 343. 

62 Laws of Iowa, 1919, Ch. 257. This much debated measure is worded as 
follows : 

"That section one thousand three hundred four (1304), supplemental supple- 
ment to the code, 1915, he and the same is hereby amended by adding after 
the semi-colon in line sixteen thereof, the following: — 'provided, however, that 
in determining the assessed value of bank stock, the amount of obligations 
issued by the United States government since the declaration of war against 
Germany, actually owned by a bank or trust company shall be deducted, and 
any bank or trust company which since January first, nineteen nineteen has 
been assessed on its shares of stock without so deducting such United States 
government securities shall be entitled to have its assessment on its shares re- 
duced by the board of supervisors of the county in which such bank is located, 
so as to deduct from its total valuation such government securities. Provided, 
however, that no deduction shall be made unless the bank or trust company 
claiming the same shall have been the owner in good faith and not for the sole 
purpose of securing such deduction, of said securities for a period of more than 
sixty (60) days prior to December thirty-first of the year preceding that for 
which the assessment is mad^. ' " 



78 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sessed on the net actual value of their moneys and credits 
at the rate of five mills on the dollar.^^ 

The act passed in 1917, providing that the tax rate should 
he fixed with reference to the new adjusted valuation so as 
to raise the sum required for a given taxing district and not 
a greater amount, is worthy of special consideration. This 
law, for which credit should be given J ames B. Weaver who 
introduced the bill, outlines four distinct steps in the deter- 
mination of the tax rate as follows : first, the rate required 
for any public purpose shall, in all cases *'be estimated and 
based upon the adjusted taxable valuation of such taxings 
district for the preceding calendar year"; second, the 
amount thus determined shall be certified to the county 
auditor in dollars and not by rate ; third, the county auditor 
shall then fix the rate on the new adjusted taxable valuation 
necessary to raise the sum required; and finally, the rates 
for each taxing district shall be entered upon the permanent 
records of the county auditor.^* In the judgment of the 
writer the same thing might have been accomplished in as 
simple and effective a manner by enacting into law Section 
140 of the revenue bill presented by the Special Tax Com- 
mission in 1912 to which reference has already been made.^^ 

The purpose of the law enacted in 1917 to certify the 
amount of taxes in dollars and require the county auditor 
to determine the rate based upon the new adjusted taxable 
valuation which would raise the required sum of money, 
was to prevent a repetition of what had happened following 
the great increase of aggregate taxable valuation of the 
entire State in 1913. At that time an unusual increase was 
made in the aggregate assessed valuation of the State with- 
out making provision for reducing the various levies in the 

63 Laws of Iowa, 1919, Ch. 151. 

64 Laws of Iowa, 1917, Ch. 343. 
SB See above, p. 19. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



79 



same ratio. The logical ' and inevitable result was that 
millions of dollars in taxes were collected without the 
slightest authority from the people themselves acting 
through their chosen representatives in the various taxing 
districts of Iowa. The people had a right to object and did 
object to what was in fact a levy of taxes by administrative 
instead of legislative officials. 

Assessment is an administrative function and is properly 
vested in assessors and boards of review whose legal duty 
is to see that assessments are uniform on the basis of the 
actual value of taxable property, or some fraction thereof 
as in Iowa. If aggregate assessment is increased (for ex- 
ample, by the Executive Council acting as a State board of 
review as in 1913), without properly readjusting the rates 
as required by the law under consideration and also by the 
revenue bill of the Special Tax Commission rejected in 1913, 
taxes are in fact arbitrarily increased in like ratio without 
the consent of the people. 

At this point it might be well to remind the reader that 
the levy of taxes is a legislative not an administrative 
function of government. The people should determine the 
amount of taxes they must pay, acting directly or through 
local, State, or national representatives. Taxation without 
representation was on one important occasion referred to 
as tyranny. Now it so happens that the people can fix the 
amount of taxes they must pay by a mere adjustment of 
rates only if the base or assessment is known and finally 
determined. The amount of tax depends upon both the 
base or assessment and the rate. The duty of the proper 
administrative officials is to fix the base or taxable valua- 
tion which should be uniform as between different parcels 
and classes of property. That accomplished, the duty of 
other administrative officials is to adjust the rate, it being 
understood that the amount of tax has been determined and 



80 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



legally approved by the representatives of the people. If 
mere administrative officials are allowed to change the base 
or taxable value without any reference to the rate, or to fix 
the rate without proper reference to the valuation, the 
people have no effective control of their tax burden. 

In 1913 the base was greatly increased without a proper 
adjustment of the rate. The result is shown by Table li 



Table I 



State and Local Taxes, 1905-191966 


Year 


Taxable Valuation 


Total Tax Levied 


1905 


$622,738,675 


$26,061,977.03 


1906 


634,587,379 


26,333,163.21 


1908 


666,926,216 


29,248,378.54 


1910 


693,211,177 


32,500,045.88 


1912 


718,673,202 


37,148,106.01 


1913 


917,181,156 


46,022,009.65 


1914 


932,476,812 


47,072,369.27 


1915 


945,061,505 


50,676,033.25 


1916 


955,143,629 


54,267,625.44 


1917 


975,387,872 


62,381,314.24 


1918 


1,008,009,783 


66,216,150.50 


1919 


1,089,140,177 


80,495,235.92 



The aggregate taxable valuation of Iowa, it will be observed, 
increased very gradually from 1905 to 1912 and again from 
1913 to 1919. The amount in 1913, however, is nearly 
$200,000,000 greater than in 1912. If rates had been re- 
duced for reasons above explained, this increase in taxable 
valuation would not have affected the total amount of tax 
levied in 1913. Rates, however, were not readjusted, with 
the result shown in the column headed "Total Tax Lev- 
ied". This column also shows a gradual increase from 
1905 to 1912, and again from 1913 to 1916 — the larger in- 
crease for the years 1917-1919 being the obvious result of 

66 Valiuition and Taxes (compiled by the Auditor of State), 1919, pp. 5, 15. 



HISTORY OP TAXATION IN IOWA 



higher tax levies made necessary by the high cost of living. 
The increase of about $9,000,000 in 1913 is explained to a 
large extent by the simple fact that aggregate taxable valu- 
ation was increased without a proper readjustment of the 
rates. Had the provisions for the readjustment of rates, 
which were incorporated in the revenue bill submitted by 
the Special Tax Commission in 1912, or those which were 
enacted into the Weaver law of 1917, been operative in 1913 
the taxpayers of Iowa would, in the judgment of the writer, 
have been saved at least $5,000,000 in taxes levied without 
de facto authority of law in 1913 and collected in 1914. 
Furthermore, it is a well known principle that taxes once 
collected and expended mark a level that is not likely to be 
reduced, which means that if $5,000,000 less in taxes had 
been levied in 1913, a somewhat smaller amount would have 
been levied for each of the following years. 

The flat rate of five mills on the dollar of actual value of 
moneys and credits, being perhaps the most important sub- 
stantive change during the decade under consideration, the 
reader will be interested in the listing of this class of prop- 
erty. Table II shows the actual value of moneys and credits 



Table II 



Five Mill Tax, 1912-1919 «7 




Actual Value 




Amount 


Tear 


Moneys and Credits 


Total Tax 


Eeceived by State 


1912 


$189,199,168 


$ 945,995.84 


$ 77,370.26 


1913 


210,712,518 


1,053,562.59 


88,053.52 


1914 


251,828,587 


1,259,142.93 


97,783.88 


1915 


275,361,750 


1,376,808.75 


102,111.28 


1916 


307,258,690 


1,536,293.45 


107,243.64 


1917 


329,954,615 


1,649,773.07 


167,882.40 


1918 


436,068,796 


2,180,343.98 


193,838.94 


1919 


468,277,795 


2,341,388.97 


202,035.08 



Valuation and Taxes (compiled by the Auditor of State), 1919, pp. 5, 7. 



VOL. XIX — 6 



82 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



listed for the years 1912-1919, the total tax computed at the 
flat rate of five mills, and the amount of said tax which was 
received by the State. It will be observed that the amount 
of moneys and credits listed in 1912 was $189,199,168 ; and 
the total amount of tax levied was $945,995.84 of which the 
State received only $77,370.26, the balance as provided by 
law being retained by the localities. The increase in listing 
was gradual until 1918 when we note a listing of $436,- 
068,796 as compared with $329,954,615 for the previous 
year. The total tax levied in 1919 was $2,341,388.97 of 
which the State received only $202,035.08. At a time when a 
great expansion of State revenue is almost mandatory, the 
writer would suggest that one simple way of adding more 
than $2,000,000 to the income of the State would be to make 
the flat rate of five mills on moneys and credits an exclusive 
State tax and not a State and local tax like that on general 
property as provided by the present law. 

Turning our attention to Table III the reader can see at a 
glance the increase of enrollment in the public schools and 
higher State institutions of learning, and the State support 
of public schools and higher State institutions of learning 
for the years 1911-1920 — except that official reports omit 
certain tax data for 1912. It should be noted that the State 
institutions of higher learning in Iowa are the State Uni- 
versity of Iowa at Iowa City, the State College of Agricul- 
ture and Mechanic Arts at Ames, and the State Teachers 
College at Cedar Falls. 

Speaking frankly, the writer is surprised at the striking 
contrast between the increase in State support granted the 
public schools as compared with that given to the State 
institutions of higher learning during the ten year period. 
The enrollment in the public schools increased from 507,294 
in 1911 to 547,272 in 1920, or 7.9 per cent ; while the State 
support of public schools increased from $12,295,354.62 to 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



83 



$32,421,449.98 or 163 per cent during the same period. In 
striking contrast with this increase in support of public 
schools voted by the people in their own localities, which 
was no doubt conservative and necessary, we observe that 



Table III 



Taxation in Iowa, 1911-192068 








Institutions op 




Public 


Schools 


Higher Learning 


Yeak 


Enrollment 


Support 


Enrollment 


Support 


1911 


507,294 


$12,295,354 


6,897 


$1,236,538.83 


1912 


507,109 




7,025 


1,630,774.45 


1913 


507,845 


13,978,718 


7,829 


1,416,150.26 


1914 


517,559 


15,976,244 


9,105 


1,911,812.92 


1915 


522,423 


17,272,483 


10,127 


2,263,520.24 


1916 


525,579 


18,704,312 


12,633 


2,440,899.60 


1917 


532,060 


20,189,047 


15,733 


2,361,091.98 


1918 


530,379 


22,907,318 


12,115 


3,001,658.05 


1919 


529,732 


26,177,056 


14,289 


2,611,099.78 


1920 


547,272 


32,421,449 


14,781 


3,247,469.85 



the State institutions of higher learning with an increase 
in enrollment from 6,897 to 14,781, or 114 per cent (as con- 
trasted with 7.9 per cent) received even a smaller increase 
in State support — 162 per cent — the amount being 
$1,236,538.83 in 1911 and $3,247,469.85 in 1920. 

In other words the higher institutions received a smaller 
percentage of increased support than the public schools in 
spite of the fact that the percentage of increase in their 
enrollment was more than fourteen times as much as that 
of the public schools. From another point of view we reach 
the same conclusion. The same rate of increase in State 
support for the public schools would have meant an increase 
of 151 per cent if there had been no increase in enrollment. 

68 The facts given in this table are taken from the reports of the State 
Superintendent of Public Instruction covering the years 1910 to 1920, the 
various reports issued by the Auditor of State, and the pamphlet giving the 
legislative askings of the State Board of Education for 1921. 



84 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Applying this ratio to the higher institutions of learning 
there should have been an increase in State support of 
about 321 per cent, whereas the actual increase was 162 per 
cent or almost exactly half that sum. State aid to public 
schools is not included, but it would not materially change 
the comparison. 

On the basis of enrollment it is therefore obvious that the 
State support for higher education in Iowa should have 
been nearly $6,500,000 in 1920 and not the $3,247,469.85 as 
shown in Table III. The true meaning, from an educational 
point of view, of these cold statistics — cold in a literal as 
well as a figurative sense — is painfully apparent. Low 
salaries, frequently below the level of wages received by 
skilled workers or even unskilled workers; no recognition 
of real productive scholarship for its own sake; no recog- 
nition of worthy public service for its own sake ; living in- 
comes only when the torch of knowledge must be kept 
burning in spite of the competition or alleged competition 
of the commercial world ; wholly inadequate physical plant 
and equipment; and a more inadequate teaching force — ■ 
such are some of the high points in an educational analysis 
and application of the above table. 

Before presenting a conclusion to the writer's History of 
Taxation in Iowa, of which this study is only a supplemen- 
tary chapter, a word should be said regarding the work of 
the Code Commission authorized by the Thirty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly .^^ The writer was appointed as tax expert 
for the Commission and was instructed by its Chairman, 
James H, Trewin of Cedar Rapids, to compile the tax laws 
in a logical form, codify the same when necessary to make 
the meaning clear, and be very conservative in preparing 
bills for acts to amend and revise the tax laws. These in- 
structions were very proper and in strict conformity with 

60 Laws of Iowa, 1919, Ch. 50. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



85 



the spirit and letter of the law creating the Code Commis- 
sion. As the more technical aspects, both economic and 
legal, of the writer's work as tax expert of the Commission 
are being discussed for the National Tax Bulletin, only a 
brief recital of essential facts need be attempted in this 
historical study. 

After nearly a month of earnest effort to evolve some 
order and system out of the confusion worse confounded of 
the old tax code, and considering various possible methods 
of arrangement, the conclusion was finally reached that the 
law should be so arranged as to describe in a simple chrono- 
logical manner the practical working of the tax system from 
the time that property is listed until tax deeds are issued 
and recorded. Once this generalization was conceived, sec- 
tions of law scattered here, there, and everywhere without 
any clear design or logical purpose, seemed to literally fall 
into their proper places. The four revenue chapters in the 
Code of 1897 and the chapters of supplemental legislation 
were replaced by twenty-two chapters as follows: 

1. Property exempt and taxable 

2. Listing in general 

3. Moneys and credits 

4. Banks 

5. Corporation stock 

6. Insurance companies 

7. Telegraph and telephone companies 

8. Railway companies 

9. Freight line and equipment companies 

10. Express companies 

11. Electric transmission lines 

12. Reassessment by executive council 

13. The local assessor 

14. Boards of review 

15. Tax list 

16. Tax levies 

17. Collection of taxes 



86 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



18. Tax sale 

19. Tax redemption 

20. Tax deed 

21. Collateral inheritance tax 

22. Security of revenue,'''^ 

By far the most important work done by the writer for 
the Code Commission was the logical compilation of the tax 
laws for publication in the Compiled Code. Only a very 
limited amount of codification proved to be necessary in 
order to make the meaning clear. Nor was it considered 
desirable to draft radical changes in the tax laws, a duty 
which properly belongs to the General Assembly. 

CONCLUSION 

Iowa is now one of only a few States which have not 
adopted a modern progressive system of taxation. More 
than three-fourths of the States have either a permanent 
State tax commission or a State tax commissioner. This is 
true of all of the States bordering Iowa except Nebraska. 
It may, therefore, be reasonably assumed that real tax re- 
form can not be postponed much longer; and with this idea 
in mind, the writer desires to offer the suggestions and 
recommendations which follow. 

A Permanent State Tax Commission. — The first and 
most important step in tax reform in Iowa is the establish- 
ment of a permanent State tax commission. This could be 
accomplished either by following the recommendations of 
the Special Tax Commission of 1912 in reference to the 
creation of a permanent tax commission,''^ ^ or by conferring 
additional powers upon the Executive Council. 

70 Compiled Code, 1919, p. x. 

71 Beport of the Special Tax Commission to tlie Governor of Iowa, 1912, pp. 
85-90. 



HISTOKY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



87 



Should the latter plan be adopted and the Executive 
Council constituted the State's permanent tax commission, 
it should be given authority to appoint such expert assist- 
ants as may be necessary in administering the law. Thus 
the general direction of the work would be confided to 
oflficials elected by the people, while the law would be ad- 
ministered through expert assistants. 

The recommendation along this same line was rejected by 
the General Assembly in 1913 for reasons which have been 
presented in some detail. It was urged, for example, that 
permanent tax commissions always resulted in the increase 
of taxation. It has already been observed that administra- 
tive bodies of this character have nothing to do with the 
increase or decrease of taxes, which is a strictly legislative 
function vested in the people acting through their elected 
representatives."^^ In order to set at rest, however, the 
charge that tax commissions increase taxes, Table IV has 
been prepared showing the increase in State and local taxes 
for Iowa, Kansas, Wisconsin, and Minnesota. The figures 
for Minnesota are from the year 1910. Iowa is the only 
State in this list which does not have a permanent State tax 
commission. The reader will observe that taxes have in- 
creased at about the same ratio in Iowa as in the other 
States. The people have wanted large sums of money for 
schools and other legitimate purposes in all the States com- 
pared, and as a consequence the total amount of State and 
local taxes has increased very rapidly, particularly during 
the last three or four years. The 1919 figure for Wisconsin 
includes nearly $7,000,000 for soldiers' bonuses. Taking 
this into consideration the relative increase of State and 
local taxes is slightly greater in Iowa than in Kansas or 
Wisconsin. 

The charge was made in 1913 that the assessment of 

72 See above, p. 38. 



88 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



property on the basis of actual value would in itself tend to 
increase taxes, as the rate of levy would not be reduced to 
correspond with the increase in valuation. The reader will 
recall that in 1913 the permanent tax commission bill was 



Table IV 



State and Local Tax Levies '^^ 


Year 


Iowa 


Kansas 


Wisconsin 


Minnesota 


1905 


$26,061,977.03 


$17,880,377 


$22,896,641 




1906 


26,333,163.21 


18,485,744 


. 23,267,646 




1907 




20,497,601 


26,382,190 




1908 


29,248,378.54 


21,217,979 


28,332,045 




1909 




23,738,135 


29,287,107 




1910 


32,500,045.88 


24,516,113 


30,675,518 


$39,129,587.70 


1911 




27,776,736 


32,610,975 


42,052,936.29 


1912 


37,148,106.01 


27,806,060 


33,623,412 


44,710,899.72 


1913 


46,022,009.65 


29,483,883 


41,755,035 


51,861,251.51 


1914 


47,072,369.27 


30,988,122 


42,061,707 


53,302,834.63 


1915 


50,676,033.25 


33,849,567 


43,365,640 


57,686,850.31 


1916 


54,267,625.44 


35,788,531 


47,444,622 


62,567,685.93 


1917 


62,381,314.24 


41,179,180 


50,134,005 


71,027,186.44 


1918 


66,216,150.50 


44,543,634 


56,271,297 


78,273,899.74 


1919 


80,495,235.92 


55,613,474 


77,128,835 


103,442,509.96 



defeated, and that later aggregate assessments were greatly 
increased without a corresponding reduction of the levies, 
with the result that the people of Iowa had the privilege of 
paying from five to ten millions of dollars more taxes than 
had, in fact, been authorized. Had a permanent tax com- 
mission been established as recommended, tax levies would 
have been properly adjusted and this unnecessary increase 
in taxation avoided. 

Table V shows how tax levies in Kansas were very mate- 

ii Valuation and Taxes (compiled by the Auditor of State), 1919, p. 15; 
Ninth Biennial Eeport Wisconsin Tax Commission, 1918, p. 30 ; Seventh Heport 
to the Legislature iy the Tax Commission, Kansas, 1921, p. 25. 

Wisconsin figures for 1918-1919 were obtained by letter from the Wisconsin 
Tax Commission. The figures for Minnesota were also obtained by letter from 
the Minnesota Tax Commission. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



89 



rially reduced following the creation of a permanent tax 
commission and the assessment of property in that State on 
the basis of actual valuation. It will be observed, for ex- 
ample, that the average levy for all taxes in Kansas in 1919 
was about one-third of the levy in 1907 in spite of the fact 
that the total State and local taxes had in the meantime 
increased from $20,497,601 to $55,613,474. 



Table V 





Tax Levies 


IN Kansas, 1907-1919^4 




Average Levy 


Average Levy 


Average Levy 


Yeae 


FOR State Taxes 


FOR All Local Taxes 


FOR All Taxes 


1907 


.006456 


.0405078 


.0469638 


1908 


.0009 


.00775488 


.00865488 


1909 


.0012 


.00825267 


.00945267 


1910 


.00105 


.00785811 


.00890811 


1911 


.0012 


.00878812 


.00998812 


1912 


.0012 


.00891461 


.01011461 


1913 


.0012 


.00928995 


.01048995 


1914 


.0012 


.00983845 


.01103845 


1915 


.00125 


.01046334 


.01171334 


1916 


.0013 


.01069667 


.01199667 


1917 


.00145 


.01193488 


.01338488 


1918 


.00117 


.01182398 


.01299398 


1919 


.00175 


.0143655 


.0161783 



A County Assessor. — A county assessor with power and 
authority to carefully supervise the work of local assessors 
and to serve as a necessary connecting link between State 
and local authority in all matters relating to assessment 
and taxation should be provided. This can be done by 
making the county auditor ex officio county assessor or by 
creating a separate county office. The present General As- 
sembly could very appropriately resurrect the report of the 

74 Seventh Beport to the Legislature iy the Tax Commission^ Kansas, 1921, 
p. 27. 



90 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Special Tax Commission, 1912, and enact into law the care- 
fully prepared sections relating to the county assessor or, 
better still, the sections relating to the same subject in 
House File 644 of the Thirty-fifth General Assembly, 1913. 

The necessity of enlarging the assessment district is al- 
most everywhere recognized by practical authorities on 
taxation. After thirteen years' experience the Tax Com- 
mission of Kansas makes the following statement : 

What is needed is the creation of larger assessment districts, so 
that the varying judgment of a large number of workers may be 
eliminated. The township is now the unit assessment district, but 
the best results in the way of equality will be impossible of attain- 
ment until the county is made the unit of assessment and a single 
officer given power to assess all property in the county. In this 
way only can the assessment reflect the judgment of one person, 
and in only this way will it be possible to secure what is so neces- 
sary in distributing the tax burden properly, i. e., an equalization 
of the assessments.'^^ 

Separation of Revenue Sources. — The time has come 
when a partial — not a complete — separation of revenue 
sources should be made possible by the proper readjust- 
ments in constitutional and statutory law to the end that 
the revenue of the State as contrasted with the localities 
may be expanded to meet at least absolutely essential needs 
without increasing the State levy on general property. In 
fact, this much desired result can be obtained even with a 
substantial reduction of the State levy on general property 
if the General Assembly has the constructive vision and 
moral courage to adopt a modern tax system to take the 
place of the present antiquated system created in its main 
outlines in 1858 and given a few finishing touches in 1873. 

Table VI shows the increase in State revenue from the 

75 Seventh Beport to the Legislature hy the Tax Commission, Kansas, 1921, 
p. 40. 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



91 



counties — general property tax — the insurance tax, and 
the total revenue from all sources for the period 1901-1920. 
Except for the year 1905-1906 the data are given for bi- 
ennial periods. The reader will note the gradual increase 



Table VI 



State Revenue op Iowa, 1901-1920'^^ 


Biennial 


Taxes from 






Period 


Counties 


Insurance Tax 


Total Revenue 


1901-1903 


$4,188,812.08 


$475,484.11 


$6,177,855.50 


1903-1905 


4,925,213.12 


555,172.28 


6,600,347.71 


1905-1906 


2,481,369.26 


299,909.87 


3,466,150.66 


1906-1908 


5,304,450.60 


630,443.07 


7,247,078.01 


1908-1910 


5,910,579.34 


651,037.97 


8,388,280.93 


1910-1912 


6,112,228,33 


710,246.26 


9,270,324.89 


1912-1914 


6,719,449.18 


859,706.41 


11,524,770.80 


1914-1916 


8,081,771.12 


1,023,995.30 


14,632,601.26 


1916-1918 


12,137,786.80 


1,224,560.21 


20,800,704.00 


1918-1920 


16,660,670.66 


1,752,755.59 


34,133,874.19 



in State taxes from counties and also total revenues down 
to and including the biennial period 1914-1916. It is a 
striking fact that the revenue from the counties — State 
levy — more than doubled from 1914-1916 to 1918-1920 
and the total State revenue from all sources increased 
nearly 150 per cent during the same brief period. During 
the fiscal year 1919-1920 it should also be stated that the 
State revenue from counties was the large sum of $8,925,- 
761.12 which, however, was only 44.1 per cent of the total 
State revenue of $20,225,742.31. 

In making even a brief analysis of the sources of State 
revenue it should finally be observed that, of the total State 
revenue of $34,133,874.19 for the biennial period 1919-1920, 
slightly less than one-half was received from the counties — 

76 Biennial Eeport of the Treasurer of State, 1916-1918, pp. 32, 33. 
The figures for the biennial period, 1918-1920, were obtained by letter from 
the Treasurer of State, the same being submitted for each year separately. 



92 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



general tax levy — the balance of $17,473,203.53 consisting 
of the insurance tax $1,752,755.59, the collateral inheritance 
tax $1,224,228.63, and miscellaneous sources comprised al- 
most entirely of fees. 

The way to expand the State revenue and at the same 
time reduce the general State levy on property is to obtain 
very substantial revenues from: first, a direct inheritance 
tax ; second, a State income tax with reasonable exemptions 
provided to take the place of the present flat rate of five 
mills on moneys and credits ; third, an exclusive State tax 
on certain classes of property, the same to be in lieu of all 
other taxes both State and local ; and fourth, certain license 
taxes, for example on moving picture shows. At least six 
million dollars could have been provided from the first 
three of these sources in 1919-1920 which would have re- 
duced the State levy to about two mills. 

If a State income tax is not provided, the present flat rate 
of five mills on moneys and credits should be made an exclu- 
sive State tax, which would have added more than $2,000,000 
to the State treasury in 1920, and, in the judgment of the 
writer, about double that sum if the recommendations of 
the Special Tax Commission, 1912, had been enacted into 
law. An exclusive State tax on moneys and credits is pos- 
sible at the present time, but an exclusive State tax on cer- 
tain public service corporations is not possible except by 
amending Article VIII, Section 2 of the Constitution as was 
proposed by the Thirty-fifth General Assembly. Such an 
amendment when again proposed should contain a provi- 
sion which will guarantee that classes of property taxed 
exclusively by the State shall not be subject to a greater 
relative burden of taxation than the average rate levied on 
general property throughout the State. 

Modern State tax reform in Iowa based on long practical 
experience in many progressive States means, therefore, the 



HISTORY OF TAXATION IN IOWA 



93 



following : first, a permanent State tax commission ; second, 
county assessment or at least rigid county supervision of 
local assessment; third, a direct State inheritance tax; 
fourth, a State income tax to take the place of the flat rate 
of five mills on moneys and credits; and fifth, a constitu- 
tional amendment making possible the exclusive State taxa- 
tion of certain public service corporations at the average 
rate of tax levied on general property throughout the State. 
All of these reforms were either definitely recommended or 
suggested by the Special Tax Commission, 1912, a document 
which should be read carefully by the Committees on Ways 
and Means of the present General Assembly. 

John E. Brindley 

The Iowa State College op 
Agriculture and Mechanic Arts 
Ames Iowa 



THE OPERATION OF THE PRIMARY ELECTION 
LAW IN IOWA 



The Iowa primary election law was enacted in 1907; it 
was first used in 1908 ; and it has been the means of nomi- 
nating State and local officers seven times. In view of 
recent demands for the repeal or modification of this law it 
may be worth while at this time to review its fundamental 
features and discuss its actual operation. 

SUMMAEY OF THE LAW 

The chief features of the Iowa primary law, as originally 
adopted and subsequently amended, may be summarized as 
follows : 

1. The law is compulsory and State-wide for all State 
and local offices (except judicial and municipal offices) 
filled by popular vote at the general election in November. 

2. It provides for a popular choice of candidates for 
presidential electors and United States Senators. Dele- 
gates to the county conventions and party county committee- 
men are also chosen at the primary. 

3. All parties participate in the primary on the same 
day, at the same place, and use the same ballot box. 

4. Judges and clerks of the primary election are chosen 
in the same manner as for general elections and with the 
same compensation. 

5. The Australian ballot is employed — each party hav- 
ing a separate ballot — with an arrangement for the rota- 
tion of the names of candidates. 

6. Party affiliation is determined by the elector's oral 
choice of ballot, which choice is made a matter of record. 

94 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



95 



But party affiliation can be changed by filing a declaration 
of change with the county auditor ten days prior to the pri- 
mary election, or by taking an oath, if challenged when 
offering to vote, that one has in good faith changed his 
party affiliation. 

7. Candidates for nomination must file nomination pa- 
pers from thirty to forty days prior to the primary election, 
depending upon the office sought. These nomination papers 
must contain the signatures of a certain per cent of the 
candidate's party vote, depending upon the office sought. 
Nomination papers of a candidate for United States Sena- 
tor, Elector at Large, or a State office must have the signa- 
tures of one per cent of his party vote in each of at least ten 
counties and in the aggregate not less than one-half of one 
per cent of the total vote of his party in the State as shown 
by the last general election. A candidate chosen from a 
district composed of more than one county must have the 
signatures of two per cent of his party vote in at least one- 
half of the counties and in the aggregate not less than one 
per cent of his party vote in the district. Candidates for 
offices filled by the voters of the county must have the signa- 
tures of two per cent of their party vote in the county. 

8. To secure the nomination a candidate must receive at 
least thirty-five per cent of all the votes cast by his party 
for such office. The choice in case of a tie vote is deter- 
mined by the board of canvassers by lot ; and vacancies are 
filled by the county, district, or State convention if they 
occur before such conventions are held ; if afterwards, they 
are filled by the party committee for county, district, or 
State. 

9. Delegates to county conventions, as well as members 
of the county central committee, are chosen at the primary 
election. The county convention, composed of the delegates 
chosen in the various voting precincts, is empowered to 



/ 



96 



IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



make nominations of candidates for the party for any office 
to be filled by the voters of a county where no candidate re- 
ceives the prescribed majority at the preceding primary 
election. The county convention selects delegates to nomi- 
nate the judges of the district and supreme courts, and it 
also selects delegates to State and district conventions. 
Moreover, any of these conventions may adopt resolutions 
or platforms. 

10. The nomination of candidates by petition is per- 
mitted under certain conditions. It was in this way that 
the names of Progressive candidates were placed upon the 
official ballot in 1912. 

11. Penalties are imposed for misconduct on the part of 
officials or for certain corrupt practices. 

Such in brief are the provisions of the Iowa primary 
election law. When enacted, primary legislation was one 
of the local issues upon which the **Standpat" and Pro- 
gressive" wings of the Republican party in Iowa were di- 
vided. The Progressives heralded the passage of the law as 
one of the greatest political reforms ever accomplished in 
Iowa; while the Standpatters declared that it was passed 
only to serve the ambitions of leading Progressives and that 
it would never work well in practice. The first use of the 
law in 1908 was made the occasion for one of the bitterest 
political contests in the history of the Republican party in 
Iowa. 

At its first session following the adoption of the primary 
law the General Assembly in 1909 amended the act in seven- 
teen different sections. Most of these amendments, how- 
ever, did not materially change the character of the law, as 
they related chiefly to procedure or were designed to make 
certain features of the statute more explicit. Subsequently, 
however, but few changes have been made in the law — 
indeed, none of prime importance. 



PRI^IARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



97 



OBJECTIONS TO THE PEIMARY 

Since primary election legislation was a vital issue in 
State politics for a period of over ten years prior to its 
enactment, it is not surprising that biennially, following the 
primary election, many of the arguments originally ad- 
vanced against it, as well as new ones arising out of the 
operation of the statute, were advanced as reasons why the 
primary law should be repealed or at least very materially 
modified. In 1920 it appears that the attacks upon this 
legislation were more vigorous and determined than usual. 
In fact, so wide-spread was the discussion immediately fol- 
lowing the primary of that year that both the Republican 
and Democratic parties felt called upon to make mention of 
the law in their State platforms. 

Thus, the Republican State convention of 1920 declared 
that "actual experience has demonstrated that great evils 
have arisen in the use of the present primary law of this 
State. It has been given a fair trial and found to be un- 
wieldy, expensive and unsatisfactory. We favor its repeal, 
and the substitution therefor of such primary legislation as 
will guarantee to all voters the full right to take part and 
be heard in the councils of their party, and will provide for 
them an opportunity for free and fair expression as to both 
candidates and measures. ' ' 

Judging from newspaper comments it is doubtful whether 
this declaration to repeal and substitute has met with the 
approval of the rank and file of the Republicans of Iowa. 
Some papers declare that the primary should be correcter^ 
and retained; others urge caution in approaching the sub- 
ject, lest matters be made worse. 

The Democratic State convention of the same year was 
outspoken in its adherence to the primary system: it de- 
clared that repeal would be a backward step, and charged 
the Republicans with a desire to return to the old and dis- 

VOL. XIX — 7 



98 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



credited system of party bosses. The Democrats further 
declared : ' ' We believe the primary law should be amended 
to remove the existing cumbersome provisions and so as to 
furnish a practical method for obtaining the expressed will 
of the individual voter of each political party and that 
legislative restraints upon the prevailing corrupt practices 
be enacted. We believe that to take from the people the 
privilege of selecting candidates for public ofi&ces by a well- 
regulated primary system is a violation of the true prin- 
ciples of our government". 

Since neither party has indicated specifically wherein the 
primary law of this State has failed in practice, or sug- 
gested specifically what changes and amendments should be 
made, the writer of this paper will undertake (1) to show 
as far as possible how the Iowa primary election law has 
worked in practice during the past twelve years and (2) to 
suggest the changes which are believed to be desirable. 

NUMBEE OF CANDIDATES 

At the time of the enactment of the Iowa primary law it 
was predicted that, owing to the large number of office 
seekers, the voters would be so confused and disgusted that 
the system would not accomplish its purpose. Now, how- 
ever, one sometimes hears the complaint that there are not 
enough candidates to make the primary interesting. The 
facts regarding the number of candidates for the offices of 
United States Senator and Congressman and the State 
offices, exclusive of Eailroad Commissioner, appearing in 
the primary from 1908 to 1920 are shown in Tables I and II. 

From an examination of Table I it appears that nomina- 
tions for the office of United States Senator have been made 
five times under the primary election law. Only once, how- 
ever, has the nomination been uncontested in the Republican 
primary; but never have there been more than two candi- 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



99 



Number op Candidates for Various Offices 
Filled by Statewide Vote, 1908-1920 


1 Democratic Primaries 


NOixoaaiSNi 
onand; .lo 
luaoiiaiNiaadiis 




rH 


rH 






rH 




w 




i-i 


(M 


IH 


i-i 


rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


aaaflsvaaj, 


iH 


1-1 


rH 




rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


aoiianv 


iH 


i-l 


ea 




rH 


rH 


rH 


o 


aivig ao 
iaviaaoag 


iH 


iH 


iH 




rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


aoNaaAOO 
iLNViiaiiiai'i 


tH 


iH 


iH 


(M 


rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


HOfiaaAOf) 


iH 


M 


OQ 


(M 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 
rH 


aoivijag 
'S 'n 


T— 1 




i-l 


IM 




rH 


rH 


eo 


Republican Primaries 


KoiionaiSNi 
iMaaNaiNiaaang 


<M 


t~ 


iH 










rH 


^va3^Ia^ 
iaNaoxiy 


iH 


CO 


iH 


rH 


to 


l-H 


CO 


rH 


aaaflsvaax 
aivig 


i-l 


iH 


iH 


rH 


CO 


oa 


cq 


rH 
rH 


aoxiaav 
axvxg 


(M 


iH 


Tt< 


lO 


rH 


rH 


■* 


00 
rH 


axvig ao 
iavxaaoag 


1-1 


iH 


CO 


iH 


ca 


T)< 


cq 


rH 


XNVMaxaaiT 
aoitaaAoa 




iH 


(M 


cq 


CO 


rH 




«o 

rH 


aoNaaAoa 


CO 


(M 


CO 


CO 




rH 




O 

cq 


aoxvNag 
'S 'Q. 






(M 


ca 




rH 


oq 


Oi 




1st 1 
Primary 
1908 


2nd 
Primary 
1910 


3rd 
Primary 
1912 


4th 
Primary 
1914 


5th 
Primary 
1916 


6th 
Primary 
1918 ■ 


7th 
Primary 
1920 


Total 
Number 



100 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



dates. In the Democratic primary only once have there 
been two candidates for the nomination. Again, by refer- 
ence to Table I it will be seen that only three times has the 
number of candidates for any office in the Eepublican pri- 
mary exceeded four ; and only once have they exceeded two 
in the Democratic primaries. 

By reference to Table II it will be seen that nominations 
for the office of Congressman are less sought after than are 
nominations for the State offices; only three times at the 
seven primaries in the eleven congressional districts has 
the number of candidates exceeded three. In the primary 
of 1916 the Democrats failed to offer any candidate in the 
second and fifth districts; while in the primary of 1920 
seven out of the eleven districts were without Democratic 
candidates. Only in the eleventh district have the Demo- 
crats had a fighting chance since 1914 — which no doubt 
accounts for the two Democratic candidates in that district 
in 1920. In seven of the districts the situation looked too 
hopeless to risk a campaign. On the other hand, the Re- 
publicans have failed only once (in 1912 in the second dis- 
trict) to put a candidate for Congress in the field. 

The victory of the Democrats in the second congressional 
district in 1910 permitted the incumbent to seek renomina- 
tion uncontested in 1912. In 1914 the Democratic incumbent 
died, and it appears that two Democrats contested the nomi- 
nation that year. Democratic victories in the third and 
sixth districts in 1912 brought out only one candidate in 
the third district and two in the sixth district in 1914 ; while 
the Democratic victory in the eleventh district in 1914 
brought no contest in 1916. The loss of the district to the 
Democrats at the general election of 1916 brought out two 
candidates for nomination on the Democratic ticket in the 
eleventh district in the years 1918 and 1920. Thus the polit- 
ical ethics of the situation would seem to be that (barring 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 101 



Number op Candidates in Congressional 
Districts in Iowa, 1908-1920 


Democratic Primaries 


iOiHXSiCE 

Hill 


1— 1 




IH 


rH 


rH 




IM 1 


o 

rH 


loiaisia 
HIOT 


ca 


iH 


rH 


(M 


rH 


rH 


o 1 


00 


Hi6 


iH 




rH 


(N 


rH 


rH 


o 


00 


loiaisia 

HIS 


<M 


CO 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


o 


Oi 


iOIHlSId 
Hii 


IH 


<M 


(M 


eci 


rH 


rH 


o 


a> 


XOIHlSId 
H19 


i-l 


fH 


CO 


cq 


ea 


CO 


rH 


CO 


ioiaisia 

HXS 


1— 1 


rH 


rH 


rH 


o 


(M 


o j ?o 






iH 


<M 


rH 


rH 


iH 


rH 


05 


loiHisia; 
aas 


1-1 


Cd 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


O 






(M 


(M 


rH 


(M 


O 


rH 


O 


00 


xoiaisia 
xsi 


iH 


iH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH j 


Repubucan Primaries 


xoiaxsia 

HXIT 


(M 


iH 




rH 


CO 


CO 


rH 


CO 

rH 


xoiaxsiQ 

HXOX 


(M 


(M 


Ofl 


rH 


(M 


(M 


rH 


rH 


xoiaxsia 

HX6 


1H 




rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


xoiaxsia 

HX8 


(M 


(M 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 




xoiaxsia 

HXi 


CO 


(M 


rH 


CO 


cq 


rH 


rH 


CO 
rH 


xoiaxsia 

HX9 


O} 


rH 


oq 




rH 


<M 




to 


xoiaxsia 
Hxg 


<M 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


rH 


00 


xoiaxsia 

HXf' 


i-H 


rH 


(M 


rH 


rH 


CO 


rH 


o 


xoiaxsia 
aag 


(M 


rH 


(N 


CO 


rH 


IN 


rH 


Total 1 
Number of | 14 7 12 
Candidates 1 1 1 


xoiaxsia 
aNg 


iH 


rH 


O 


rH 


rH 


CI 


rH 


xoiaxsia 

XSI 


fH 




oq 


rH 




(N 






1st 
Primary 
1908 


2nd 
Primary 
1910 


3rd 
Primary 
1912 


4th 
Primary 
1914 


5th 
Primary 
1916 


6th 

Primary 
1918 


7th 
Primary 
1920 



102 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



factional disturbances within the party) the incumbent is 
entitled to renomination without contest. To be sure, the 
man in office is usually successful in building up an " organ- 
ization" which protects him against competitors. When, 
however, a Congressman voluntarily retires from the field, 
as did Congressman Kennedy in the first district in 1920, 
the aspirants for nomination are usually numerous. Up to 
1914 in the sixth congressional district there was a fair 
fighting chance for either party to win the election ; and so 
the largest number of contests in both parties appear in 
this district. , 

In the Republican primaries for State offices there is not 
the same tendency to allow the incumbent to seek renomi- 
nation without contest. On the other hand, the Democratic 
prospects being hopeless, contests in that party for nomi- 
nations for State offices are not frequent in occurrence. 

FACTORS IN THE SIZE OF THE PRIMARY VOTE 

The number of candidates for nomination at the primary 
does not necessarily determine the size of the vote cast. 
There are other factors which influence the size of the vote 
to which attention will be directed. From an examination 
of Table I it is apparent that the nomination for Governor 
has been uncontested but once in the Republican and four 
times in the Democratic primary. At the same time it ap- 
pears that three contestants for the Republican nomination 
for Governor in 1914 polled nearly 40,000 votes less than 
did the same number of contestants in 1908 and 1912 ; while 
four contestants in 1916 brought out 14,000 more votes than 
did the four candidates in 1920. By comparing the per- 
centage of the general election vote cast at the primaries it 
is apparent that the other State offices share the fortune of 
the head of the State ticket (see Tables III and V). 

What then are the factors which influence the size of the 



PRIJiIARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



103 



o 

C5 



CO 
o 

05 



I I: 



o 

<! 

a 
o 



056X 
HXi 



8T6T 
HX9 



< 



9I6I 
iavKiad 

HlC 



fl6X 

iHYKiaa: 



ZT6X 
iayj^iad 
aas 



0T6T 
iavTCiaa: 



806T 
iavKiaj 
1ST 



<1 



a 

H 
O 

o 



(a 



o 

Q 

12; 
< 



;5 



0S6T 
iavTCiad 

HXL 



8T6T 
iavHiad 

HX9 



9T6T 
AavKiaa: 

HXS 



tT6T 
iavKiad 

HXl» 



ST6T 
Aavmad 
aag 



0T6T 

iavKiad 
aNS 



8061 
iavKiaj 

XSI 



^ a. 
^ C 



5 ^- 



c3 

o 



§ i 
* s 

.2 o 



e4H 



>2 



J2 5 



q-l '^3 



EH i> 



-2 £ 



!z;o 



"1 U 



\ 



104 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



primary vote? The figures in Table III largely tell the 
story. The first trial of the Iowa primary law was in 1908, 
a presidential election year. Since 1908 only twice (in 1916 
and 1920) has the primary vote exceeded that year. To be 
sure the population of Iowa, rated at 2,404,021 in 1920, 
shows an increase of 179,250 over that of 1910. Estimating 
one-fifth of this increase as voters, the total increase, even 
if all were Republicans, would be 10,000 votes short of 
the increase in the Republican primary vote between 
1908 and 1916. As a general rule presidential election 
years seem to bring out more candidates for State ofi&ces 
than do the off years, and the number of votes cast 
seems to rise and fall accordingly in the Republican pri- 
maries (see Table III). The same seems to be true of 
the Democratic primaries, except in 1920, a year which 
marks the lowest ebb of Democratic interest in the primary 
nominations. Thus it would appear that national politics 
stimulates an unusual interest in State politics. 

The minor State offices also give evidence that it is not 
the number of candidates which determines the size of the 
vote cast. Thus three candidates for the nomination of 
Secretary of State in 1912 polled only 1,683 more votes than 
did one candidate in 1908, and two candidates in 1916 polled 
68,502 more votes than did four candidates in 1918. Five 
candidates for the nomination of State Auditor in 1914 re- 
ceived 40,062 fewer votes than two candidates in 1908 and 
22,861 fewer than one candidate in 1910. Again, four candi- 
dates in 1912 received 35,106 more votes than did five candi- 
dates in 1914, and one candidate in 1916 received 57,468 
more votes than did five candidates in 1914 and 63,534 more 
than one candidate in 1918. Four candidates in 1920 polled 
the largest vote ever cast for the office of Auditor. 

The office of State Treasurer has been the least contested 
in the primary of any State office on the Republican ticket. 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 105 



In the first four primaries there was only one candidate for 
the nomination, the fifth had three, and the sixth and sev- 
enth each two. Here again the number of contestants can 
not be said to have determined the number of votes cast. 
The vote rises with each presidential election year and falls 
with each off year irrespective of the number of candidates. 

The office of Attorney General has ranked third in the 
number of contestants in the Republican primaries, being 
one less than State Auditor (see Table I). One candidate 
in 1908 polled 6,378 more votes than three in 1910 ; and one 
in 1912 polled 32,348 more votes than one in 1914. Six 
candidates in 1916 polled the highest vote ever cast for the 
office of Attorney General in any of the seven primaries. 
Three candidates for the office in 1920 polled 10,345 fewer 
votes than did the six in 1916 ; and yet this was 76,390 more 
than the one candidate received in 1918. 

Nominations for the office of Superintendent of Public 
Instruction have been made only four times under the Iowa 
primary law; and yet no State office has attracted more 
contestants (see Tables I and IV). Seven candidates for 
the nomination in 1910 polled 15,245 fewer votes than two 
candidates in 1908. One candidate in 1912 fell only 303 
votes short of the number polled for seven candidates in 
1910; and yet four candidates in 1918 polled the smallest 
vote ever cast for that office in a primary. Thus, it seems 
clear that presidential election years stimulate political in- 
terest all along the line and bring out a larger primary vote. 

No doubt personal popularity, vigorous campaigning, and 
position on the ballot also have an influence on the number 
of votes cast. At the same time there is marked evidence of 
a tendency for the vote to decline from the head of the 
ticket down. Contests usually increase the vote for the 
offices contested. Since the people are more interested in 
the office of Governor than any other, it is not surprising to 



106 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Table IV 



Number of Republican Candidates for State Offices, 
THE Order of the Offices on the Ballot, and the Rank of 
THE Offices According to Number op Votes for Each 


Office 


O 
>J 

« < 
O o 




1ST 

Primary 
1908 


>< 
te 
< 

Cli 


3rd 

Primary 
1912 


4TH 

Primary 
1914 


5TH 

Primary 
1916 


6th 

Primary 
1918 


7th 

Primary 
1920 


Average 


Governor 


1st 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


3 


2 


3 


3 


4 


1 


4 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


1st 


1st 


1st 


1st 


1st 


2nd 


1st 


1st 


Lieutenant 
Governor 


2nd 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


3 


1 


2 


2 


3 


1 


4 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


2nd 


2nd 


3rd 


2nd 


2nd 


4th 


2nd 


2nd 


Secretary 
of State 


3rd 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


1 


1 


3 


1 


2 


4 


2 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


5th 


3rd 


2nd 


4th 


4th 


1st 


3rd 


3rd 


State 
Auditor 


4th 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


2 


1 


4 


5 


1 


1 


4 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


3rd 


5th 


4th 


3rd 


6th 


3rd 


5th 


4th 


State 
Treasurer 


5th 


Number 
or 

Candidates 


1 


1 

-L 


1 


1 


3 


2 


2 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


6th 


6th 


5th 


5th 


5th 


6th 


6th 


6th 


Attorney 
General 


6th 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


1 


3 


1 


1 


6 


1 


3 




Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


7th 


4th 


6th 


6th 


3rd 


7th 


4th 


5th 


Superin- 
tendent 
of Public 
Instruction 


7th 


Number 
of 

Candidates 


2 


7 


1 






4 






Eank in 
Votes 
Cast 


4th 


7th 


7th 






5th 







PRIMAKY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



find that office ranking first in the number of votes received 
in all except one of the Republican primaries (see Tables 
IV and V). The exception was in the year 1918 (which was 
a war year) when political interest was at its lowest ebb. 
In the seven primaries other State offices, though subject to 
fluctuations, rank in the order of their positions on the bal- 
lot, with the exception of the offices of State Treasurer and 
Attorney General — the latter ranking fifth in number of 
votes cast although it stands sixth on the ballot (see Table 
IV). 

The office of Secretary of State is the only office outside 
that of Governor to have obtained first rank in the number 
of votes received in a primary election. Although the office 
of Secretary of State is third in order on the ballot (see 
Table IV), in 1908 when the nomination was uncontested it 
fell to fifth place. In 1910, however, a single candidate 
ranked third, thus maintaining his ballot place. In 1912 
when there were two candidates for the office of Lieutenant 
Governor and three for that of Secretary of State, the latter 
ranked second in the number of votes received. In the years 
1914 and 1916 the office of Secretary of State ranked fourth 
in the primary. In 1914 there was but one candidate for the 
nomination, and in 1916 there were two; at the same time 
in these two primary elections there were lively contests for 
the nomination of Governor and Lieutenant Governor. In 
1918 the office of Secretary of State ranked first in the pri- 
mary (see Table IV). In this year, however, there were 
four contestants for the nomination of Secretary of State ; 
while the nominations for Governor and Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor were uncontested. In 1920 the office of Secretary of 
State resumed its ballot rank of third place. 

Nomination for the office of State Auditor has brought 
forth many candidates, ranking in this respect next to that 
of Governor. The office of Auditor of State holds fourth 



I 



108 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Table V 



Vote of Each Party at the Primary Compared with Vote 
OF THE Party at the General Election, Given by Percentage 







1ST 

Primary 
1908 


2nd 

Primary 
1910 


3rd 

Primary 
1912 


4th 

Primary 
1914 


5th 

Primary 
1916 


6th 

Primary 
1918 


7th 

Primary 
1920 


Average 
Per Cent 


Governor 


Eep. 


71 
1 ± 


oO 


Qfi 




79 


DO 


4.1 
rr J. 


79 


Dem. 






O X 


4.1 


4.0 


91 




28 


Lieutenant 
Governor 


Eep. 


fi7 


t o 


Q1 

«7 J. 


f51 


Do 


o t 


OO 




Dem. 






32 


42 


41 


27 


15 


30 


Secretary 
of State 


Eep. 


0^ 




vo 


"^7 


QO 


fi9 


^9 


DO 


Dem. 




29 


31 


45 


42 


25 


14 


31 


State 
Auditor 


Eep. 


DO 


71 








tiD 


^9 

O 4^ 


uo 


Dem. 


24 


26 


30 


42 


42 


29 


15 


30 


State 
Treasurer 


Eep. 


62 


71 


88 


57 


66 


55 


31 


62 


Dem. 


25 


29 


31 


43 


41 


27 


15 


30 


Attorney 
General 


Eep. 


62 


75 


77 


55 


69 


54 


32 


61 


Dem. 


25 


21 


30 


40 


41 


27 


15 


29 


Superintendent 
of i^ublie 
Instruction 


Eep. 


63 


72 


75 






58 






Dem. 


23 


28 


30 






27 







PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



place on the primary ballot, and its rank, determined by the 
number of votes received in the primary election, has varied 
with the number of contestants. With but one exception 
the larger the number of contestants the higher the office 
has ranked above its ballot position; and the lowest rank 
the office has attained below its ballot position has, with one 
exception, been when the nomination was uncontested (see 
Table V). 

It has already been stated that the nomination for the 
office of State Treasurer has been the least contested of any 
State office here considered. Twice, when the nomination 
was uncontested, the office ranked below its ballot position, 
while even three contestants for the nomination in 1916, the 
largest number ever offered, did not result in raising the 
office above its ballot rank in the final count (see Table IV). 

The office of Attorney General ranks in importance and 
influence next to that of the Governor; and so, one would 
think that the nominations for this office would arouse a 
wide-spread interest at the primaries. In the number of 
contestants for the nomination, this office is third. In spite 
of the low position which it has been assigned on the pri- 
mary ballot (being sixth, see Table IV), the voters have 
manifested an unusual interest in this office whenever it 
has been hotly contested. In the first primary of 1908, with 
only one candidate for the nomination, the office fell one 
place below its ballot rank in the count. In 1910 when there 
were three candidates in the field, the office ranked fourth 
in number of votes. In 1912 and 1914, with only one candi- 
date on the primary ballot, the office ranked sixth in the 
count. But in 1916, when there were six candidates for the 
nomination, the office ranked third, which is the highest 
rank it has attained in the seven primaries. When there 
was but one candidate in 1918 the office dropped to seventh 
place in the count. In 1920 when there were three candi- 
dates in the field the office again ranked fourth. 



110 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Unfortunately for the purposes of this study, nominations 
for the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction have 
not been made biennially at all the primaries — as in the 
case of other State offices herein considered. In 1913 this 
office was made appointive, with a three-year term ; and in 
1917 it was again made elective, but with a four-year term. 
Nominations for Superintendent have been made only four 
times at the primaries. The rule which seems to have gov- 
erned the ranking of other State offices — that is, that nu- 
merous contestants tend to raise the office above its position 
on the ballot — does not seem to hold in the case of the 
office of Superintendent of Public Instruction. This may 
be due to lack of interest in this office on the part of the 
voters, or it may be an acknowledgment of their inability to 
judge the professional standing and ability of the candi- 
dates, who from the very nature of their work are likely to 
have been less prominently before the public eye than other 
candidates in the primary. By referring to Table IV, it 
will be seen that two candidates for the nomination of 
Superintendent brought the office to fourth rank in 1908. 
In 1910, however, seven candidates failed to raise the office 
above seventh place, its ballot position; nor did one candi- 
date fare any better in 1914. In 1916, with only three con- 
tests in the Eepublican primary and with four candidates 
seeking the nomination of Superintendent, the office ranked 
only fifth in the returns. It seems impossible to arouse 
intense popular interest in this office. 

ESTIMATE OF THE VOTING AT THE PRIMARY 

The Iowa primary has frequently been judged by the size 
of the vote cast, or to be more accurate, by the percentage 
of the vote cast at the general election. These percentages 
are shown in Table V. It is hardly necessary to observe 
that the low percentage in 1920 was due to the voting of the 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



women at the general election, while men only participated 
in the primary in June. Likewise the high percentage in 
1912 is explained by the split in the Eepublican party 
through the organization of the Progressive party after the 
primary had been held. In the Republican primaries, how- 
ever, these percentages compare very favorably with the 
percentage of males of voting age who participate in the 
general and special elections. 

According to the census of 1910 there were 607,365 males 
of voting age in Iowa; and yet the total vote cast by all 
parties for the office of Governor in that year was only 
412,964 or sixty-eight per cent of those eligible. In 1915 the 
State census credited Iowa with 684,639 males of voting 
age; but only seventy-five and six-tenths per cent of these 
voted for presidential electors in 1916. Only fifty per cent 
of those eligible voted on the equal suffrage amendment in 
1916, and only sixty-two and four-tenths per cent voted on 
the prohibition amendment in 1917. 

Granting that it would be highly desirable to have a 
larger per cent of the voters participate in the primaries, 
what evidence is there to support the charge that most of 
those who do vote, vote unintelligently? Our early experi- 
ence with the primary seemed to show that the alphabetical 
arrangement of names on the ballot favored those who were 
at the top. To remedy this situation, the system of rotation 
referred to above was adopted. It is now said that candi- 
dates for nomination knowing in advance the counties in 
which their names will be at the head of the list, devote their 
campaign energy to the other counties, feeling assured that 
wherever their names are first they will win without effort. 
The writer has not had at his command the data to either 
prove or disprove this assertion. That many electors will 
vote for the candidate at the top of the list is probably true, 
when all the candidates are wholly unknown to them; but 



112 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



that a fairly intelligent discrimination is exercised by the 
voters is evidenced by Table IV which shows that contests 
tend to raise the rank of the office in the primary election 
returns above its position on the ballot. That the total vote 
for each office tends to diminish from the top of the ballot 
downwards in Republican primaries is easily seen in the 
percentages in Table V. At the same time the exceptions 
prove intelligent and purposeful voting. 

The public is not greatly concerned about who is nomi- 
nated for the minor State offices ; and so, unless the candi- 
dates for these offices are well known in the State or conduct 
a vigorous publicity campaign, the voter is apt for want of 
knowledge to pass the office altogether or risk a vote on the 
one at the head of the list. 

EXPENSES OF CANDIDATES AT THE PEIMAEY 

A rather common indictment of the Iowa primary law is 
that it promotes the candidacy of persons of wealth. That 
is to say, in order to make himself known to the people of 
the State a candidate must conduct an expensive campaign. 
Persons of considerable wealth can conduct such a cam- 
paign ; but persons of small incomes must go heavily in debt 
to keep in the race. The winning candidate who has in- 
curred a primary campaign debt may be tempted to recoup 
himself by irregular and illegal means; while the losing 
candidate may find himself bankrupt. Campaigning in a 
primary for a State office is largely a matter of advertising, 
since the candidates can meet personally but a very small 
percentage of their constituents. If the press is dominated 
by special interests or obedient to the dictates of party man- 
agers a great deal of publicity that does not take the form 
of paid political advertisements may be given to "pet" 
candidates. 

The cost of candidacy is often very large — larger than 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA II3 



the candidates can afford. But the answer to this objection 
to the primary is that the minor offices should not be on the 
elective list at all. The question whether the primary keeps 
the best men out of office because they are unwilling to enter 
a primary campaign ; or whether the candidates nominated 
by the primary are no worse than those chosen under the 
convention system are questions upon which it is difficult to 
get any trustworthy data. The people have made serious 
mistakes in selecting candidates by the primary system; 
nor did the convention system pick all good men. Self 
seeking men have found that the primary system affords an 
opportunity to make a canvass for votes which would have 
been impossible under the convention system. On the other 
hand, the convention system was so bound to party regu- 
larity that the independent and aggressive candidates were 
not always rewarded with party nominations. 

EFFECT OF THE PEIMAEY UPON PARTY ORGANIZATION 

There is much evidence going to show that the primary 
has not been a menace to party organization. Indeed, party 
organization really controls the primary to a considerable 
extent. In every State where the primary system has been 
developed there has been a strong tendency toward pre- 
primary caucuses in which a list of * * available ' ' candidates 
is made up by the leaders. In theory any one is free to 
circulate his own petition and contest any nomination ; but 
in practice it is usually futile to oppose the organization 
slate unless public sentiment is aroused. In fact the pri- 
mary often amounts to a party referendum on the nominees 
previously determined upon by the party leaders. A 
heavier responsibility rests upon the slate makers in the 
primary election than in the convention. If the nominees are 
unworthy and are rejected by the voters, the slate makers 
are discredited; whereas when the nominations are once 



VOL. XIX — 8 



114 IOWA JOURxMAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



made party regularity may make possible the election of 
undesirable candidates — particularly if they appear on the 
majority party ticket. In such cases success at the polls is 
always a vindication of the convention's judgment. 

PEEAEEANGED SLATES AT THE PEIMAEY 

It has frequently been said that the minority party par- 
ticipates in the primary of the majority party. A glance at 
Table I suggests that it is no mere accident that the Demo- 
crats have had only ten contests for the State offices listed 
in the seven primaries, while the Eepublicans have had 
twenty-eight. In the last three primaries the Democrats 
have not had a single contest for a State office. The party 
organization makes up the slate of those who are to repre- 
sent the party in the primary, and where there are no con- 
tests it is a foregone conclusion that these persons will also 
represent the party in the general election. 

In commenting upon the primary of 1920, the Iowa Forum 
declared that "The Iowa primaries on the seventh of June 
were a perfunctory matter on the Democratic side and re- 
sulted in the confirmation of the slate previously agreed 
upon in party conferences. ' ' Judging from a study of the 
primary ballots of 1920 in sixty-eight counties the Demo- 
crats had no candidate in the primary for more than fifty 
per cent of the county offices, while for over fifty per cent of 
the county offices only one candidate appeared in the Re- 
publican primaries. 

There are no published official statistics that the writer 
could find which would throw any light on the number of 
contests for local officers ; and so, letters were addressed to 
all of the county auditors requesting a sample copy of the 
Republican and Democratic primary ballots for the year 
1920. Sixty-eight of the ninety-nine officers addressed sent 
in the ballots as requested. From the ballots of these sixty- 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 115 



eight counties Table VI was compiled, showing the number 
of contestants for each of the county offices (except super- 
visors) in the counties reporting. It appears that in the 
Republican primary of 1920 three counties of the sixty- 
eight had no candidate for the office of State Representa- 
tive ; thirty-one had but one candidate ; twenty-three had but 
two; only nine had three; one had four; and one had six. 
On the other hand, the hopelessness of the Democratic situ- 
ation is shown by the fact that thirty-two counties had no 
candidate for State Representative ; thirty had but one ; and 
only six had two. 

The Republicans failed to make nominations for fifty-one 
county offices in the sixty-eight counties, while the Demo- 
crats failed to make nomination for two hundred and eighty- 
four offices. Three hundred and nineteen offices were un- 
contested (having but one candidate) in the Republican 
primary, and two hundred and thirty-three had but one 
candidate in the Democratic primary. Thus there were 
three hundred and seventy offices out of five hundred and 
forty-four with only one candidate or no candidate in the 
Republican primaries, and five hundred and seventeen in 
the Democratic primaries. In only one case did the number 
of counties having contests exceed those without contests. 
Thus it is apparent that in the primaries of the year 1920 
most of the county offices, even in the majority party 
primaries, were uncontested, indicating that the party 
organization had fair control or that those aspiring to be 
candidates did not feel strong enough to dislodge incum- 
bents in office seeking re-nomination. 

lEEEGULAEITT OF PAETY VOTING AT THE PEIMAEY 

Why is the Democratic primary vote so small? Why is 
the percentage of Democrats voting in the primary so much 
smaller than that of Republicans ? Are the Democrats par- 



116 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Table VI 



Statistics Concerning Number of Candidates 
AT the Primaby Election in June, 1920, in Sixty-Eight 
Counties in Iowa. Figures Indicate Number of Counties 







m 
t, 

< 

m 

g K 
< "< 
Eh H 


p s 
05 


County 
Trbasueee 


M 
oso 

H 

iJ fa 


County 
Sheriff 


County 
Recorder 


County 
Attorney 


County 
Coronek 


< 



No 

Candidate 


Eep. 


3 


2 


1 


3 


3 


6 


3 


30 


51 


Dem. 


32 


32 


44 


34 


22 


34 


41 


45 


284 


One 

Candidate 


Eep. 


31 


51 


50 


45 


26 


43 


45 


28 


319 


Dem. 


30 


35 


23 


33 


30 


33 


26 


23 


233 


Two 

Candidates 


Rep. 


23 


11 


11 


17 


15 


13 


13 


9 


112 


Dem. 


6 




1 


1 


11 


1 


1 




21 


Three 
Candidates 


Rep. 


9 


4 


6 


3 


10 


5 


7 




44 


Dem. 




1 






3 








4 


Four 

Candidates 


Rep. 


1 








11 


1 






13 


Dem. 










1 








1 


Five 

Candidates 


Rep. 










2 






1 


3 


Dem. 










1 








1 


Six 

Candidates 


Rep. 


1 








1 








2 


Dem. 






















PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 117 



ticipating in the Republican primaries and helping to name 
Eepublican candidates ? 

It is probably true that some Democrats do vote in Re- 
publican primaries, but the writer is not convinced that it is 
a general and widespread practice. The statistics of votes 
cast in primary and general elections convince the writer 
that the Democrats, realizing that Iowa is a one-party State, 
simply do not vote at the primaries but stay at home (see 
Table V). By turning to Table III it will be seen that the 
largest Democratic vote came in the years 1914 and 1916. 
This may readily be accounted for by the split in the Re- 
publican ranks in 1912, which, together with the success of 
the Democrats in national politics, unsettled many a voter's 
party affiliation and perhaps gave encouragement to the 
Democratic stay-at-homes to participate in the primary. 
This view is further supported by the fact that in 1914 there 
were contests in the Democratic primary for every office 
except that of Attorney General (see Table I). There were 
more contests in the Democratic primary of 1914 than in all 
the previous primaries of that party, and there have been 
none since. Interest in the primary as a nominating system 
seems to have been on the decline since 1916, judging by the 
number of candidates. 

NOMINATIONS BY CONVENTIONS 

Does the primary accomplish its purpose as a popular 
nominating system? Only twice (in 1908 and 1912) have all 
the nominations been made at the primary, that is, the suc- 
cessful candidates received thirty-five per cent of the vote 
cast for that office. But never before 1920 was there more 
than one State office at any one primary which failed to get 
the requisite vote. In 1920, however, the primary failed to 
determine the nomination for Governor, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Auditor, Attorney General, and Railroad Commis- 
sioner. 



118 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



According to the primary law, when nominations for 
State offices are not made at the primary they are made at 
the State convention of the party. The law seems to leave 
the convention free to make a nomination wholly outside of 
the contestants in the primary ; but, as a matter of practice, 
this has never been done. Nor have the State conventions 
adopted the policy of selecting the high man in the pri- 
maries ; on the contrary, in five times out of eight they have 
not done so. In four instances the man ranking third has 
been honored with the nomination; once the nomination 
went to the person ranking second ; and three times it was 
given to the person ranking first. 

County conventions fill places on the county ticket when 
nominations are not made at the primary. Eliminate the 
office of county coroner — which office appears to be sought 
only in counties having a large urban population — and 
the total number of offices left vacant on the Republican 
ticket at the general election is not large. On the other 
hand, the majority of the nominations on the Democratic 
ticket in the same counties are not likely to be filled unless, 
by reason of informal votes at the primary, the county con- 
vention is enabled to nominate candidates for offices for 
which no candidates formally presented themselves at the 
primary. In many counties the situation is probably hope- 
less for the minority party and therefore few persons are 
willing to incur expense when the nomination is at best an 
empty honor. 

In certain counties there is evidence of what seem to be 
agreements to make no nominations for certain offices either 
in the primary or in the convention — thus dividing the 
spoils and assuring both parties of a share without contest 
and with little expense. In fact, such agreements with the 
organization leaders of the opposite party are sometimes 
frankly admitted. Such agreements, however, are not likely 



PRIjMARY elections in IOWA 119 



to be made except in counties where the margin between the 
two parties is very small. 

PROPOSED CHANGES IN THE IOWA PEIMARY LAW 

Most students of government are of the opinion that the 
primary principle is sound and should not be abandoned 
without more substantial proof of its inefficiency than can 
be drawn from its actual workings. It would be as hard to 
find a substitute for the primary election as it is to find a 
substitute for the jury system. Both have their faults, and 
both can be improved. The writer is of the opinion that the 
primary election law of Iowa should not be repealed but 
should be amended so as to give every encouragement to its 
fulfilling the purpose for which it was enacted. Some of the 
more important changes which in the opinion of the writer 
would make for improvement may be briefly enumerated. 

1. It is evident that the date for holding the Iowa pri- 
mary is based on neither logic nor necessity. The first Mon- 
day in June is one of the hardest times of the year for a 
farmer to leave his work; and the interval between the 
primary and the election is altogether too long. In the 
interests of the farmer, the candidates, and the cause of 
good government, the primary date should be set on some 
day in September. 

2. The primary will work at its best only when the prin- 
ciple of the short ballot is observed. And by short ballot is 
meant the elimination of the minor State and local offices 
not only from the primary ballot but also from the general 
election. In respect to State offices the observance of this 
principle has not been possible under the Iowa Constitution ; 
but the convening of a constitutional convention in the near 
future offers an unusual opportunity to shorten the ballot 
and to provide for an administrative system in the State 
similar to that employed in the Federal government. Such 



120 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



a reform would result in the filling of the minor State offices 
by the Governor, subject to confirmation by the Senate. 

3. It would perhaps be advisable to reduce the percent- 
age of votes required for nomination, or adopt the so-called 
"high man" rule — which means the nomination of the per- 
son receiving the highest number of votes. No doubt many 
persons would object to this change, believing that if the 
people have been unable to make a nomination at the pri- 
mary they should permit such nomination to be made at a 
convention. Possibly the preferential ballot would be the 
most accurate way of determining the will of the people. 
For if the voters have the opportunity of expressing a first 
and a second choice, then by a simple process of addition 
majority nominations may easily be obtained. The prefer- 
ential ballot has already been worked out in great detail and 
is quite universally commended. It takes longer to count 
the ballots but the results ought to be worth the extra time. 
The preferential ballot or even the high man choice in the 
primary would eliminate many of the objectional features 
arising out of the present method of nominating by conven- 
tions in case no one person receives the requisite percentage. 

4. Probably one of the most unsatisfactory features of 
the Iowa primary law is the unrepresentative character of 
conventions called by its authority. Theoretically the law 
was well drawn : at the primary the people were to choose 
their own delegates to the county conventions, and these 
popularly chosen delegates were to name the delegates to 
the State convention. In practice, however, the voter finds 
himself unable to make a list of candidates to the county 
convention with confidence that they are all members of his 
party or if so that they all reside within the limits of his 
polling precinct. In this situation somebody" makes up a 
list of eligibles and has it printed on gummed paper. This 
list is handed to the voter who obediently licks it and puts 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



it on his ballot. The voter rarely knows all of the suggested 
delegates personally, and he has practically no means of 
knowing what their attitude toward the several contestants 
would be in case the primary failed to nominate. From 
these ''hand picked" delegates to the county conventions 
the delegates to the State convention are chosen. That such 
conventions are likely to be unrepresentative of the county 
and of the State is apparent. Nor is it sufficient to say: 
' ' The people at large have had their chance and have failed 
to exercise it. " If it is necessary to retain the conventions, 
let the delegates be nominated in the open. The voter 
should know who is responsible for the delegates selected. 

The writer is of the opinion that the primary law should 
be so amended that there will be no occasion for the conven- 
tions to do anything but adopt platforms. The Wisconsin 
plan of having the platform made by the party candidates 
for State office and for the legislature, including the hold- 
over members of the party in the State Senate, has much to 
commend it. 

5. A number of suggestions have recently been advanced 
with a view to making the test of party affiliation more rigid. 
It is contended that the Democrats find it altogether too 
easy to enter the Republican primaries. The only concrete 
suggestion along this line which has come to the attention 
of the writer is that * ' every year in which there is an elec- 
tion, enrollments of the political parties should be prepared, 
and no man should be permitted to vote in any party unless 
he is enrolled in that party. He should not be permitted to 
change his enrollment unless he does it six months before 
the primaries." Such a test is, indeed, required in a num- 
ber of States. The party test is one of the most difficult 
problems connected with the system of direct primary nomi- 
nations. ''It is difficult to prescribe conditions of party 
allegiance without at once preventing that independence in 



122 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



voting which is the hope of decent politics". It is the 
opinion of the writer that since no generally acceptable 
solution of this problem has yet been proposed, no change 
in the present test should be made. 

6. A provision limiting by law the amount of money 
which one may be permitted to spend in a primary contest 
would be wholesome and would no doubt overcome much 
criticism directed against primary election expenditures. 

7. Another improvement in the primary law would be 
an amendment defining more clearly the form and make-up 
of the primary ballot. An examination of the ballots used 
in the primaries shows a wide variation in size, type, make- 
up, and grade of paper used. Some counties print a com- 
pact ballot 12 by 12, or 12 by 18 inches ; while others, listing 
State, district, county and township officers in separate 
columns, make up a ballot in which one-fourth to one-third 
is waste paper. Such ballots range in size from 11 by 20 
to 14 by 25 inches. Some of these ballots do not indicate 
clearly the party to which they belong, the date of the pri- 
mary, or the precinct for which they are intended. Some of 
the ballots are printed upon the poorest grade of print 
paper, while others contain high grade book paper. If the 
law were more specific relative to the size, type, make-up, 
and paper of the primary ballots, their printing would no 
doubt cost much less than at present. 

CONCLUSION 

The writer is of the opinion that the irritation resulting 
from the defects and abuses of the Iowa primary law does 
not justify its repeal. Since the primary principle is sound, 
any attempt to depart materially from its procedure would 
probably give rise to greater abuses than those we now en- 
dure. That changes are needed in the present law is frankly 
admitted. Without impairing the general principle of the 



PRIMARY ELECTIONS IN IOWA 



primary, the modifications above suggested would, it is be- 
lieved, materially strengthen this popular institution of 
democracy. 

A primary reform supported by Charles E. Hughes when 
Governor of New York proposed that candidates for all 
offices be designated by properly constituted party com- 
mittees. The candidates so designated were to be given 
first place on the ballot ; and any other candidates put for- 
ward by independent groups through signatures to peti- 
tions were to be alphabetically arranged below the list of 
designated candidates.^ This would give freedom to contest 
the designated candidates and encourage the party com- 
mittees to exercise care in making up the party list. This 
practice is even now being followed to a considerable extent 
in the pre-primary slates to which attention has been called, 
but the party lists do not of course enjoy a privileged place 
on the ballot. The primary constitutes a ''solemn refer- 
endum" upon such slates, and any group of petitioners is 
able to put a competing slate in the field. Freedom to do 
this would probably be worth all it cost us. 

On the other hand, in the opinion of the writer the sugges- 
tion made by Senator James W. Wadsworth, Jr., of New 
York in the Forum for January, 1921, that a convention 

1 Mr. Hughes reaflBrms Ms belief in this plan as a remedy for the present 
evils of the direct primary system in a very well written article in The National 
Municipal Eeview for January, 1921. He now advocates a nominating com- 
mittee or convention composed of delegates chosen by popular vote who are to 
designate the party candidates and draw up the party platform. "If such a 
body did its duty well," says Mr. Hughes, "there would be no necessity for a 
double campaign. Its choice would be ratified on primary day without con- 
test. . . . The action of such a body should not be final. If it ignored the 
sentiment of the party voters, if it appeared that some ulterior or sinister 
purpose had been served, if the candidates or any of them, which it selected 
were unworthy, then there should be opportunity for the party members, imme- 
diately and without difficulty, to express themselves in opposition and on pri- 
mary day to have a chance to show whether or not the designation of the 
organization body was approved." 



124 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"composed of delegates elected directly by the enrolled 
voters in the party" should name the candidates for office 
is in fact a recommendation for the abolition of the primary, 
and Mr. Wadsworth seems to make no attempt to conceal 
the fact that this is the end he has in mind. 

Admitting that some poorly qualified candidates are 
nominated under the direct primary system, it is neverthe- 
less much easier to defeat the conspicuously unfit through 
its procedure than in the ordinary party conventions. 

Finally, in view of the fact that the State of Iowa has 
just doubled its electorate by virtue of the adoption of the 
Nineteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, the 
writer is of the opinion that no change should be made in 
the test of party affiliation until the ''new voters" have 
had an opportunity to use the primary. The women of 
Iowa spoke in no uncertain terms at the general election in 
November, 1920 ; but that should not be taken as evidence 
that they are prepared to subscribe to a rigid test of party 
affiliation. Eigid tests of party affiliation are more likely to 
keep from the polls the honest and conscientious than the 
venal and corrupt. Too rigid a test of party affiliation 
would greatly reduce the percentage of those who partici- 
pate in the primary, and in such an event we will probably 
witness abuses that are worse than those now complained of. 

Frank Edward Hoeack 

The State University of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



The Industrial State, 1870-1S93. By Ernest Ludlow Bogart and 
Charles Manfred Thompson. Springfield : Illinois Centennial Com- 
mission. 1920. Pp. 553. Plates, maps. This volume, the fourth 
in The Centennial History of Illinois, is largely concerned with 
industrial history. Of the twenty chapters in the book, eleven deal 
with the subjects of agriculture, finance, trade and commerce, 
transportation, manufactures, mining, and labor; seven present 
various phases of political activities, including the constitutional 
convention of 1869-1870 ; one chapter is devoted to arts and letters ; 
and one, under the heading, "Some Aspects of Social Life in Illi- 
nois, 1870-1876", presents miscellaneous material such as the Chi- 
cago fire, the dispute over parochial schools and Bible reading in 
the public schools, prohibition, and the political influence of the 
foreign groups. 

The chapters on economic and industrial problems were in charge 
of Professor Bogart. Those covering the political field were pre- 
pared by Professor Thompson. Henry B. Fuller contributed the 
chapter on arts and letters, Nellie 0. Barrett the one on mining, 
and Agnes Wright Dennis the one entitled "New Forces Astir". 

A study of conditions in Illinois as presented in this volume calls 
attention to the similarity between this period and the present. A 
constitutional convention, the friction between Chicago and the 
other sections of the State, unusual prevalence of crime, unrest in 
the ranks of labor, the threat of radicalism, culminating in the 
Haymarket Riot, the appeal of politicians to the alien race groups, 
the emphasis on transportation needs, and attempts to organize the 
farmers politically all find their counterparts in the problems be- 
fore Illinois to-day. Indeed, the present day issues are merely 
continuations of the questions which are discussed in this volume. 

This definite relation between these two periods emphasizes the 
disadvantage of writing history by periods. The reader finds him- 

125 



126 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



self beginning a continued story in the middle. On the other hand 
it would be clearly a difficult undertaking to discuss the political 
issues of this period apart from the economic problems which con- 
fronted the people. 

The frequent reference to newspapers both in the text and as 
footnote references suggests the possibility of including some ac- 
count of journalism in the history of this period. Copious foot- 
notes, an appendix which contains a large amount of data on Illi- 
nois products, an extensive bibliography, and an index make the 
volume more useful to the student and more convenient for all 
readers. 

Early Records of Gilpin County, Colorado, 185.9-1861. By 
Thomas Maitland Marshall. Boulder: University of Colorado. 
1920. Pp. 313. Map. This volume is a compilation of letters, 
documents, laws, and resolutions relating to the history of the 
mining industry in Gilpin County, Colorado. This section of what 
is now Colorado was attached to the Territory of Kansas during 
this period but the difficulty of communicating with the govern- 
ment of that distracted territory left the mining districts of the 
West practically without laws. Attempts were made to create a 
new territory to be named Jefferson but these did not succeed, 
although an extra legal government did exist for some months 
under this name. 

The miners, finding themselves deprived of the safeguards of 
organized government, took matters into their own hands. They 
held mass meetings, elected officers, drew up rules which were con- 
sidered as binding as laws, provided for the enforcement of these 
laws, and for the settlement of disputes arising over claims. In- 
deed a miners' court was organized and in some cases was given 
authority to punish all crimes and even sentence a murderer to be 
hanged. The qualifications of voters varied. Sometimes only 
claim-holders could vote; one district gave "every person of suit- 
able age" residing therein the right to vote. These miners' associ- 
ations were similar to the claim associations of early Iowa and are 
illustrations of the facility with which Americans establish political 
institutions. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



127 



A 'Woman's Story of Pioneer Illinois. By Christiana Holmes 
Tillson. Edited by Milo Milton Quaife. Chicago : R. R. DonneUey 
and Sons Company. 1919. Pp. 169. Portraits. This attractive 
volume, issued as one of the Lakeside Classics, is a reprint of a 
memoir originally published by the Tillson family under the title 
Reminiscences of Early Life in Illinois hy Our Mother. The ac- 
count presents a picture of frontier life in Illinois during the decade 
from 1820 to 1830 and reveals many interesting features of the 
social and industrial conditions of the pioneers. Mrs. Tillson was a 
young woman who came to Illinois from New England in 1822, and 
through her comments the reader gets a glimpse of the sectional 
feeling which separated the settlers from the east from those who 
came from the south. Indeed, some of the neighbors were aston- 
ished to hear Mrs. Tillson refer to herself as a Yankee since they 
used the word as a term of reproach and contempt. 

Most valuable of all, however, is the picture of home-making on 
the frontier. Busy housewives of to-day will marvel at the accom- 
plishments of this pioneer wife who cooked for her family, several 
employees, and an indefinite number of guests — invited or other- 
wise — eared for her two small children, assisted her husband in 
his business, made candles, cured meat, nursed the sick, and found 
time to make visits, entertain guests, attend church, and conduct a 
Sunday school — an undertaking which was complicated by the 
adults who accompanied the children and lingered to taste "the 
worth of Yankee cooking". 

It is small wonder that the appearance of two runaway slaves, 
one of w'hom was a cook, led to the purchase of the owner 's right to 
their services rather in defiance of the New England prejudice 
against slavery. Not only was the amount of work appalling; the 
facilities for doing it were usually very meagre. It was not a 
power washer which this woman lacked but clothes pins for which 
she waited three months. Her neighbors, contented with drying 
the clothes on a fence, greeted the appearance of these humble 
conveniences with ejaculations of curiosity and called their friends 
to "see them ar little boys ridin' on a rope." 

The historical introduction, written by Dr. M. M. Quaife, con- 
tains a short account of the Tillson family. A brief index com- 
pletes the volume. 



128 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The American Labor Legislation Review for September, 1920, 
contains a Review of Lalor Legislation of 1920. 

Leo J. Frachtenberg is tbe author of a monograph on Alsea 
Texts and Myths published as Bulletin sixty-seven of the Bureau 
of American Ethnology. 

The Negro in Politics, by Norman P. Andrews, is one of the arti- 
cles in The Journal of Negro History for October, 1920. 

Who Were the Padoucaf, by George Bird Grinnell, is one of the 
papers in the American Anthropologist for July-September, 1920. 

Democracy and Efficient Government — Lessons of the War, by 
Charles G. Fenwick, Economic Orgaruzation for War, by Ernest L. 
Bogart, Constitutional Law in 1919-1920, by Edwin S. Corwin, and 
American Government and Politics, by Lindsay Rogers, are among 
the articles included in The American Political Science Review for 
November, 1920. 

Among the papers in The South Atlantic Quarterly for October, 
1920, are the following: Revaluation and Taxation in North Caro- 
lina, by Francis Nash, and The Literary Status of Mark Twain, 
1877-1890, by H. Houston Peckham. 

The Senate and Treaties, 1789-1817, a study by Ralston Hayden, 
will no doubt prove useful to those interested in American govern- 
ment and international relations. The increasing emphasis on 
foreign relations at this time makes this historical account of the 
early years of treaty-making especially valuable. The volume is 
one of the University of Michigan publications. It is provided with 
a bibliography and index. 

The issue of The Journal of American History for July-Decem- 
ber, 1919, is designated as the Theodore Roosevelt memorial num- 
ber. It contains tributes by Elihu Root, William Boyce Thompson, 
Herbert Hoover, John Hays Hammond, Alton B. Parker, Jean 
Jules Jusserand, and Job Elmer Hedges. There are also a number 
of papers relating to Italy and Italian problems. 

Influences Toward Radicalism in Connecticut, 1754-1775, a mono- 
graph by Edith Anna Bailey, is published in Smith College Studies 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



129 



in History for July, 1920. This is not the story of would-be Bol- 
shevists, however, but a study of the influence of a land company 
in the events leading to the Revolutionary War. 

Farm Land Values in Iowa, prepared by L. C. Gray and 0. G. 
Lloyd, is a study of the prices paid for land in the State of Iowa 
with special reference to the recent extraordinary increase. It is 
published as Bulletin No. 874 of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. 

Canada as a Vassal State, a short article by Archibald Mac- 
Mechan on the influence of American institutions on Canadian 
development, and The First "New Province" of the Dominion, by 
Chester Martin, are the two articles which appear in The Canadian 
Historical Review for December, 1920. 

The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social 
Science for November, 1920, contains a series of papers on Social 
and Industrial Conditions in the Germany of Today, by various 
writers, many of whom are Germans. A supplement contains a 
study by Delos F. Wilcox entitled Working Capital in Street Bail- 
way Valxuation. 

Students of western history will find much interesting informa- 
tion in the article by Frederick J. Alcock on Past and Present 
Trade Routes to the Canadian Northwest which appears in The 
Geographical Review for August, 1920. 

The Goldsmith's Art in Ancient Mexico, by Marshall H. Saville, 
New York City in Indian Possession, by Reginald Pelham Bolton, 
and Hawikuh Bonework, by F. W. Hodge, are three monographs 
published by the Museum of the American Indian, Heye Founda- 
tion, in the series entitled Indian Notes and Monographs. 

The Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society for Octo- 
ber, 1919, contains, in addition to the reports of the Society, the 
following papers : Greater New England in the Middle of the Nine- 
teenth Century, by Frederick J. Turner; A Gentlewoman of Boston, 
1742-1805, by Barrett Wendell; and The Conciliatory Proposition 
in the Massachusetts Convention of 1788, by George H. Haynes. 

The Recall in Sioux City, Iowa, by Avery L. Carlson, State Leg- 

VOL. XIX — 9 



130 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



islatures and the Bent Problem, by S. Edward Hannestad, and 
Proposals for Model State Constitution, are three of the papers in 
the National Municipal Review for November, 1920. A supplement 
contains Administrative Reorganisation in Illinois, by John M. 
Mathews. New Mortgages for Old, by Arthur C. Comey, and City 
Manager Movement, by Harrison Gray Otis, are contributions to 
the issue for December. 

Why the War Came as a Surprise, by J. A. Hobson, The Consti- 
tution of the Peace Conference, by Preston Slosson, The Colonial 
Agent, by B. W. Bond, Jr., The Coldward Course of Progress, by 
S. C. GilFillan, The Supreme Court and the Constitution, by T. R. 
Powell, and Histories of Labor, by Leon Ardzrooni, are some of the 
articles in the Political Science Quarterly for September, 1920. A 
supplement, by Elmer D. Graper and Harry J. Carman, gives a 
Record of Political Events, from August 1, 1919, to June 30, 1920. 
A Theory of History, by Franklin H. Giddings, Mobility of Labor, 
by Paul F. Brissenden and Emil Frankel, The Budget System in 
Canada, by Thomas M. Eraser, and a continuation of A System of 
Federal Grants-in-Aid, by Paul H. Douglas, are four of the papers 
in the issue for December. 

Territorial Problems of the Peace Conferetice, by D. Johnson, 
Political Parties and the Presidential Campaign, by H. C. Hill, 
The Political Campaign in High School Classes, by J. M. Gathany, 
and Campaign Civics, by W. H. AUen, are among the papers in the 
issue of The Historical Outlook for October, 1920. The November 
number contains, among others, the following papers : flaking Bet- 
ter Citizens, by J. C. Almack; Topical Method in United States His- 
tory, by F. W. Carrier; and Practical Lesson in Citizenship, by 
Reid Hunter. In the December issue R. C. McGrane contributes a 
brief paper on The American Position on the Revolution of 1848 in 
Germany. 

WESTERN AMERICANA 

The Motive for Better Farming, by Thomas Forsyth Hunt, is 
one of the papers in The University of California Chronicle for 
October, 1920. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



131 



The Wisconsin Archeologist for Au^st, 1920, contains a mono- 
graph by Alphonse Gerend on Sheboygan County. This article 
contains mucli material on Wisconsin Indians and archeology. The 
number for November contains an account of the dedication of the 
Indian intaglio effigy near Fort Atkinson, "Wisconsin. The cere- 
mony took place on June 5, 1920. There is also a sketch of the 
career of John Valentine Satterlee, by Alanson Skinner. 

Frances Elizabeth Kelley is the author of A History of Public- 
School Support in Minnesota, 1858 to 1917, which is published as 
number twelve of Current Problems, issued by the University of 
Minnesota. A History of the Teaching of Chemistry in the Sec- 
ondary Schools of the United States Previous to 1850, a monograph 
by Samuel Ralph Powers, has been published as number thirteen of 
the series. 

Labor Problems and Labor Administration in the United States 
During the World War, a monograph by Gordon S. Watkins, has 
been issued in two parts in the University of Illinois Studies in the 
Social Sciences for September and December, 1919. Part one con- 
sists of the Nature and Analysis of the Problem and part two is a 
discussion of The Development of War Labor Administration. 

Nabaloi Law and Ritual, by C. R. Moss, and Kankanay Cere- 
monies, by the same author, are monographs issued as recent num- 
bers of the University of California Publications in American 
Arcliaeology and Ethnology. California' Culture Provinces, by A. 
L. Kroeber, is another publication in this series. 

Michigan Military Records, recently issued by the Michigan His- 
torical Commission as bulletin number twelve, contains a list of 
Revolutionary soldiers buried in Michigan, records of pensioners 
of territorial Michigan, and a list of men of that State who have 
received Congressional medals of honor. The compilation is the 
work of Sue Imogene Silliman who represented the D. A. R. of 
Michigan. 

County Agent Work in the Northern and Western States, 1919, 
by W. A. Lloyd, is a brief study of the status and result of the 
work of the county agents throughout the United States. It is 
published by the Federal department of agriculture. 



132 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

The University and Latin-American Development, by H. R. 
Brush, Robert Owen — Social Dreamer, by George Milton Janes, 
The Emancipation of Labor, by Hugh E. Willis, The Nature of 
Democracy, by Joseph Kennedy, The Improvement of the Rural 
Communication System, by John M. Gillette, and Adequate Pay 
for Teachers, by P. P. Claxton, are the contributions to the Octo- 
ber, 1920, issue of The Quarterly Journal of the University of 
North Dakota. 

lOWANA 

Child Legislation in Iowa, a summary of the laws affecting chil- 
dren in the State, has been compiled by Frank Edward Horack and 
published in pamphlet form by the State University of Iowa. 

Diplomatic Relations of the United States with Sweden and Nor- 
way, a monograph by Brynjolf J. Hovde, has recently appeared as 
one of the University of Iowa Studies in the Social Sciences. 

The Iowa Library Quarterly for October-December, 1920, con- 
tains a paper, entitled Librarians as Educators, read by Harriet A. 
Wood at the meeting of the Iowa Library Association at Waterloo 
on October 8, 1919. 

The November, 1920, number of the Iowa Law Bulletin contains 
three papers, as follows: Uniformity in Uniform Legislation, by 
Rollin M. Perkins; Time Records for the Lawyer, by Dwight G. 
McCarty; and A Year's Work of the Iowa Supreme Court, by 
Herbert F. Goodrich. 

How the Lakes in Northern Iowa Got Their Names, by L. F. 
Andrews, and the Spirit Lake Massacre, by Harvey Ingham, are 
two short papers of historical interest included in Bulletin number 
sixteen of the Okoboji Protective Association. 

Iowa Conservation for April-June, 1920, contains an account of 
the dedication of the State Park at the Devil's Backbone in Dela- 
ware County, written by George Bennett. In the issue for July- 
September, there is an account of the dedication of the Lacey 
Keosauqua State Park in Van Buren County by the same writer. 
In this number there is also a paper on Bird Conservation, by 
Althea R. Sherman. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



133 



The Annals of Iowa for July, 1920, contains reports of the Sac 
and Fox Indian councils of 1841 and 1842. The issue also contains 
a biographical sketch of John A. Kasson, written by himself in 
1895, a paper on The Mount Vernon Ladies' Association of the 
Union, by Mrs. Horace M. Towner, and one on the Span of the 
Great Ice Age, by Charles Keyes. The October number contains 
some war reminiscences entitled Incidents of an Iowa Soldier's 
Life, or Four Years in Dixie, by Alonzo Abemethy, Recollections 
of M<irengo, by Milo P. Smith, and Memories of the Chicago Con- 
vention of 1860, compiled by F. I. Herriott from interviews with 
Grenville M. Dodge and Charles C. Nourse. 

The October, 1920, issue of American Municipalities contains the 
Report of Committee on Home Rule, by E. J. Quigley, an address 
on Municipal Administration, by Ralph H. Faxon, the Report of 
Committee on Legislation, by John E. Brindley, a discussion of The 
Paving Situation in Iowa, by Hugh H. McCleery, and a continu- 
ation of the Report of the Committee on Judicial Decisions, sub- 
mitted by David Streiff. The November number contains an article 
by Mrs. William F. Parrott on The Woman's Cabinet and Its Possi- 
hilities, a discussion of the City Manager Plan, by 0. E. Carr, the 
Report of Committee on Utilities, by Robert S. McNutt, a paper on 
Municipal Accounting and Municipal Officials, by A. B. Maxwell, 
and reminiscences entitled The Old Guard, by Chris Mathes. 

SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Aldrich, Bess Streeter, 

Last Night When You Kissed Blanche Thompson (The Amer- 
ican Magazine, August, 1920). 

Andrew, L. A., 

All Business Is Dependent on the Prosperity of Farmers (The 
Northwestern Banker, December, 1920). 

Andrews, L. F., 

How the Lakes in Northern Iowa Got Their Names (Okoboji 
Protective Association Bulletin No. 16). 



134 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Aurner, Clarence Ray, 

History of Education in Iowa, Vol. V. Iowa City : The State 
Historical Society of Iowa. 1920. 

Bennett, George, 

How Keosauqua Leads in Promoting Iowa's High Ideals (Iowa 
Conservation, July-September, 1920). 

Bess, Demaree C, 

His African Honor is Inaugurated (Travel, September, 1920). 

Birge, E. A., (Joint author) 

A Limnological Reconnaissance of West OTcohoji. Iowa City: 
The State University of Iowa. 1920. 

Briggs, John Ely, 

A Geological Palimpsest (The Palimpsest, November, 1920). 

Brown, Charles Ryenolds, 

Living Again. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. 1920. 

Butler, Ellis Parker, 

Jury of His Peers (Everybody's Magazine, September, 1920). 

Carolson, Avery L., 

The Recall in Sioux City, Iowa (National Municipal Review, 
November, 1920). 

Clark, Howard Walton, (Joint author) 

Lake Maxinkuchee: A Physical and Biological Survey. In- 
dianapolis : The Department of Conservation. 1920. 

Clarke, Charles F., 

The Story of An American. Privately printed. 1920. 

Cole, Cyrenus, 

A Farmer's Story. Cedar Rapids : The Torch Press. 1920. 

Devine, Edward Thomas, 

Where High Prices Hurt Most (The Survey, September 15, 
1920). 

Diehl, Clarence A., 

Public Accountant Is Important Factor In Extending Credit 
(The Northwestern Banker, October, 1920). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



135 



Edwards, Alice Mavor, 

As the Crow Flies (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 1920). 

Edwards, J. L., 

Investors Should Be Encouraged to Carry More Farm Loans 
(The Northwestern Banker, December, 1920). 

Evermann, Barton Warren, (Joint author) 

Lake Maxinkuckee: A Physical and Biological Survey. In- 
dianapolis : The Department of Conservation. 1920. 

Faxon, Ralph H., 

Municipal Administration (American Municipalities, October, 
1920). 

Fitz, M. W., 

Suggestions on Bank Legislation! (The Northwestern Banker, 
December, 1920). 

Funk, A. B., 

A Record Worth While (Okoboji Protective Association Bul- 
letin No. 16). 

Garland, Hamlin, 

Ulysses S. Orant; His Life and Character (New Edition). 
New York: Macmillan Co. 1920. 

Goodrich, Herbert F., 

A Year's Work of the Iowa Supreme Coiirt (Iowa Law Bul- 
letin, November, 1920). 

Gray, Donald S., (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Wayne County, Iowa. "Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1920. 

Griffith, Helen Sherman, 

Oh, Virginia. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co. 1920. 

Hall, James Norman, (Joint author) 

Faery Lands of the Sea (Harper's Magazine, November and 
December, 1920). 

Hansen, Marcus Lee, 

Welfare Campaigns in Iowa. Iowa City : The State Historical 
Society of Iowa. 1920. 



136 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Hanson, Leslie, 

Foreign Loans Help to Increase Activity in Investment Market 
(The Northwestern Banker, November, 1920). 

Liquidation Movement Now Going Ahead Under Full Steam 
(The Northwestern Banker, December, 1920). 

Small Investor Is Furnishing Capital for Bond Houses (The 
Northwestern Banker, October, 1920). 

Hathaway, Esse Virginia, (Joint author) 

The Shy Line in English Literature. New York : D. C. Apple- 
ton Co. 1920. 

Hefferan, Thomas E. M., 

Helen of Tea: A Tale of Taste (The Grinnell Review, Novem- 
ber, 1920). 

Henderson, Rose, 

Tewa Corn Dance (The Midland, December, 1920). 

Hill, James L., 

Revisiting the Earth. Boston: Richard C. Badger. 1920. 

Hochman, 0., 

Sewage and Sanitation (American Municipalities, December, 
1920). 

Hoover, Herbert Clark, 

Nationalized Power (The Nation, September 18, 1920). 
Roosevelt and the Public Conscience (The Journal of American 
History, July-December, 1919). 

Horack, Frank Edward, 

Child Legislation in Iowa. Iowa City: The State University 
of Iowa. 1920. 

Horn, Ernest, 

What is a Project (Elementary School Journal, October, 1920). 

Hornaday, William Temple, 

The End of Game and Sport in Americaf (Permanent Wild 

Life Protection Fund, Bulletin No. 7, May 20, 1920). 
The Tragedy of New York's "Buck Law" (Permanent Wild 

Life Protection Fund, Bulletin No. 8, August, 1920). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS ' 137 

Hough, Emerson, 

Maw's Vacation (The Saturday Evening Post, October 16, 
1920). 

Pawning the Heirlooms (The Saturday Evening Post, Septem- 
ber 25, 1920). 

The Trade of Letters (The Iowa Alumnus, October, 1920). 

Hovde, Brynjolf J., 

Diplomatic Relations of the United States with Sweden and 
Norway. Iowa City: The State University of Iowa. 1920. 

Hueston, Ethel, 

Eve to the Rescue. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill Co. 1920, 

Hughes, Rupert, 

Stick-in-the-Muds (Collier's Weekly, September 25, 1920). 

Ingham, Harvey, 

Spirit Lake Massacre (Okoboji Protective Association Bulletin 
No. 16). 

Irish, John Powell, 

Japanese Farmers in California. Oakland: Published by the 
author. 1920. 

Johnson, William S., 

Crossing the Mississippi (The Palimpsest, December, 1920). 

Juday, Chancey, (Joint author) 

A Limnological Reconnaissance of West Okohoji. Iowa City: 
The State University of Iowa. 1920. 

Knibbs, Henry Herbert, 

Songs of the Trail. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co. 1920. 

Lavell, Cecil F., 

The Dogma of Equality (The Grinnell Review, December, 
1920). 

Le Roy, A. R., 

Increased Interest on Certificates (The Northwestern Banker, 
December, 1920). 

Lloyd, 0. G., (Joint author) 

Farm Land Values in Iowa. Washington : Government Print- 
ing Office. 1920. 



138 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Loucks, Effie Wells, 

Ahhie Gardner Sharpe (Okoboji Protective Association Bul- 
letin No. 16). 

McCarty, Dwight G., 

Time Records for the Lawyer (Iowa Law Bulletin, November, 
1920). 

McCleery, Hugh H., 

The Paving Situation in Iowa, (American Municipalities, Octo- 
ber, 1920). 

MacDonald, Thos. H., 

Uncle Sam Will Spend More for Good Boads Than Panama 
Canal (The Northwestern Banker, November, 1920). 

MacLean, George Edwin, 

Opportunities for Graduate Study in the British Isles. New 
York: The Institute of International Education. 1920. 

Martin, Everett Dean, 

The Behavior of Crowds. New York: Harper Bros. 1920. 

Mendenhall, Walter L., 

Why Do We Wink (Okoboji Protective Association Bulletin 
No. 16). 

Merry, Glenn Newton, 

The Principles of Speaking: A Text-hook for an Introductory 
Course. Iowa City: Published by the author. 1920. 

Mott, Frank Luther, 

The Man With the Good Face (The Midland, December, 1920). 
Neihardt and His Epic Cycle (The Grinnell Review, Novem- 
ber, 1920). 

Nollen, John S., 

Armistice Day — Three Letters (The Grinnell Review, Decem- 
ber, 1920). 

Berlin Revisited (The Grinnell Review, November, 1920). 
The Dilemma of France (The Grinnell Review, October, 1920). 

Nutting, Charles Cleveland, 

Values. Iowa City : The State University of Iowa, 1920. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



139 



Ogle, W. E., 

Taxation and Assessments (American Municipalities, Decem- 
ber, 1920). 

Pammel, L. H., 

The Lake of Iowa (Okoboji Protective Association Bulletin 
No. 16). 

Parish, John Carl, 

Father Mazzuchelli (The Palimpsest, October, 1920). 
Parkhurst, Clinton, 

A Few Martial Memories (The Palimpsest, October, 1920). 
Patrick, George Thomas White, 

The Psychology of Social Reconstruction. Boston : Houghton 
Mifflin Co. 1920. 

Payne, Charles E., 

A Constructive American (The Grinnell Review, November, 
1920). 

Perkins, Rollin M., 

Uniformity in Uniform Legislation (Iowa Law Bulletin, No- 
vember, 1920). 

Poor, Ben P., 

General Powers of Cities (American Municipalities, December, 
1920). 

Reynolds, Conger, 

Petits Souvenirs de France (The Iowa Alumnus, December, 
1920). 

Richter, Aug. P., 

CUnt Parkhurst (The Palimpsest, December, 1920). 

Roberts, George E., 

How the Federal Reserve Eases the Crisis (The American Re- 
view of Reviews, January, 1921 ) . 
We Must Rise or Fall Together (The Forum, September, 1920). 

Russell, William F., 

School Finance in Iowa Cities. Iowa City : The University of 
Iowa. 1920. 



140 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Sabin, Edwin Legrand, 

Boys' Book of Border Battles. Philadelphia: Jacobs & Co. 
1920. 

Into Mexico with General Scott. Philadelphia : Lippincott Co. 
1920. 

Schlesinger, Arthur M., 

The Prohlem of Teaching Recent American History (The His- 
torical Outlook, December, 1920). 

Seerley, Homer Horatio, 

Recruiting the Teaching Profession (Education, September, 
1920). 

Sherman, Althea R., 

Bird Conservation (Iowa Conservation, July-September, 1920). 

Smertenko, Johan J., 

Another Pioneer Enterprise (The Grinnell Review, October, 
1920). 

Smith, Alice G., 

Winter Birds (Okoboji Protective Association Bulletin No. 
16). 

Smith, Lewis "Worthington, (Joint author) 

The Sky Line in English Literature. New York: D. Appleton 
& Co. 1920). 

Starch, Daniel, 

Which Are Smarter, Men or Wom^n? (The American Maga- 
zine, September, 1920). 

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur, 

The Region of Maximum Inaccessibility in the Arctic (The 
Geographical Review, September, 1920). 

Steiner, Edward A., 

The Tragedy of Race (The Grinnell Review, October, 1920). 

Stevens, A. 0., 

Arnolds Park (Okoboji Protective Association Bulletin No. 
16). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



141 



Stinehfield, Sara M., 

A Preliminary Study in Corrective Speech. Iowa City: The 
State University of Iowa. 1920. 

Stoner, Dayton, 

Nesting Habits of the Hermit Thrush in Northern Michigan. 
Iowa City : The State University of Iowa. 1920. 

Taylor, Alonzo Englebert, 

Economic Consequences of the Peace (The Saturday Evening 
Post, September 25, 1920). 

Trowbridge, Arthur C, 

The Erosional History of the Driftless Area. Iowa City : The 
State University of Iowa. 1921. 

Van Alstine, H. S., 

Why Farm Loan Tax Exemption Does Not Help the Farmer 
(The Northwestern Banker, November, 1920). 

Van der Zee, Jacob, 

Indexing the Compiled Code (The Iowa Journal of History 

and Politics, October, 1920). 
A Review of the Work of the Iowa Code Commission (The Iowa 

Journal of History and Politics, October, 1920). 

"Walleser, Joseph, 

The Shark Hook (The Grinnell Review, December, 1920). 

Wetherell, Frank E., 

Des Moines' Newest Diagonal Thoroughfare (The American 
City, October, 1920). 

Wiechmann, P. C, (Joint author) 

Soil Survey of Wayne County, Iowa. Washington: United 
States Department of Agriculture. 1920. 

Wohlenberg, C. J., 

Farmer Should Keep an Accurate Record of Production Ex- 
penses (The Northwestern Banker, December, 1920). 

Wylie, Robert B., 

The Larger Plants of Lake Okohoji (Okoboji Protective Asso- 
ciation Bulletin No. 16). 



142 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

A true history of Scott County, by Au^st P. RieMer, running in 
the Sunday editions of the Davenport Democrat. 

Iowa 's part in the World War, in the Wehster City Journal, Octo- 
ber 1, 1920. 

Linn County's loss in the World War, in the Waterloo Courier, 
October 1, 1920. 

Some old settlers in Pottawattamie, Mills, and Montgomery coun- 
ties, in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, October 2, 1920. 

Frontier sketches, in the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, Octo- 
ber 2, 1920. 

Early days of Audubon County, in the Exira Journal, October 7, 
14, 21, and 28, and November 4, 1920. 

Early history of West Bend, in the Algona Advance, October 7, 
1920. 

Reminiscences of Springdale, by Nathan W. Macy, in the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil, October 9, 1920. 

Across the plains in 1864, by John S. Collingwood, in the Burling- 
ton Saturday Evening Post, October 9, 16, 23, and 30, Novem- 
ber 6, 13, 20, and 27, and December 4, 11, 18, and 25, 1920. 

A tourist's manual and guide to the upper Mississippi River, edited 
by Fred A. Bill, in the Burlington Saturday Evening Post, 
October 16 and 23, November 6 and 27, and December 5, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Peter Gunzenhauser, an early settler at Amana, 
in the Marengo Republican, October 20, 1920. 

The old mill at Brighton, in the Oskaloosa Herald, October 22, 
1920, the Ottumwa Courier, October 26, 1920, and the Fairfield 
Journal, October 28, 1920. 

Old Rochester and its early pioneers, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette, 
October 23, 1920. 

Early settlers of Clarke County, in the Osceola Tribune, October 28, 
1920. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



143 



Fifty years of the Spirit Lake Beacon, in the Spirit Lake Beacon, 
October 28, 1920. 

Floyd County history, in the Charles City Intelligencer, October 
28, 1920. 

Fiftieth anniversary of the Storm Lake Pilot, in the Storm Lake 
Tribune, October 30, 1920. 

The old boats, by Fred A. Bill, in the Burlington Saturday Even- 
ing Post, October 30, and December 4 and 18, 1920. 

What does "Iowa" mean?, in the Sioux City Journal, November 1, 
1920, and the Mason City Gazette, November 24, 1920. 

Passing of the Coliseum at Burlington, in the Burlington Hawk- 
Eye, November 2, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of James M. Pierce, in the Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil, November 3, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Cynthia Walton, in the Bloomfield Demo- 
crat and Bepuhlican, November 4, 1920. 

Fiftieth anniversary of the Merchants National Bank, in the Bur- 
lington Saturday Evening Post, November 6, 1920. 

Sketch of the career of W. J. Butler, in the Iowa City Press, No- 
vember 8, 1920. 

Old courthouse at Rochester, Cedar County, in the Knoxville Ex- 
press, November 10, 1920, the Garner Democrat, and the Sac 
City Sun, November 11, 1920. 

An Iowa blizzard in early days, in the Spirit Lake Beacon, Novem- 
ber 11, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of George W. Fitch, in the West Union Union, 
November 11, 1920, and the Oelwein lowan, November 12, 
1920. 

Buffalo bones in marsh at Fertile, in the Dubuque Telegraph- 
Herald, November 13, 1920. 

Constitutional conventions in Iowa, in the Centerville lowegian, 
November 23, 1920, the Greenfield Free Press, November 25, 



144 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



1920, the Mt. Vernon Record, December 8, 1920, and the Knox- 
ville Express, December 8, 1920. 

Thanksgiving day in Iowa, in the Atlantic News, November 24, 
1920, the Ottumwa Courier, November 25, 1920, and the Boone 
News, November 27, 1920. 

Brief sketch of Ackworth Institute, by Jeptha W. Morgan, in the 
Indianola Advance-Tribune, November 25, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Thomas Hedge, in the Burlington Hawk-Eye 
and the Keokuk Gate City, November 30, 1920, and the Em- 
metshurg Reporter, December 2, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Eber Palmer, in the Spirit Lake Beacon, 
December 2, 1920. 

Francis Scott Key in Iowa, by C. L. Lucas, in the Madrid News, 
December 2, 1920. 

Anniversary of first Masonic lodge in Iowa, at Burlington, in the 
Iowa City Press, December 8, 1920. 

Early history of Jackson County, by T. E. Blanchard, in the 
Sahula Gazette, December 9, 16, 23, and 30, 1920. 

Some famous trees in Iowa, in the Marathon Republic, December 9, 
1920. 

Sketch of the lives of Mr. and Mrs. L. A. demons, in the Storm 
Lake Tribune, December 10, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of M. H. McCarthy, in the Dubuque Journal, 
December 12, 1920. 

Early days in Logan, in the Logan Observer, December 16, 1920. 

Meetings at Brittain's Grove, in the Knoxville Express, December 
22, 1920. 

Some Warren County histoiy, in the Indianola Record, December 
22, 1920. 

A daughter of Betsy Ross at Fort Madison, in the Marshalltown 
Times-Republican, December 23, 1920. 

Early day blizzard tales, in the Sac City Sun, December 23, 1920. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS I45 

Indian view of Custer defeat, in the Davenport Times, December 
24, 1920. 

The old log cabins, in the Des Moines Register, December 26, 1920. 

Memorial to Judge 0. P. Shiras, in the Dubuque Journal, December 

26, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Asa L. Plummer, in the Des Moines Register, 
December 26, 1920, and the Des Moines Plain Talk, December 

30, 1920. 

Mastodon tusk found in Iowa, in the Des Moines Register, December 

27, 1920. 

Iowa seventy-four years old, in the Des Moines Tribune, December 
27, 1920. 

Pilgrims of Iowa, in the Shenandoah Post, December 27, 1920. 

Historical sketch of Iowa, in the Iowa City Press-Citizen, December 
29, 1920. 

Constitutional conventions in Iowa, in the Ottumwa Courier, De- 
cember 30, 1920. 

Origin of the name "Iowa", in the Keohuk Gate City, December 

31, 1920. 

Early days in Page County, in the Shenandoah World, December 
31, 1920. 



VOL. XES — 10 



I 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 

PUBLICATIONS 

The Journal of Governor John Sevier, edited by John H. De "Witt, 
is concluded in the April, 1920, number of the Tennessee Historical 
Magazine. 

The Quarterly Publication of the Historical and Philosophical 
Society of Ohio for July-September, 1920, contains a second install- 
ment of Selections from the Gano Papers, relating to early militia 
organisation in Ohio, 

Ewing Young and His Estate: A Chapter in the Economic and 
Community Development of Oregon, by F. G. Young, fills The 
Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society for September, 1920. 
Young was the leader of the first community enterprise in Oregon. 

Students of western American history wiU be interested in the 
Log of the Columbia, 1790-1792, which is printed in volume fifty- 
three of the Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society. 

The Minnesota History Bulletin for August, 1920, contains Fred- 
erick J. Turner's address on Middle Western Pioneer Democracy 
delivered at the dedication of the Minnesota Historical Society 
building on May 11, 1918. An account of the dedication exercises 
is included in this number. 

A fifth installment of Mirabeau Buonaparte Lamar, by A. K. 
Christian, and a continuation of the Minutes of the Ayuntamiento 
of San Felipe de Austin, 1828-1832, edited by Eugene C. Barker, 
are two of the papers in The Southwestern Historical Quarterly for 
October, 1920. 

A biographical sketch of Jedediah Peck, known as the father of 
the public school system in New York, by Sherman Williams, and 
an article on Rochester and the Shoe Industry, by Edgar P. Reed, 
are two of the contributions to The Quarterly Journal of the New 
York State Historical Association for October, 1920. 



146 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



147 



Ahmham Lincoln in Pittshurgh and the Birth of the RepuUican 
Party, by Charles W. Dahlinger, is the chief contribution to the 
Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine for October, 1920. 
There is also a short account of The Old Indian Burying Ground, 
by Stephen Quinon, reprinted from The Pittshurgh Times. 

Christopher Harrison, by Martha Tucker Morris, The Savage 
Allies of The Northwest, by Elmore Barce, and a continuation of 
The Temperance Movement In Indiana, by Charles E. Canup, are 
the three articles which appear in the Indiana Magazine of History 
for June, 1920. The entire September issue is taken up by a mono- 
graph on The Progressive Party in Indiana, written by Carl 
Painter. 

The First Militia Companies in Eastern Washington Territory, 
by William S. Lewis, An Old Quaker Magazine, by Charles W. 
Smith, Bibliography of the Anthropology of Puget Sound Indians, 
by J. D. Leechman, a continuation of the Origin of Washington 
Geographic Names, by Edmond S. Meany, and another installment 
of The Nisqually Journal, edited by Victor J. Parrar, are articles 
and papers in The Washington Historical Quarterly for October, 
1920. 

Protestantism in Illinois Before 1835, by Harry Thomas Stock, is 
one of the articles found in the Journal of the Illinois State His- 
torical Society for April, 1919. Even at this early period these 
pioneer preachers were outspoken opponents of slavery and the 
liquor traffic. Other articles in this number are : Early History of 
Paxton, Illinois, by Oren B. Taft; History of the Poll Tax in Illi- 
nois, by M. K. McKay; and Who Were the Mound Builders?, by 
John G. Keplinger. 

The American Historical Review, 1895-1920, by J. Franklin 
Jameson, a second installment of New Light on the Origins of the 
World War, by Sidney B. Fay, and The American War Govern- 
ment, 1917-1918, by Frederic L. Paxson, are three of the contribu- 
tions to the October, 1920, number of The American Historical 
Review. 

The issue of The Georgia Historical Quarterly for June-Septem- 



148 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 

ber, 1920, is in the form of a handbook of the Georgia Historical 
Society. Among other things this number contains the following: 
the new constitution of the Society, adopted August 2, 1920, a brief 
list of publications, the proceedings of the Society at its eighty-first 
annual meeting, and an account of the consolidation of the Georgia 
Historical Association with the Georgia Historical Society. 

The Trails of Northern Wisconsin, by James H. McManus, 
Colonel Hans Christian Heg, by Theodore C. Blegen, The Panic of 
1862 in Wisconsin, by M. M. Quaife, Historic Spots in Wisconsin, 
by W. A. Titus, and Co-Operation Between the State Historical 
Society and Local Societies, by Joseph Schafer, are the contribu- 
tions to The Wisconsin Magazine of History for December, 1920. 
A second installment of Letters of a Badger Boy in Blue: Life at 
Old Camp Bandall is included. These were written by Chauneey 
H. Cooke. 

The Louisiana Territory from 1682-1803, by Cardinal Goodwin, 
one of the papers in The Louisiana Historical Quarterly for Janu- 
ary, 1920, contains much early history of interest to all students of 
Mississippi Valley history. Other articles and papers in this num- 
ber are : History of Natchitoches, by Milton Dunn ; The Story of the 
Ancient Cahildo, by Charles Patton Dimitry; The Founding of 
New Orleans, by Delvaille H. Theard; Cahildo Archives, edited by 
Henry P. Dart; The Controversy on Lafitte's Biography, a paper 
by Caspar Cusachs; History of the Louisiana Historical Society, 
by W. 0. Hart; The Old "Mobile Landing," Head in New Orleans, 
by Charles Patton Dimitry; and an address by Andre Laf argue. 

The Expedition of Celoron, by C. B. Galbreath, Celoron's Jour- 
nal, edited by A. A. Lambing, De Celoron's Expedition to the Ohio 
in 1749, by 0. H. Marshall, Origin of Indian Names of Certain 
States and Rivers, by William E. Connelley, and an Account of the 
Voyage on the Beautiful River Made in 1749, Under the Direction 
of Monsieur De Celoron, written by Father Bonnecamps soon after 
Celoron's expedition, are among the papers and articles in the 
Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly for October, 1920. 

The Annual Report of the American Historical Association, for 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



149 



1917, contains the proceedings of the thirty-third annual meeting 
of the Association and various other reports. Among the papers 
included in the volume are the following: The Editorial Function 
in United States History, by Worthington C. Ford; The Associa- 
tion, by J. Franklin Jameson; To What Extent Was George Rogers 
Clark in Military Control of the Northwest at the Close of the 
American Revolution?, by James A. James; Separatism in Utah, 
1847-1870, by Franklin D. Daines; and A Generation of American 
Historiography, by William A. Dunning. 

The Proceedings of The Mississippi Valley Historical Association, 
1918-1919, is issued as an extra number of The Mississippi Valley 
Historical Review, for July, 1920. In addition to the proceedings 
of the twelfth annual meeting held at St. Louis, Missouri, May 8- 
10, 1919, this number contains the following papers and addresses : 
Following the Westward Star, by Chancellor L. Jenks; The Com- 
merce of the Lower Mississippi in the Period 1830-1860, by R. B. 
Way; The Mexican Problem: A Possible Peaceful Solution, by 
Isaac Joslin Cox ; The Attitude of Swedish Americans Toward the 
World War, by George M. Stephenson ; Texas and the Preservation 
of War History Materials, by Milton R. Gutsch; Louisiana State 
War Activities, by William Beer; Constitution Making in Missouri, 
by C. H. MeClure ; Banking and Finance in Missouri in the Thirties, 
by F. F. Stephens; The Jesuit in the Mississippi Valley, by 
Laurence J. Kenny; and a series of reports on changes in history 
teaching after the war by W. C. Reavis, J. R. H. Moore, E. M. 
Violette, and R. B. Way. The September number of the Review 
contains three articles: Henry S. Lane and the Formation of the 
Republican Party in Indiana, by Walter Rice Sharp; Kentucky's 
Struggle with Its Loyalist Proprietors, by Wilbur H. Siebert ; and 
Historical Activities in the Old Northwest, by Arthur C. Cole. In 
addition Raymond G. Taylor contributes Some Sources for Missis- 
sippi Valley Agricultural History and Walter L. Fleming presents 
Some Documents Relating to Jefferson Davis at West Point. 

ACTIVITIES 

The State Historical Society of Missouri has very largely in- 
creased its membership during the past year, its list of individual 
members numbering at the present time more than eleven hundred. 



150 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Nebraska State Historical Society will hold its forty-fourth 
annual meeting at Lincoln, Nebraska, January 11 and 12, 1921. 
Among the papers announced are the following : ' ' Peter A. Sarpy, 
Pioneer and Fur Trader", by Michael A. Shine; "Base Hospital 49 
in the World War", by Arthur C. Stokes; "The American Legion 
in Nebraska", by Robert G. Simons; and "The Nebraska State 
Government in the World War", by Keith Neville. An unusual 
feature of the program is the concert of Indian music. 

The American Historical Association held its thirty-fifth annual 
meeting at Washington, D. C, December 27-30, 1920. The Amer- 
ican Political Science Association, the American Sociological Soci- 
ety, the American Catholic Historical Association, the Mississippi 
Valley Historical Association, and the Agricultural History Society 
held meetings at the capital during the same week. A large num- 
ber of papers and addresses were presented. The presidential ad- 
dress was delivered by Edward Channing, the title being "An 
Historical Retrospect". Jean Jules Jusserand, French ambassador 
to the United States, was chosen president for the ensuing year; 
Charles H. Haskins, first vice president; Edward P. Cheyney, sec- 
ond vice president ; John Spencer Bassett, secretary ; and Charles 
Moore, treasurer. 

The midwinter meeting of the Mississippi Valley Historical As- 
sociation constituted a part of the program of the American His- 
torical Association meeting at Washington. On the evening of De- 
cember 28, the Association held a subscription dinner at which 
Frederick J. Turner of Harvard University gave an informal 
address. On December 29 the Association joined with the Amer- 
ican Historical Association in a session devoted to American history. 

The Conference of Historical Societies and the National Asso- 
ciation of War History Organizations held a joint session on De- 
cember 28 in connection with the meeting of the American 
Historical Association. Albert E. McKinley of the University of 
Pennsylvania and Karl Singewald of the War History Commission 
of Maryland read papers on the subject of war history, and Joseph 
Sehafer of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin presented a 
paper on "Federation of Historical Societies within the State". 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



151 



The discussion of this paper was led by Worthington C. Ford of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society. 

The Historical Society of Marshall County has prepared a pro- 
gram of meetings for the winter of 1920-1921. At the meeting at 
Marshalltown held on October 29, 1920, Edward B. T. Spencer of 
Grinnell gave an illustrated lecture on "Cliff Dwellings of the 
Mesa Verde". John C. Parish of The State Historical Society of 
Iowa was the speaker at the meeting on November 19, discussing 
"The Story of Iowa". The meeting on December 20 was devoted 
to the Tercentenary Celebration of the Landing of the Pilgrims. 
The address was delivered by E. R. Harlan, Curator of the His- 
torical Department. On January 19, 1921, C. Ray Aurner dis- 
cussed "The Laboratory Method of Making Iowa Stories", and 
Louis Pelzer of the State University of Iowa will speak on the sub- 
ject "The Soldier in Early Iowa History" at the meeting on 
February 11, 1921. 

THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

John C. Parish, the Associate Editor of the Society, was re- 
elected secretary of the Conference of Historical Societies at their 
meeting held at Washington, D. C, on December 28, 1920. This 
Conference includes about five hundred historical societies through- 
out the United States and Canada. 

The fifth volume in the History of Education in Iowa, by 
Clarence Ray Aurner, published by the Society, has now been dis- 
tributed. It presents the history of six institutions provided by 
the State for the education and care of unfortunate or defective 
children: the College for the Blind, the School for the Deaf, the 
Soldiers' Orphans' Home, the Institution for the Feeble-Minded, 
and the two Reform or Industrial Schools. 

Benjamin F. Shambaugh, the Superintendent of The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa, attended the Second Annual Conference 
on Indiana History which was held at Indianapolis, Indiana, on 
December 10 and 11, 1920, under the auspices of the Society of 
Indiana Pioneers. Professor Shambaugh delivered an address on 



152 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"Our History" at the evening session of the conference on De- 
cember 10, and led the discussion of the topic "Historical Team- 
work" at the meeting the following morning. He was also one of 
the speakers at the annual dinner of the Society of Indiana Pio- 
neers, where the general theme was "The Centennial Spirit". 

The first volume in the series Iowa Chronicles of the World War 
has recently been published by The State Historical Society. It is 
the work of Marcus Lee Hansen and is a study of the campaigns 
for funds conducted in the State by the seven organizations offi- 
cially recognized as welfare agencies during the World War — the 
Young Men's Christian Association, Knights of Columbus, Amer- 
ican Library Association, Young Women's Christian Association, 
Salvation Army, Jewish Welfare Board, and War Camp Com- 
munity Service. A second volume by the same author on the work 
of these organizations is now in press. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society : Mr. W. A. Butzloff, Belle Plaine, Iowa ; Rev. R. C. 
Cully, Vinton, Iowa; Mr. C. E. Germane, Des Moines, Iowa; Miss 
Gertrude Graham, Atlantic, Iowa; Mr. J. C. Mabry, Albia, Iowa; 
Mr. E. D. Michael, Selma, Iowa; Mr. Edward L. O'Connor, Iowa 
City, Iowa; Mr. M. D. Porter, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mrs. H. J. 
Prentiss, Iowa City, Iowa; Mrs. Charles von Schrader, Maquoketa, 
Iowa; Mr. U. G. Whitney, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. Ray Yenter, 
Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. Ben C. Abben, Jr., Little Rock, Iowa; Mr. 
Wm. Andrews, Morse, Iowa ; Mr. W. S. Baird, Council Bluffs, Iowa ; 
Mr. L. F. Benz, Lawler, Iowa; Mr. Wm. R. Blake, Clermont, 
Iowa; Mr. J. C. Calhoun, Keosauqua, Iowa; Mr. C. W. Elson, 
Corydon, Iowa; Dr. H. C. Eschbach, Albia, Iowa; Mr. A. B. 
Funk, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. W. G. Gordon, Estherville, Iowa; 
Mr. W. J. Greenell, Clinton, Iowa; Mr. Otto F. Hanzlik, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Mr. E. P. Harrison, Oakland, Iowa; 
Mr. Geo. S. Hartman, Fayette, Iowa; Mr. E. P. Healy, Britt, Iowa; 
Mr. W. F. Kopp, Mt. Pleasant, Iowa; Mr. E. A. Larson, Red Oak, 
Iowa ; Mr. Wm. L. Long, Fairfield, Iowa ; Mr. I. A. Loose, Thurman, 
Iowa; Mr. H. J. Mantz, Audubon, Iowa; Mr. Chas. E. ]\Iiller, Albia, 
Iowa; Mr. R. 0. Miller, Lucas, Iowa; Mr. H. B. Moorhead, Daven- 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



153 



port, Iowa; Mr. 0. A. Ontjes, Holland, Iowa; Mr. James Peters, 
Perry, Iowa; Mr. C. B. Santee, Cedar Falls, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Scott, 
Nashua, Iowa; Miss Estella Swem, Cedar Rapids, Iowa; Dr. John 
Voss, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. Chas. P. Brady, Mason City, Iowa; 
Mr. Geo. R. Crosley, Webster City, Iowa; Rev. E. J. Dougherty, 
Oelwein, Iowa; Mr. Charles L. Dyke, Iowa City, Iowa; Mr. 0. 
Gilbertson, Deeorah, Iowa; Mr. E. A. Grimwood, Oxford Junction, 
Iowa; Mr. F. J. Hanlon, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. Glenn C. Haynes, 
Mason City, Iowa; Dr. G. M. Middleton, Davenport, Iowa; Mr. 
Charles Olson, Beaver, Iowa ; Mr. John Orr, Thornburg, Iowa ; Mr. 
F. D. Pearce, Mason City, Iowa; Mr. John M. Rankin, Keokuk, 
Iowa; Mr. Ralph L. Rumley, Leon, Iowa; Mr. W. F. Sehirmer, 
Bellevue, Iowa; Mr. Geo. F. Slemmons, Independence, Iowa; Mrs. 
Tressa M. Trumbauer, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. T. C. Whitmore, At- 
lantic, Iowa; Mr. W. H. Vance, Winterset, Iowa; and Rev. A. J. 
Zaiser, Fort Madison, Iowa. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 

A list is being compiled of all persons over fifty years of age who 
have lived all their lives in Einggold County. It is hoped that the 
list may be published when completed. 

The Iowa State Conference of Social Work held its annual meet- 
ing at Des Moines, October 17-19, 1920. Plans for a five year 
program of social work were discussed. 

The American Political Science Association held its sixteenth 
annual meeting at "Washington, D. C, December 28-30, 1920. Leo 
S. Rowe was chosen president of the Association and Frederic A. 
Ogg was reelected secretary. 

A granite marker has been erected at Brittain's Grove in Van 
Buren County, locating the first over-night stop of the Mormons 
after leaving Nauvoo. The grove is also of historical interest be- 
cause of the public meetings held there on various occasions. 

The State park at Keosauqua, Van Buren County, was dedicated 
on October 26 and 27, 1920. 

The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the Iowa Library Associa- 
tion was held at Des Moines, October 12-14, 1920. J. B. Weaver 
gave the opening address on the subject "Back to the Old Farm". 
A pageant "The Legend Bearers' Gift", by Esse V. Hathaway, 
was presented, followed by a talk on "Practical Pageantry". A 
speech on "Literature and Changing Standards of Life", by J. D. 
Stoops, and the reading of his poems by Carl Sandburg of Chicago 
were other features of the program. The following ofiScers were 
elected for the coming year: president, C. W. Sumner; vice presi- 
dents, Callie Wieder and C. V. Findlay ; secretary, Mary E. McCoy ; 
treasurer, Jessie Swem ; and registrar, Annie Allen. 

JAMES M. PIERCE 

James Melville Pierce was bom in Richland County, Ohio, on 
May 9, 1848, and as a boy became a printer's apprentice in a news- 

154 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



155 



paper office in Mansfield, Ohio. In 1866 he moved to northern 
Mssouri, where he engaged in farming and later became the editor 
of a newspaper. This work he continued after his removal to Iowa 
where he published the Taylor County Republican at Bedford and 
the Osceola Sentinel at Osceola. In 1885 Mr. Pierce became the 
publisher of The Iowa Homestead at Des Moines and a few jears 
later he added two other farm papers — The Wisconsin Farmer 
and The Farmer and Stockman. This work he continued until his 
death on November 1, 1920. 

In addition to his interest in agricultural matters, James M. 
Pierce was influential in polities and took an active part in many 
of the national and State campaigns, though he never held an office. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



John Faibfield Sly, Instructor in Political Science at the 
State University of Iowa. Born in New York City, February 
7, 1893. Received the degree of B. A. from the Iowa State 
Teachers College, 1917. 

John Edwin Brindley, Professor of Economic Science at 
the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 
Received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy from the State 
University of Iowa in 1911. Author of History of Taxation in 
Iowa and History of Road Legislation in Iowa. (See also The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics for January, 1909, 
p. 176.) 

Frank Edward Horace, Professor of Political Science at 
the State University of Iowa. (See The Iowa Journal of 
History and Politics for October, 1915, p. 615.) 



156 



THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 



EsTABLISHia 
IKC08PORA.'?KO : 

li C A T E l> .", T j ; 



.18 6 7 



AND 189:', 



EALPH P. LOWE 
S. J. KIBKWOOD 
P. H. LEE 
W. PENN CLAEKE 



FORMEE ^ 

JAMES W, : : - , , 

M. J. MO BSMAN 
WILLIAM G, HAii^ i 
GEOBGE G. WRIQ tIT 



JOaiAH L, PIOKAKD 
PETER A. DEY 

r)iiTaT..n? sanders 



¥ F I C E E S 

benjamin F. SHA.MBAUGH SUPERiNTBZ^ir.ir^T 

MAEVIN . H. ■ DEY' pBjssinKNr 

PAUL A. KOEAB TRKAstreEK 



BOARD OB^ CUKATORS 



Elected iy the Society 

Abthub J. Goz S. A. Swisher 
Mabvin H. Dby CHAfiLBS M. Dtjtcher 
HniisT G. Walbxs Gzo. E. Gbiks 
Hknbt AIiBebt Mobton C. Womma 
W. O. Coast 



Appointed by the Governor 

A. F. ,Almn John M. IjINdlx 

J, P. Cetxckshank John T. Mowxt 
Chablks J, Pulton W. F. Moom 
John M. GHiMit Ctjas. E. Pickjsct 



MEMBERSHIP 

An y person may become a member of The Btatk Histobicai. SocxiiTT of 
Iowa upon election by the Board of Curators and the puymeiit of aa t-ntratiee fee 
of $3.00. 

Membership in this Society may be retalaed after the fii-st year upou the 
payment of $3.00 annually. 

Members of tbe Society shali be o-iailoa lo receive lu.; qijacL.--!/ .ludall oilier 
publications of the Society during the eoutmuanee of thei^ mombersiili). 

Address all ConuriAinioiiiions to 

The State HiSToesc.^ Iowa Cht Iowa 



T 






APRIL 1921 




Iowa 



H i storj'aixd Politics 




PublisKed Quarterly by 

THE STATE fflSTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Iowa. City lowa^ 



Batcred December 26 1B02 at Iow» Oity Iowa as leoond ciaB,! icatter under aot of Cou8r«ii« *>/ 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 
Associate Editor, JOHN C. PARISH 



Vol XIX APRIL lOSl 


No 2 


CONTENTS 




Official Encouragement of Immigration to Iowa 

Marcus Lee Hats^sen 


169 


The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 Louis Beenard Schmidt 


196 


Letters of Governor John Chambers on Indian 

Affairs, 1845 


246 


Some Publications 


287 


Western Americaua ..... 


289 


lowana .... 


290 


Historical Societies ... 


309 


Notes and Comment ...... 


315 


Contributors ........ 


318 


Copyright 19S1 by The State Historical Society of Iowa 





THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Pttblishxd Quabtxblt 
AT IOWA cm 

SDBSOEIPTION PBIOX: $2.00 SlNOLB NUMBKB: SO CBNTB 

Address all Commmioations to 
Tax Statx Histobioal Socixtt Iowa Crnr Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

APRIL NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY ONE 
VOLUME NINETEEN NUMBER TWO 



VOL. XIX — 11 



OFFICIAL ENCOUEAGEMENT OF IMMIGRATION 

TO IOWA 

In the days immediately following the close of the World 
War, when the incidents of that struggle were still vividly 
remembered, the legislature of the State of Iowa enacted 
statutes intended to aid in Americanizing the people within 
its bounds.^ Legislation such as this is a confession that 
some of the inhabitants of the State are still aliens in lan- 
guage and perhaps in spirit; and provokes a thorough 
study of the circumstances surrounding the planting of 
foreign communities on Iowa soil, for the story of the 
immigrant was not always completed when the incoming 
alien first found himself on the streets of an American sea- 
board town. Where in the wide land before him should his 
permanent abiding place be? In his answer to this question 
he was guided by motives that are of the greatest signifi- 
cance in our understanding of his subsequent relation to 
the new country. His choice of location may have been 
influenced or determined by free lands, political and reli- 
gious conditions, groups of fellow countrymen already set- 
tled in a State or Territory, the solicitation of land and 
railroad companies, or the invitation of the State or com- 
munity. The problem of this study is to discover how far 
the State of Iowa, which is now charged with the responsi- 
bility of educating its people in American ideals, was re- 
sponsible for the decision of foreigners to make their homes 
upon its fertile prairies. 

1 The statutes referred to are: "An Act requiring the use of the English 
language as the medium of instruction in all secular subjects in all schools 
within the state of Iowa" and "An Act requiring the teaching of American 
citizenship in the public and private schools located in the state of Iowa and 
providing for an outline of such subjects." — Laws of Iowa, 1919, pp. 219, 535. 

159 



160 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The original pioneers of Iowa were distinctly American : 
the census of 1850, the first in which nativities were record- 
ed, indicates this fact. Of those born without the State of 
Iowa, natives of Ohio led, with Indiana as second. Pennsyl- 
vania, the New England States, Kentucky, and Tennessee 
also contributed important elements. Of the 192,214 inhab- 
itants in Iowa at that time, 20,969 were foreign born — 
eleven per cent. Neighboring States, however, exhibited 
larger proportions : in Illinois and Missouri approximately 
thirteen per cent and in Wisconsin thirty-six per cent had 
been born in foreign lands.^ A decade later, an increase had 
taken place in all the States of the Upper Mississippi Val- 
ley, with the exception of Wisconsin which exhibited the 
same figure. Fourteen per cent in Missouri, sixteen per 
cent in Iowa, nineteen per cent in Illinois, and thirty-four 
per cent in Minnesota were foreign born.^ Slavery, which 
led immigrants to shun the southern States, tended also to 
keep settlers from Missouri. * ' No German ought to live in 
a slave state", declared Eduard Zimmerman in a sketch 
describing his visit to Missouri.* His advice was followed. 
The inflow of Germans which had early set in toward that 
State was checked, the stream being deflected to other parts 
of the then Northwest, but Iowa did not receive from the 
first great wave of nineteenth century immigration a share 
equal to that of her neighboring free States. 

Geography was an important factor in distribution. A 
map in the Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, illus- 
trates graphically the influence of physical features. The 
darkest coloring, indicating the greatest number of foreign- 
born, is placed as a heavy border along the seacoast and 

2 Seventh Census of the United Stutes, 1850, pp. xxxvi, 663, 717, 925, 948. 

. 3 Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Population, p. xxxi. 

* Zimmerman's Travel into Missouri in October, 18S8, in The Missouri Eis- 
torical Review, Vol. IX, p. 41. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



161 



the shores of the Great Lakes with strips of shading mark- 
ing the course of the rivers and canals.^ This was only 
natural. When the tedious and unpleasant ocean voyage 
had been completed many of the immigrants were ready to 
remain on the first land they reached. Others who had 
their faces set toward the West continued their journey but 
when lake and river steamer or canal boat finally deposited 
them at some frontier settlement they had no desire to pur- 
chase the equipment necessary for an overland journey 
and push onward across the prairies. They were not im- 
pelled by the motive of some early American pioneers who 
were driven by an eager desire to escape from all society. 
The most accessible location where land for a home was 
available was the abiding-place of the foreigner.^ 

In this respect Iowa was at a disadvantage during the 
decade of the forties. Railroads had not yet bound it to 
the navigation of the Great Lakes and immigrants ascend- 
ing the Mississippi River found desirable homes on the 
eastern side above the Ohio, or were tempted to ascend the 
tributaries that flowed through the fertile Illinois prairies 
long before the lands of Iowa revealed themselves on the 
western bank. In the following decade other deterrent 
factors were at work.'^ 

5 Ninth Census of the United States, 1870, Population and Social Statistics, 
p. 297. 

6 This trait of the American pioneer is widely commented on hy foreign 
travellers. On the road to Pittsburgh an observer noted, ' ' Americans rarely 
remain here; they clear the wood, patch up a log house, and sell it to those 
emigrants who do not like the hard work of the pioneer. ' ' — Pulszky 's White, 
Bed, Black, Slcetches of American Society, Vol. I, p. 267. 

^ Not until the early months of 1854 was the first continuous railway connec- 
tion between Chicago and the Mississippi established by the completion of a 
line to Eock Island. — Cole 's The Era of the Civil War, p. 41. This volume is 
the third volume of The Centennial History of Illinois. Before Chicago be- 
came the commercial metropolis of Illinois, the largest German settlements 
were located in the southern counties opposite St. Louis. — Beinlich 's The Latin 



162 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



When once a colony of one nationality has been formed in 
a certain location it acts as a lode to draw arriving fellow- 
countrymen. Few emigrants leave foreign shores with the 
intention of forgetting their past, and a settlement where 
the old language may be spoken and old customs retained 
makes a persuasive appeal. Wisconsin was, for some rea- 
son, an early favorite of German investigators. Emigra- 
tion societies that studied the question of location reported 
it as first in the matter of natural advantages, resources, 
and climate. Guide books and pamphlets distributed in 
Germany repeated the statements, while a pioneer of that 
day declared: "In New York, every hotel keeper and rail- 
road agent, every one who was approached for advice, 
directed men to Wisconsin."® Nor were Germans the only 
element attracted to this northern State. Parties of Nor- 
wegians made Wisconsin their destination ; and an English- 
man who had walked from Upper Canada through Michigan 
and Indiana found it the most desirable territory he had 
seen.® 

An added impetus to this movement was given in 1852 
when the legislature provided for the appointment of a 
Commissioner of Immigration who was to reside in the city 
of New York and give the newcomers information regard- 
ing the advantages offered by Wisconsin. Though this was 
the only authorized State agency and it had to compete 
with the efforts of land agencies and the employment bu- 
reaus maintained by railroad contractors, it was, neverthe- 
less, successful in inducing thousands of settlers to make 

Immigration in Illinois in Transactions of the Illinois State Historical Society, 
1909, p. 212. 

8 Everest's How Wisconsin Came by its Large German Element in Wisconsin 
Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp. 310, 318. 

9 Flom 's A History of Norwegian Immigration to the United States, p. 381 ; 
Quaife's An English Settler in Pioneer Wisconsin, p. 39, Wisconsin Historical 
Collections, Vol. XXV. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



163 



Wisconsin their destination. The office, however, was abol- 
ished by law in 1855.i« At a time when in many States 
there was growing opposition to the participation of recent 
immigrants in politics another inducement was offered by 
Wisconsin in the form of generous provisions regarding 
the elective franchise: the Constitution of 1848 extended 
the right to vote to foreign-bom male residents who had 
declared their intention of becoming citizens and possessed 
the other prescribed qualifications." 

In the meantime what efforts did Iowa make to parallel 
these activities of her neighbor? None at all. The average 
native born pioneer possessed a deeply-rooted prejudice 
against foreigners. Open and frank, hospitable and friendly 
to all that met him half-way, the unavoidable clannishness 
of the foreigners repelled him immediately. Moreover, 
with a profound faith in the superiority of all American 
institutions he looked upon the outlandish garb, unknown 
tongue, strange religion, and peculiar customs of the alien 
settlers as dangerous characteristics which threatened to 
subvert the foundations of the government. Conse- 

10 Governor 's Message and Documents (Wisconsin), 1854, Document C; 
Everest's How Wisconsin Came hy its Large German Element in Wisconsin 
Historical Collections, Vol. XII, pp. 314, 319-321. 

iiPoore's The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Cliarters, and other 
Organic Laws of the United States, Pt. II, p. 2030. 

12 The testimony upon the attitude of the pioneers towards the foreigners is 
contradictory. Mr. Birkbeek says: "The most perfect cordiality prevails be- 
tween the Americans of German, and those of English extraction, in every part 
of the United States, if the assertions of all with whom I have conversed on 
this interesting topic, are to be relied on. National antipathies are the result 
of bad political institutions; and not of human nature. Here, whatever their 
original — whether English, Scottish, Irish, German, French — all are Amer- 
icans. And of all the unfavourable imputations on the American character, 
jealousy of strangers is surely the most absurd and groundless." — Birkbeek 's 
Notes on a Journey in America, from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of 
Illinois, p. 74. On the other hand note the statements : "I can assure the emi- 
grant, that his reception amongst the native Americans wiU not be very flatter- 
ing. " — Holmes's An Account of the United States of America, p. 146; 



164 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



quently the Iowa Constitution of 1846, in contrast to the 
liberal suffrage provisions of the later Wisconsin document, 
limited the franchise to white, male citizens, and in the 
middle fifties the Know-Nothing Party ran its tumultuous 
course through the party politics in lowa.^^ 

Settlers, however, were desired. An increase in popula- 
tion meant more post-offices and schools, better roads, a 
larger market, and the speedy arrival of the eagerly-desired 
railroad. The New England and central States with their 
rapidly developing industrial plants could no longer be 
depended on as a prolific source of migration : immigrants 
could be secured only by attracting to the State a part of 
the incoming aliens. With the example of Wisconsin in 
mind, Governor Stephen Hempstead, in his first biennial 
message on December 7, 1852, urged the appointment of a 
''commissioner of emigration" to reside in New York and 
advertise the opportunities offered by Iowa, but the com- 
mittee of the House of Representatives to which this recom- 
mendation was referred made an adverse report and no 
action was taken. Nothing daunted, the Governor repeated 
the suggestion two years later, but with no better success.^* 

"Even at the best, it is no very pleasant thing for the native American to 
reflect that the foreigner, upon the sole qualification of a five years' residence 
in the country, can avail himself of all the privileges which, by birth, he him- 
self is entitled to; that, limited as the knowledge of this class of persons must 
necessarily be of everything which appertains to his country, they still have a 
voice just as potential as his own, and which too frequently he lays entirely at 
the mercy of." — The British Meclianic's and Labourer's Hand Book and True 
Chiide to the United States, pp. 268, 269. Mr. Birkbeck's opinion was probably 
influenced by his desire to promote immigration to his proposed Illinois colony. 

isPoore's The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Clvarters, and other 
Organic Laws of the United States, Pt. I, p. 538. For the Know-Nothing ac- 
tivities in Iowa see Pelzer's The Origin and Organisation of the Eepuilican 
Party in Iowa in The Iowa JoxniNAL of History and Politics, Vol. IV, pp. 
493-498. 

1* Shambaugh's The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. I, pp. 430, 459, 460; Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1852, p. 
124. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



165 



THE DUBUQUE EMIGRANT ASSOCIATION 

During the latter part of the decade a second rival on the 
North was becoming formidable by reason of its attractions 
for immigrants. The Minnesota Constitution of 1857 was 
as generous in its suffrage provisions as that of Wisconsin, 
and in the early months of 1858 the State legislature of 
Minnesota provided for a loan of five million dollars to aid 
companies in the construction of railroads.^^ These actions 
were noised abroad, and to citizens of eastern Iowa, the 
procession of immigrants steadily making northward with 
"Bound for Minnesota" painted upon the wagons, became 
an unpleasant sight. Northern Iowa was especially anxious 
to divert from its course part of this stream and on Febru- 
ary 12, 1858, persons selected by the Board of Trade of 
Dubuque and representatives of many corporations of the 
city organized an Emigrant Association, the articles of in- 
corporation stating that its purpose was the dissemination 
of reliable information regarding the advantages offered by 
Iowa to immigrants and the transaction of business as an 
agent for any companies or individuals interested in the 
selling, leasing, or buying of land.^^ 

A travelling representative was appointed and descrip- 
tive literature was compiled, an appeal being made to the 
"brethren of the country press" that they publish in their 
papers "a full and reliable description of counties and 
towns, including the facts as to their assessed value, and 
that of the several towns named, population, timber, soil, 
streams, water power, mines, building material, &c., in each 
county; and also a description of the county seat, and of 

15 Poore 's The Federal and State Constitutions, Colonial Charters, and other 
Organic Laws of the United States, Pt. II, p. 1036 ; Folwell 's The Five Million 
Loan in Minnesota Historical Collections, Vol. XV, p. 195. 

16 See the letter of S. M. Langworthy in The Dubuque Weekly Times, April 
28, 1858. For the organization of the society see The Dubuque Weekly Times, 
February 17, 24, 1858. 



166 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



each village, giving the population, number and denomina- 
tion of religious societies and church buildings, number of 
schools, public and private, mills and manufactories, public 
buildings, distance to neighboring towns, stage routes, aver- 
age price of town lots and also of improved and unimproved 
land in the vicinity".^'' Many of the local newspapers 
responded and from the information gleaned from the 
pages, pamphlets were printed, the cost being borne by vol- 
untary subscriptions and an appropriation made by the city 
of Dubuque. In the course of the first ten months of 1858 
approximately two thousand dollars was expended for this 
purpose with results that were regarded as highly encour- 
aging.^^ 

THE COMMISSIONEE OF IMMIGRATION OF 1860-1862 

These activities on the part of Dubuque did not pass un- 
noticed in other sections of the State ^® and when the ses- 
sion of the legislature convened in 1860 citizens of Keokuk 
County petitioned for the appointment of an agent to repre- 
sent Iowa in eastern cities. On the same day Representa- 
tive F. A. Gniffke of Dubuque presented a bill providing for 
the establishment of a Commissioner of Emigration for the 
State of Iowa, which in due time was reported from the 
House Committee on Public Lands and passed by a vote of 
54 to 22, the debate bringing out the fear on the part of 
many that unless some such effort was made only the un- 
desirables would come to Iowa, the better class of immi- 

17 The Dubuque WeeUy Times, March 10, 1858. 

18 The Dubuque Weeldy Times, December 30, 1858. For a typical response 
to the appeal for descriptions see the facts concerning Buchanan County in The 
Dubuque WeeMy Times, March 17, 1858. 

19 "The citizens of Dubuque have formed an Emigrant Association, and 
appointed E. S. Norris traveling agent. The objects of the Association are to 
encourage emigration to and settlement in Dubuque and Northern Iowa. — The 
objects are good, and well worthy of emulation by other portions of the State. ' ' 
— Iowa Weekly Republican (Iowa City), March 10, 1858. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



167 



grants being induced to proceed to other States more active 
in the presentation of their advantages.^'' 

In the Senate the bill was referred to a special committee 
which in reporting favorably a few days later, called atten- 
tion to the startling contrast between the number of immi- 
grants proceeding to Wisconsin and to Iowa. During the 
eleven months of the year 1856 for which statistics were 
available the number of passengers arriving at Castle 
Garden who gave Wisconsin as their destination was 
10,457 and the cash capital they brought with them was 
$1,045,661.38, During the same period only 1855 persons, 
with a capital of $248,335.40, stated that they expected to 
make their future home in Iowa. As the committee was 
unable to discover any natural advantage that Wisconsin 
possessed over Iowa they ascribed this favorable balance 
of 8602 persons and $797,325.98 capital to the activities of 
the Wisconsin agent.^^ The Senate, however, did not follow 
the recommendation of the committee and the bill was de- 
feated by a vote of 23 to 15, the Democratic majority op- 
posing the creation of a position which meant another office 
for a Republican Grovernor to fill. After the vote had been 
taken, however, a Democratic caucus considered the ques- 
tion and a majority being in favor of reconsidering, on the 
following day a motion to that effect prevailed and a few 
days thereafter the bill was passed by a vote of 26 to 9.^^ 

This "Act to provide for the establishment of a Commis- 
sioner in the City of New York, to promote immigration to 
the State of Iowa ' ' appropriated $2400 for the salary of a 

^0 Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1860, pp. 234, 392; Iowa State 
Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), March 14, 1860. 

21 The report of this committee is printed in the Journal of the Senate, 1860, 
pp. 448, 449. 

^2 Journal of the Senate, 1860, pp. 448, 460, 591; Iowa State Begister 
(Weekly, Des Moines), March 21, 1860; Davenport WeeMy Gazette, March 22, 
1860. 



168 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



representative to be appointed by the Governor with the 
consent of the Senate for a term of two years. Eleven 
hundred dollars was appropriated for the upkeep of an 
office in the city of New York from the first of December of 
each year and a sum not exceeding $1000 was allowed for 
the publication of a description of Iowa in the English, 
German, and such other languages as might be considered 
advantageous. Lest the agent be tempted to charge a fee 
for any of his services imprisonment for not less than one 
nor more than five years was provided as punishment for 
anyone found guilty of such misuse of public ofifice.^^ 

The problem of finding a proper person to carry on this 
mission was solved by the appointment of Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor Nicholas J. Eusch. Indeed, according to newspaper 
accounts, the Democrats of the legislature were won over to 
a support of the measure only after an agreement had been 
reached that Mr. Eusch would be appointed. Being a native 
of Germany he had himself personally experienced the lot 
of an immigrant and with his ready command of the Ger- 
man tongue and his official office he was in a position to 
obtain the confidence of the incoming aliens.^^ Naturally 
some opposition to this appointment was manifested. 
"Only think of the Lieut. Governor of Iowa being jostled 

23 Laws of Iowa, 1860, Ch. 53. 

24 Davenport Weekly Gazette, April 5, May 31, 1860. The acceptance of this 
oflSce by Mr. Eusch caused an interesting constitutional question to arise. The 
Constitution of Iowa provides that "no person shall, while holding any office 
under the authority of the United States, or this State, execute the office of 
Governor, or Lieutenant Governor". When the legislature met in special ses- 
sion in 1861 Mr. Eusch expressed doubts as to his right to preside. The Attor- 
ney General to whom the question was referred agreed that these doubts were 
well founded and hence a vacancy existed in the office of Lieutenant Governor. 
The Judiciary Committee, however, declared that "the position of emigrant 
agent is not an office within the meaning and purview of the Constitution ' '. 
The question had been protracted throughout the entire session and Mr. Eusch 
did not preside, but at the regular session in 1862 he served in his official 
capacity. — ^Upham's The President of the Senate in Iowa in The Iowa Joub- 

NAL OF HiSTOET AND POLITICS, Vol. XVII, pp. 245-252. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



169 



and punched among the hotel porters, cabmen and agents of 
all sorts of houses from the St. Nicholas down", declared 
The Dubuque Herald, ''How much honor will the position 
confer upon the State or the German population! "25 

Experience, however, demonstrated the wisdom of the 
choice. To prevent the abuses and impositions usually 
practiced upon strangers, all agents and runners were ex- 
cluded by the New York State authorities from the landing 
place at Castle Garden, but as a courtesy to his position as 
Lieutenant Governor, the officials gave Mr. Eusch a pass to 
the building. The imparting of information or distribution 
of literature, however, was prohibited and all he could do 
was to invite those interested to visit his headquarters. 
This office was opened on May 16, 1860, at No. 10 Battery 
Place. All counties in the State had been requested to fur- 
nish complete information regarding local opportunities 
and to provide maps showing the names of property own- 
ers. These could be consulted in the office and when a 
choice of location was made, advice as to the best route to 
be followed was given by Mr. Eusch. To provide for the 
proper reception of the newcomers, it was urged that soci- 
eties be organized in all communities to assist the immi- 
grants until land was purchased and actual settlement 
accomplished.^^ 

The Civil War, which came soon after the inauguration of 
this policy, turned the attention of the people to other mat- 
ters and at the close of the biennium for which the appropri- 
ation had been made the office was discontinued. Indeed, 
Mr. Eusch recommended that this be done for reasons quite 
apart from any connection with the war. An increase in 
the number of foreigners proceeding to the State had been 
noticed, it was true, for the number of persons who had 

25 Quoted in the Davenport WeeTcly Gazette, April 26, 1860. 

Davenport WeeTcly Gazette, May 24, 31, 1860; Beport of the Commissioner 
of Immigration in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1861-1862. 



170 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



signified their intention of becoming residents of Iowa rose 
from 664 in 1859 to 776 in 1860 and 1665 in 1861 ; but even 
as a result of these exertions Iowa was not receiving what 
seemed to be a fair share of the immigrants. More than a 
hundred thousand had arrived in the United States in 1860 
and of this number Iowa had received less than one per 
cent. Failure to persuade a larger proportion to move into 
the State was due to the fact that most of them had their 
plans made before they left their native country. Before 
leaving home they had been reached by agents of land com- 
panies, employees of various railroads, and representatives 
of other States, and had already determined their location. 
If any future efforts were to be made Mr. Rusch felt that 
they should be directed to foreign countries, but so long as 
the Civil War continued he questioned the advisability of 
such a move.2^ 

THE BOARD OF IMMIGRATION, 1870-1872 

During the four years of the Civil War, immigration re- 
mained about the same as in the four preceding years.^^ 
Even before the opening of the struggle a change had taken 
place in the attitude of most citizens toward foreigners. A 
reaction from Know-Nothingism had already set in and 
with the outbreak of the war came a great demand for labor 
in the North to offset the departure of the vigorous men to 
battlefield and camp. Moreover, the Federal government 

27 Beport of the Commissioner of Immigration in the Iowa Legislative Docu- 
ments, 1861-1862. 

28 Inmugration statistics for this period are : 



1855 


— 200,877. 


1860 


— 133,143. 


1856 


— 195,857. 


1861 


— 142,877. 


1857 


— 112,123. 


1862 


— 72,183. 


1858 


— 191,942. 


1863 


— 132,925. 


1859 


— 129,571. 


1864 


— 191,114. 




1865 


— 180,339. 





— Beport of the Commissioner General of Immigration in Beports of the De- 
partment of Labor (United States), 1919, p. 494. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



171 



sponsored measures that even if not undertaken for that 
purpose greatly encouraged the influx of immigrants from 
overseas. The passage of the Homestead Law, the enact- 
ment of a law granting to foreign soldiers, honorably dis- 
charged from the service, full rights of citizenship without 
the necessity of first papers ' ', the establishment of a Com- 
missioner of Emigration, and direct efforts to attract for- 
eigners for military purposes helped to keep the stream of 
immigrants flowing. With the successful conclusion of the 
war, the nation with renewed vigor turned to the develop- 
ment of its great western prairies.^^ 

All hands that could be secured were needed for this task 
but its speedy fulfillment could not be accomplished by the 
discharged soldiers alone. The eastern States presented 
opportunities that left little hope that help could be ob- 
tained from them : to look overseas was the only recourse. 
The State of Missouri which had felt some of the devasta- 
tions of the war, made plans to attract immigrants within 
its borders, even before the final surrender of Lee, by cre- 
ating a Board of Immigration which was authorized to 
present to prospective settlers, by means of literature and 
agents, the superior advantages that it possessed. Two 
years later, Wisconsin upon the urgent request of the Gov- 
ernor made provision for a similar board.^*^ 

With these examples so near at hand, sponsors of a cor- 
responding policy for Iowa were not slow in arising. Early 
in the session of the legislature in 1868, Mathias J. Rohlfs 
of Scott County, a native of Germany, introduced a bill to 
encourage immigration to the State. After a favorable re- 

29 Fite's Social and Industrial Conditions in the North during the Civil War, 
p. 193. 

30 First Beport of tlie State Boa/rd of Immigration in the Appendix to the 
House Journal (Missouri), 1867, p. 569; Journal of the Assembly of Wisconsin, 
1867, p. 23 ; Everest 's How Wisconsin Came by its Large German Element in 
Wisconsin Historical Collections, Vol. XII, p. 327. 



172 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



port by the committee to which it had been referred it was 
passed by the House of Representatives, but so late in the 
session that it never came to a vote in the Senate.^^ Gov- 
ernor Samuel Merrill also publicly expressed his regrets 
that Iowa was without an official to whom inquirers in these 
matters might turn. The Citizens' Association of New 
York through its president, Mr. Peter Cooper, requested 
from him such information as would be of interest to pros- 
pective settlers, and in reply the Governor presented an 
array of statistical and descriptive data, in conclusion em- 
phasizing the fact that though the State possessed no agent 
or board of immigration, ''we most cordially invite upright 
citizens of all lands and creeds, to come, here in this favored 
land to make themselves happy homes, and help us to build 
up the fabric of what is surely destined to be a mighty 
commonwealth. "^^ 

At the time the legislature met in January, 1870, Ne- 
braska, Kansas, Missouri, Minnesota, and Wisconsin were 
distributing handbooks describing the advantages of the 
respective States. Citizens of Iowa maintained that their 
interests were beginning to sulfer by reason of the greater 
publicity measures of their neighbors.^^ Agents of Minne- 
sota, it was reported, were spreading the report among the 
people of Norway that summers in Iowa were so hot that 
no Norwegian could live there,^* and statistics indicated 
that out of 251,000 immigrants to the United States during 
the first eleven months of 1869 only 7192 came with the 

SI Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1868, pp. 117, 339, 690; Journal 
of the Senate, 1868, p. 569. 

32 Shambaugh's The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 303, 304. Governor Merrill's letter is printed in The Iowa 
Homestead, December 4, 1868. 

33 Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines) , February 9, 1870. 

3* On this point see an interesting letter on Norwegian emigration conditions 
printed in The Iowa North West (Fort Dodge), February 10, 1870. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



173 



intention of locating in Iowa, These newcomers even 
passed over the fertile but untilled prairies of western Iowa 
to select less desirable locations beyond the Missouri; and 
the people of the State were reminded that these "great 
blanks on our prairies are marked by blank leaves in the 
ledger of our commerce, and keep our State back from its 
predestined wealth and greatness. "^^ Encouraged by the 
recommendation embodied in the Governor's message that 
an appropriation be made to support some organization 
that would undertake the diffusion of information, Mr. 
Eohlf s again introduced a bill which this time became a law, 
though in a modified form.^^ 

A Board of Immigration composed of the Governor and 
one member appointed by him from each congressional dis- 
trict was created by this law. A secretary who should act 
as Commissioner of Immigration was to be elected by the 
Board and he was enjoined to accomplish the desired pub- 
licity by means of essays, articles, and personal correspond- 
ence. Whenever they deemed it expedient the Board was to 
appoint and pay agents to act in the eastern States or for- 
eign countries, but the members themselves were to serve 
without pay. Five thousand dollars was the appropriation 
made to cover the expenses of salaries and publications.^^ 

Governor Merrill, by proclamation, gave notice of the ap- 
pointment and composition of the Board. The first district 
was represented by Edward Mumm of Keokuk. A native 
of Holland who had been in the State since 1849 and a law- 
yer who had held many positions of trust in his home com- 
munity, he was well qualified to serve. Mathias J. Rohlfs 
of Davenport who had been so industrious in securing the 

35 7oua State Eegister (Weekly, Des Moines), January 12, 1870. 

36 Shambaugh's The Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, 
Vol. Ill, pp. 303, 304; Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1870,, pp. 198, 
231, 289; Journal of the Senate, 1870, pp. 219, 287. 

3T Laws of Iowa, 1870, Ch. 34. 

VOL. XLX — 12 



174 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



financial support for the commission was appointed from 
the second district. By actual experience he knew the trou- 
bles of a German emigrant and now was a leader among the 
German- Americans of Iowa. A representative of the Scan- 
dinavian element was secured by the appointment in the 
third district of the Reverend Glaus L. Clausen of St. 
Ansgar. Mr. Clausen had been born in Denmark, had 
preached the first Scandinavian Lutheran sermon in Iowa 
in 1851, and through his missionary endeavors in all the 
pioneer settlements was well known throughout the north- 
ern part of the State. A second Hollander found a place on 
the Board, C. Rhynsburger, one of the leading business men 
of the settlement at Pella, representing the fourth district. 
Des Moines, in the fifth district, was entitled to representa- 
tion because of its interest in all matters pertaining to the 
development of the State ; and in S. F. Spofford, one of the 
immigrants from New England, who had risen to a position 
of influence in the industrial and banking life of the city, a 
competent member was found. Marcus Tuttle of Clear 
Lake, one of the pioneers of Cerro Gordo County, who in his 
young manhood had come west from his New York home, 
had served in the State Senate, and was prominent in the 
development of the northern counties, completed the mem- 
bership. Germany, Holland, Scandinavia, and eastern 
United States — regions from which it was hoped new citi- 
zens could be secured — were thus accorded representatives 
on the Board.^* 

38 The proclamation of the Governor is printed in the Iowa State Register 
(Weekly, Des Moines), May 25, 1870. Information regarding the members of 
the Board has been secured as follows: for Mr. Mumm from the Portrait and 
Biographical Album of Lee County, Iowa, 1887, p. 362; for Mr. Eohlfs from 
Eiboeck's Bie Deutschen von Iowa und deren Errungenschaften, pp. 429, 430; 
for Mr. Claussen from the History of Mitchell and Worth Counties, Iowa, 
1884, p. 143; for Mr. Ehynsburger from The History of Marion County, Iowa, 
1881, p. 669; for Mr. Spofford from The History of Polk County, Iowa, 1880, 
p. 869; for Mr. Tuttle from The United States Biographical Dictionary, Iowa, 
1878, p. 210. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



175 



The secretary, it had been provided in the law, was to be 
a person "familiar with the agricultural, mineral, and other 
resources of the State ' '.^^ At the first meeting of the Board, 
A. R. Fulton of Des Moines was appointed to this position. 
Mr. Fulton had visited every part of the State in the course 
of the preparation of a series of articles entitled "Tour of 
Iowa Counties", published in the Iowa State Register, and 
he was thus personally acquainted with the situation in the 
Commonwealth.**^ Immediately after his appointment Mr. 
Fulton sent to all the newspapers in the State and to sev- 
eral of the leading journals outside its boundaries, as well 
as to bankers and other business men, a circular describing 
the organization and purpose of the Board and inviting cor- 
respondence on all questions regarding settlement. The 
receipt of letters of inquiry numbering about a hundred a 
month indicated the success of these publicity measures. 
Personal replies could not be given to all correspondents 
and Mr. Fulton prepared a handbook entitled Iowa: The 
Home for Immigrants, editions of which were printed in 
English, German, Dutch, Danish, and Swedish. These were 
sent out directly from the office in the Capitol building or 
distributed by the agents of the Board.*^ 

The small amount of funds at the disposal of the Com- 
missioners made impractical the appointment of a large 
number of State agents who would devote all their time to 
publicity work. The interests of the Commonwealth in the 
matter of securing immigrants were, however, bound closely 
to those of the railroad companies who possessed vast 

39 Laws of Iowa, 1870, Ch. 34, Sec. 4. 

^ Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 13, 1870. 

i'L Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), April 12, 1871; First Biennial 
Beport of the Board of Immigration, pp. 4, 18, Document No. 27 in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1872. A description of Mr. Fulton's Iowa: The Home 
for Immigrants may be found in the Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), 
October 12, 1870. 



176 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY^AND POLITICS 



stretches of land tributary to their lines which they were 
eager to have settled. Accordingly an agreement was made 
between the Board and representatives of the railway com- 
panies that persons who were mutually satisfactory should 
be commissioned as official representatives of the State 
which was to pay a small part of the salary and supply liter- 
ature for distribution. The railroads were to pay the larger 
part of the salary. It was understood that such agents 
should not serve also as representatives of some other State 
though they might forward the interests of the railroad 
company's property which chanced to be located outside of 
Iowa. By this means, transportation and distribution of 
documents was obtained, and in the course of the biennium 
more than 45,000 copies of Mr. Fulton's book were put into 
the hands of prospective settlers, 30,000 copies being of the 
English edition, 14,500 copies of the German edition, and 
2800 copies of the Dutch edition. There was delay in the 
publication of the Scandinavian edition, and no sooner were 
the copies ready in the summer of 1871 than they were de- 
stroyed by the great fire in Chicago.*^ 

Three representatives of the Board were sent to foreign 
countries, E. T. Edginton going to England, Louis A. Ochs 
to Germany, and Henry Hospers to Holland. Their visits 
were of a temporary nature but before they returned much 
publicity had been given to the endeavors of the State of 
Iowa to secure desirable settlers and the work to be carried 
on by resident agents appointed in each of these countries 
had been organized. Emphasis was put upon the official 
nature of the Board which was directing the work because 
of the number of wild-cat schemes of emigration and col- 
onization that were advertised in Europe many of them 

42 Jott'o State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), May 25, 1870; First Bieiuiiai 
Beport of the Board of Immigration, pp. 5, 7, Document No. 27 in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1872. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



177 



seeking to turn the tide towards South America.*^ There 
is extant the following advertisement inserted by Mr. Hos- 
pers in many of the newspapers of Holland which illustrates 
this emphasis on the official status of the work : 

*'Mr. Henry Hospers, Mayor of the city of Pella, in the 
State of Iowa, United States of America, specially commis- 
sioned by the Board of Immigration of the said State of 
Iowa, will remain in the Netherlands until the 15th day of 
January, A. D., 1871, for the purpose of giving detailed in- 
formation to all who wish to emigrate to Iowa, about the 
country, climate and prospects of said State. All letters 
will be promptly answered without charge ; and further no- 
tice will be given at what places and times persons inter- 
ested can have a general conference with him."*^ 

As a result of this notice many inquiries were received 
and a series of conferences attended by from ten to forty 
persons were held in about a score of the cities in the Neth- 
erlands. Here questions were asked and answers given, the 
interest manifested often being so great as to prolong the 
sessions until midnight. 

In England, Mr. Edginton held meetings, distributed as 
many pamphlets as came to his hands — the supply was far 
below the demand — and placed items inviting correspond- 
ence in newspapers. How effective these brief articles were 
is manifested by the five hundred inquiries which were re- 
ceived in reply to one advertisement carried for a few 
weeks in a religious newspaper.*^ Mr. Ochs who was ap- 

*3 First Biennial Beport of the Board of Immigration, pp. 8, 33, Document 
No. 27 in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872. 

44 First Biennial Beport of the Board of Immigration, pp. 19, 20, Document 
No. 27 in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872. 

45 First Biennial Beport of the Board of Immigration, p. 23, Document No. 
27 in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872. For the typ^ of publicity used in. 
England see the reprint from the London Christian World in Iowa State Beg- 
ister (Weekly, Des Moines), February 1, 1871. 



178 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



pointed for Germany had proceeded as far as New York 
City in the summer of 1870 when the news of the outbreak 
of the Franco-Prussian War came to him and made neces- 
sary the deferment of his trip. In the spring of the follow- 
ing year he was able to proceed, and though the war had 
checked the emigration for the time being, it gave promise 
of causing a much larger movement than ever in the fu- 
ture.*^ Agents delegated to operate in the New England 
States found the ''Western fever" prevalent, but they were 
hindered in their operations by lack of money, one of them 
claiming that if sufficient funds were at their disposal they 
could "depopulate these rock-covered hills ".^'^ 

The results of the activities of the Board and its repre- 
sentatives were encouraging. The new Holland community 
in Sioux County profited largely by the exertions of Mr. 
Hospers and through the efforts of the New England agents 
hundreds of families from those States arranged to move to 
Iowa. The increase in the population of the State in 1871 
was estimated at 50,000 and the Board reported that it felt 
justified in ascribing a large per cent of this number to the 
publicity given the State in this campaign.^® 

THE NATIONAL IMMIGRATION CONVENTION 

Closely connected with its efforts to attract newcomers to 
Iowa, is the participation of the State Board of Immigra- 
tion in a National Immigration Convention in the fall of 
1870. The seaboard States had inherited from colonial 

4« Jowo state Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), April 12, 1871; First Biennicl 
Beport of the Board of Immigration, p. 33, Document No. 27 in the Iowa 
Legislative Documents, 1872. 

*"> Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), January 25, 1871; First Bi- 
ennial Beport of the Board of Immigration, p. 30, Document No. 27 in the 
Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872. 

48 Van der Zee's The Hollanders of Iowa, p. 153; First Biennial Beport of 
the Board of Immigration, pp. 14, 30, Document No. 27 in the Iowa Legislative 
Documents, 1872. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



179 



times the privilege and responsibility of regulating the ad- 
mission of foreigners through their ports, and in 1824 New 
York enacted a law requiring the master of every vessel to 
give a bond providing for the indemnification of the State 
or local authorities for any expenses which they might in- 
cur in the support of passengers brought in by his vessel. 
Five years later, in order to provide for the marine hospital, 
an extension of this law imposed a fee of $1.50 on all cabin 
passengers and $1.00 on all steerage passengers entering 
New York harbor. Similar in nature was the tax of $2.00 
imposed on every passenger entering Massachusetts ports 
after 1837, the sum being used as a fund to support "for- 
eign paupers". But in 1849 the Supreme Court of the 
United States declared the New York law of 1829 and the 
Massachusetts law of 1837 unconstitutional on the ground 
that they constituted a regulation of commerce on the part 
of the individual States, a function which by the constitu- 
/ tion was reserved to the national government. The deci- 
sion, however, did not affect the validity of the New York 
act of 1824 which provided for the giving of a bond by ship 
masters to reimburse the State for any expense incurred for 
the support of passengers. Consequently New York and 
other States immediately provided by law for an extension 
of the bonding system with the alternative of commuting 
for the bond by the payment of a stipulated sum. Such pay- 
ment was preferred by most ship masters and the sum be- 
came known as commutation money" or **head money. "*^ 
Though small in itself this sum became a very obnoxious 
charge in the eyes of western men who eagerly desired the 

49 Reports of the Immigration Commission, Vol. XXI, pp. 24-28. This vol- 
ume is entitled Immigration Legislation and in addition to a sketch of the 
development of this legislation in the United States, contains the text of the 
more important State and federal laws bearing on immigration. The Reports 
of the Immigration Commission, are published in Senate Documents, 3rd Ses- 
sion, 61st Congress, Document No. 758. 



180 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



coming of immigrants. That foreigners who had by means 
of patient saving and constant labor been able to gather 
together substance enough to make emigration possible 
should shoulder this additional burden at the very gates of 
the land of freedom seemed a mockery. Moreover, most of 
those who arrived did not tarry in the East, could never be 
a burden in those States and hence their fee was simply a 
donation to the States through whose gates they passed. 
With the annual influx numbering hundreds of thousands 
the western States were deprived of a large amount of 
capital. In spite of the payment of these fees, immigrants, 
it was claimed, were forced to endure inconveniences and 
even cruelties in the receiving stations, especially at Castle 
Garden in New York. Often they were starved during the 
delays, wrote an Iowa citizen in a protest to the officials at 
Des Moines; and when they were dead their bodies were 
sold for purposes of dissection. Captain Wirz of Ander- 
sonville Prison must at one time have passed through this 
establishment, the writer continued, and added, "I do not 
know of any other spot on earth where he could have learned 
that refinement of cruelty. ' ' Moreover, he claimed that let- 
ters from Englishmen disclosed the fact that rumors of 
these terrors were prevalent in foreign lands and that 
these disturbing reports actually deterred some from 
emigrating.^" 

Contemplation of these facts led to the gradual growth of 
the sentiment that the West should have as weighty a voice 
as the East in determining the conditions under which for- 
eigners should be allowed to enter the United States. Let 
the entire matter, it was urged, be taken from the hands of 

50 This letter was written by William Lake of Clinton to Adjutant General 
N. B. Baker. It is printed in the Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), 
November 16, 1870. Mr. Lake was president of the St. George's Benevolent 
Association of Clinton and hence was in close touch with newly-arrived for- 
eigners. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



181 



the States and given to the Federal government.^! So 
strong did this feeling become that in the autumn of 1870 a 
call for a national convention to meet in Indianapolis was 
sent out signed by the governors of Minnesota, Iowa, Ne- 
braska, Missouri, Kansas, Michigan, and Wisconsin. On 
November 23, 1870, the convention was called to order by 
Governor Merrill of Iowa. Eepresentatives were present 
from twenty-two States, two Territories, and the District 
of Columbia as well as the boards of trade of several cities 
and a number of German aid and immigration societies.^- 

Steamship lines and railroads were also interested in a 
freer movement of foreigners and, due to the lack of a def- 
inite program at the opening sessions, representatives of 
these interests were well on the way to assume control of 
the assemblage when the State delegates asserted them- 
selves and after a sharp struggle regained the reins. Dis- 
cussions of the abuses to which the immigrants were 
subjected featured the meetings. The only concrete result 
was the adoption of a series of resolutions — vigorously 
opposed by the representatives of New York — calling for 
more stringent legislation to prevent abuses and frauds, 
negotiation on the part of the President with foreign coun- 
tries to secure a joint jurisdiction over emigrant ships, the 
establishment of a "Bureau of Immigration" under the 
auspices of the Federal government, and condemnation of 
all "schemes, combinations and monopolies" in connection 
with emigrant transportation as well as the "odious and 
unjust" capitation taxes. A committee consisting of one 
person from each State and Territory represented in the 
convention was appointed to memorialize Congress on these 

51 Note the remarks quoted from the St. Louis Democrat in the Iowa State 
Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), September 28, 1870. 

52 Jowo State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), November 30, 1870; Sham- 
baugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. Ill, p. 
360. 



\ 



182 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



points. This gathering, constituting as it does the first 
open assault in the struggle which finally led to the abolition 
of all State restriction on immigration, is worthy of notice 
in connection with Iowa's attitude on this question, espe- 
cially in view of the prominent part which her Grovernor 
assumed in the deliberations.^^ 

THE SECOND BOAED OF IMMIGEATION, 1872-1873 

In his second biennial message, on January 10, 1872, Gov- 
ernor Merrill referred to the operations of the Board, com- 
mented on the difficulty of ascribing specific results to its 
endeavors, and expressed his faith in its value ; but made no 
definite recommendations for future legislation. Popular 
interest in the subject, however, was so great that in both 
the Senate and House of Representatives bills were intro- 
duced providing for a continuation of the Board in slightly 
modified form. Though opposition was manifested the 
Senate bill became a law. The membership was reduced to 
five members one of whom was the Governor, who was to act 
as the president, and the others were appointed by him for 
a term of two years. Ten thousand dollars was appropri- 
ated for the salary of a secretary and for other expenses, 
with the proviso that no money should be paid as a salary 
* ' to any agent who may receive a commission as agent from 
the Board of Immigration."^* 

The composition of the preceding Board had had not been 
entirely satisfactory, because counties in the western part 

63 The following were commissioned by the Governor as Iowa's delegates: 
M. J. Rohlfs, C. Rhynsburger, S. F. Spofford, C. L. Clausen, A. E. Fulton, and 
Louis A. Ochs. First Biennial Report of the Board of Immigration, pp. 12, 13, 
Document No. 27 in the Iowa Legislative Documents, 1872. The participation 
of the shipping interests in this convention is described in an article in Ber 
Wdchentliche Demolcrat (Davenport), December 1, 1870. 

5* Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
Ill, pp. 359, 360; Journal of the Senate, 1872, pp. 303, 411, 417; Journal of 
the Souse of Representatives, 1872, pp. 299, 530, 575; Laws of Iowa, 1872, 
Ch. 23. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



183 



of the State were without an official representative although 
the lands most in need of settlers were in that section. So 
keen had the feeling been over this that leading men in 
western Iowa organized an independent "Immigrant Aid 
Society" to give publicity to the advantages of the less 
densely populated parts of the State. In the organization 
of the new Board, however, criticism of this nature was 
avoided by the selection of Charles V. Gardner of Avoca as 
the fifth member, S. F. Spofford, M. J. Rohlfs, and Marcus 
Tuttle having been reappointed.^^ 

After the organization had been completed Mr. Fulton 
was selected to serve as secretary and preparations were 
made for such activities as the limited funds at their dis- 
posal permitted. Agents were appointed for England, Hol- 
land, Germany, and the eastern States and authority was 
granted the president of the Board to commission other 
agents as he saw fit provided this action entailed no ex- 
pense. Fifteen thousand pamphlets were printed in Ger- 
man, seven thousand in Swedish, and a like number in 
Norwegian. Through the medium of the agents, who were 
assisted by the railroad companies in the matter of trans- 
portation, these leaflets were distributed and, being freely 
copied by newspapers at home and abroad, obtained a 
varied and wide-spread hearing.^® To attract settlers was, 

55 Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
rv, pp. 77, 78; Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), August 17, 1870; 
Council Bluffs Bugle, May 19, 1870. There was also dissatisfaction expressed 
because the Irish element in the State had no representative on the Board 
along with the Dutch, German, and Scandinavian members. Consequently the 
Catholic clergy of Iowa addressed a letter to Honorable Eichard O 'Gorman of 
New York City pointing out the advantages of Iowa and the success of the 
Irish farmers who had already made their homes in the State. A list of many 
of the Catholic priests in the State was added, all of whom promised to faith- 
fully answer any inquiries which might be addressed to them regarding oppor- 
tunities and conditions in their communities. — Iowa State Begister (Weekly, 
Des Moines), July 13, 1870. 

56 Shambaugh 's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 



184 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



however, not the only purpose. Fear was already being felt 
that the coming of large numbers of agricultural laborers 
would cause such a surplus of produce that prices would 
fall to an alarming extent. To prevent this condition the 
Board also emphasized the upbuilding of a home market 
to create a demand for farm products; capital and indus- 
tries as well as homesteaders were to be invited to lowa.^'^ 

Accordingly, H. S. Hyatt, editor and proprietor of the 
Iowa Progress, was given assistance in the compilation of a 
volume. Manufacturing , Agricultural and Industrial Re- 
sources of Iowa, and two thousand copies were ordered for 
distribution by the Board. Sketches of the physical fea- 
tures of the State that appealed to farmer and manufac- 
turer, descriptions of the leading manufacturing and 
industrial centers — including the now forgotten cities of 
Cedar Bluffs and Boonsboro — and a statement of the laws 
of Iowa in reference to aliens were included in its pages.^* 
With the same purpose in view the Board sanctioned the 
calling of an Iowa Industrial Convention, attended by mem- 
bers of boards of trade and other organizations, that met in 
Des Moines during January, 1873. Here the questions of 
encouragement of manufacturing, attraction of capital, 
cheaper transportation, river improvements, and changes 
in the usury, homestead, and other laws were considered.^^ 

At the adjourned session of the Fourteenth General As- 
sembly which met in Des Moines on J anuary 15, 1873, there 
was presented for consideration the work of the Code Com- 
mission. In the Code as finally enacted the pro%dsions 
relating to the Board of Immigration were not retained, but 

IV, p. 78; Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), May 15, December 20, 
1872. 

87 See an editorial in the Iowa City Bepublican, January 29, 1873. 

58 Hyatt's Manufacturing, Agricultural and Industrial Resources of Iowa, 
pp. 28, 52-59, 61-69, 75, 127, 147; Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), 
May 15, 1872. 

59 Iowa State Press (Iowa City), January 22, 1873; Iowa State Segister 
(Weekly, Des Moines), January 24, 1873. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



185 



this omission did not prevent its functioning during the 
succeeding spring and summer. In September, 1873, how- 
ever, the Board went out of existence.^^ 

At this time there remained in the custody of the Board 
about twelve thousand copies of various documents in the 
English and German languages. By a concurrent resolu- 
tion at the next meeting of the legislature, Mr. Fulton was 
authorized to circulate these publications, the actual ex- 
pense of distribution to be paid from the unexpended bal- 
ance of the appropriation made two years earlier.^^ The 
subject of immigration, however, was not an important 
question at this session. An attempt to provide for the 
printing of the report of the Board did not succeed; and 
though the board of supervisors of Palo Alto County peti- 
tioned for the appointment of another body to encourage 
settlers, no bill with this end in view was introduced.®^ 

THE "HONOEAEY" COMMISSIONEES OF IMMIGEATION, 1878-1880 

From 1874 to 1878 there was in Iowa no board or com- 
missioner to aid or solicit immigrants. During the latter 
part of the decade the number of aliens coming to the 
United States fell fifty per cent below the figures for the 
preceding five years,®^ and of those who went on to the West, 

60 Journal of the House of Representatives, 1873, p. 20; Iowa State Register 
(Weekly, Des Moines), January 24, 1873; Shambaugh's Messages and Procla- 
mations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 78. 

^''^ Journal of the Senate, 1874, p. 175; Laws of Iowa (Private), 1874, pp. 
88, 89. 

62 Journal of the Senate, 1874, p. 253; Journal of the Souse of Representa- 
tives, 1874, p. 121. 

63 The figures on immigration for this decade are : 



— Report of the Commissioner General of Immigration in Reports of the De- 
partment of Labor (United States), 1919, p. 494. 



1870 
1871 
1872 
1873 
1874 



387,203. 
321,350. 
404,806. 
459,803. 
313,339. 



1875 
1876 
1877 
1878 
1879 



227,498. 
169,986. 
141,857. 
138,469. 
177,826. 



186 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"warmer Kansas and cheaper Nebraska " were reported as 
attracting more than lowa.*'^ Conditions in Iowa were 
partly responsible for this movement to the trans-Missouri 
lands. The fall of 1877 was particularly depressing. 
''Rains have been nearly incessant", wrote the Secretary of 
the Iowa State Agricultural Society, "sunshine has been 
the rare exception for a month; the roads are impassable; 
the mud unfathomable, and these conditions have laid an 
embargo on all sorts of trade. There is the curious spec- 
tacle of an interstate railroad suspending its freight trains 
because no products could be hauled to its depots. There is 
the marvellous fact that the pork packing season which 
should be nearly ready to close, has hardly had a beginning, 
and reducing prices to a figure much below that of many 
previous years. There is the startling phenomenon of com 
rotting by thousands of acres in the field, and by thousands 
of bushels in the crib, rendered by the rains and mud nearly 
impossible to gather it ; and so depreciated in quality as to 
be nearly unfit to be fed to stock. 

As a result in the succeeding year there was even an 
exodus from the State. In his report for the year 1878 the 
Secretary of the Agricultural Society called attention to 
this emigration from Iowa and declared : ' * They have been 
induced to make this grand mistake by overdrawn sketches, 
and illuring pictures, which have been sent forth in 
pamphlets and scattered all over the land. Thousands of 
their advertisements are left upon car seats and are read 
with avidity by citizen and stranger. Railroad companies, 
emigrant societies, parties in Europe who want to invest in 
what they regard as money making enterprise, pool and 
buy large tracts of land on time, and a low rate of interest, 

«iIowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), April 14, 1875. 

65 Beport of the Secretary of the Iowa State Agricultural Society, 1877, p. 5. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



187 



and even then are using every exertion to get these lands 
into the hands of the actual settler. "^^ 

Economy, a necessary result of the hard times, made im- 
practicable any appropriation large enough to finance a 
systematic advertising campaign to retain present settlers 
and attract new ones ; but agents of land and railroad com- 
panies who in the past had rendered acceptable service in 
cooperation with the State were still available, and it was 
to them that the legislature turned. It was felt that if such 
agents were given authority to use the name of Iowa in 
their efforts mutual benefits would come to both the State 
and the companies. Acting upon this principle a joint reso- 
lution empowered the Governor "to appoint one or more 
commissioners of immigration, provided that the commis- 
sioners so appointed shall serve without expense to the 
state. 

Upon this authority a number of these "honorary" com- 
missioners were designated — more than twenty being en- 
gaged in the activities before the legislature again assem- 
bled.^ Their services, however, were not satisfactory to 
aU tKe people, and the desire for more energetic State 
action was prevalent. "But enough of politics", wrote a 
correspondent to the Iowa State Register, in the conclusion 
of a letter which was filled with the politics of the G-reen- 
backers. "What we want in Guthrie county is immigra- 
tion."^^ Other parts of the State were similarly inclined, 
the people of Palo Alto County taking things into their own 
hands when in March, 1879, a convention at Emmetsburg 
organized a Board of Immigration of their own to forward 

66 Beport of the Secretary of the' Iowa State Agricultural Society, 1878, p. 8. 
«T Laws of Iowa, 1878, p. 177, Joint Eesolution No. 4. 

68 Shambaugh 'a Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
V, p. 84; Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 9, 1880. 

69 Jowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), January 17, 1879. 



188 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the development of northwestern IowaJ° After a decade 
filled with the stormy agitations of new political creeds it 
was with relief that attention was directed to the problem 
of securing laborers to construct the hundreds of miles of 
new railroads planned for the hitherto undeveloped coun- 
ties and finding farmers to till the fields thus rendered 
accessible to markets."^ ^ 

THE SECOND COMMISSIONER OF IMMIGRATION, 1880-1882 

By January, 1880, it was evident that the tide of immi- 
gration would rise in that and succeeding years to un- 
equalled heights. Citizens, who during preceding years had 
been lethargic, now began to covet immigrants when, in 
response to the alluring invitation of other States, they 
passed Iowa byJ^ Governor John H. Gear had been ad- 
vised by American consuls in foreign countries of the pros- 
pective invasion and though admitting the good results of 
the endeavors of the "honorary" agents, in his biennial 
message of January, 1880, he urged an annual appropria- 
tion by the State ' * in order that Iowa may not only main- 
tain its position in the race for empire, but may more speed- 
ily secure the development of its resources through a 
knowledge of their unlimited extent. "'^^ Many of these un- 
official commissioners met in the capital during the legis- 
lative session and in comparing notes found that Kansas 
had been able to accomplish great things by means of an 

70 The Cedar Falls Gazette, March 21, 1879. 

''ilowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 22, May 27, 1881. 
^2 Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), January 2, 1880. The immi- 
gration figures for these years are: 

1880 — 457,257. 1883 — 603,322. 

1881 — 669,431. 1884 — 518,592. 

1882 — 788,992. 1885 — 395,346. 

— Beport of the Commissioner General of Immigration in Beports of the De- 
partment of Labor (United States), 1919, p. 494. 

73 Shambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol, 
V, p. 84. ■ _ 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



189 



animal appropriation and a law giving the county boards of 
supervisors authority to contribute additional sums to aid 
in the movement. Such a policy they recommended as 
worthy of adoption in lowaJ* 

Their interference in the matter, however, put all meas- 
ures proposed in the interest of increased immigration in a 
less favorable position in the eyes of the people, who in the 
recent Granger agitation had learned of the evils of monop- 
oly and corporations. Nevertheless an act designed to 
attract new settlers to Iowa was passed but it came into 
operation under a cloud of suspicion. * ' It is easy to under- 
stand for whom this donation was made", declared the 
Iowa State Register, "as scores of land agents swarmed 
about the capitol and hotels all winter to accomplish this 
purpose. Each one had a private ax to grind. They were 
not men of enlarged philanthropy seeking to build up the 
State with manufacturing establishments, but generally 
such as were land poor, that is, with more land on hand 
than they could pay taxes on. Now we suppose the Gov- 
ernor will be besieged to appoint one of this class, who will 
spend this $10,000 for his and his partner's interests . . 
. . But wait and see who will be fleecing emigrants by 
charging large fees,"'^^ 

These dire prophecies were not fulfilled, for the position 
of Commissioner of Immigration was tendered to George 
D. Perkins and accepted. Mr. Perkins was the editor of the 
Sioux City Journal, enjoyed a wide acquaintance because 
of his newspaper interests, and from his location in the 
newer part of the State was well informed on the prospects 
and needs of the western counties.'^ The sum of five thou- 

74 The Cedar Falls Gazette, February 27, 1880. 

Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 9, 1880. 

i(iIowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), April 23, 1880. For a sketch 
of Mr. Perkins's career see Past and Present of Sioux City and Woodbury 
County, Iowa, 1904, p. 72. 

VOL. XIX — 13 



190 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sand dollars a year for two years had been appropriated of 
which twelve hundred dollars a year was designated as the 
remuneration of the Commissioner of Immigration, who 
was to use the remaining fund to show "to the people of the 
United States the natural advantages and resources of the 
state of lowa."^"^ 

Immediately there arose a question as to the interpreta- 
tion of this clause. Many had approved of the act but had 
failed to note carefully the expression "of the United 
States". When the Commissioner interpreted this phrase 
literally, an important group of those who had sponsored 
the act immediately objected. "We certainly thought the 
law was passed for the purpose of encouraging immigra- 
tion not only from other States but also from Canada, from 
all the countries of Europe, and even from Asia and Af- 
rica," exclaimed the Iowa Staats-Anzeiger. "We had no 
idea that it was a kind of Know-Nothing law and was nar- 
rowed in its application to the people of this country. "'^^ 
Mr. Perkins, nevertheless, did not allow any of the appro- 
priation to be used in foreign countries. "^^ 

One of the first acts of the new Commissioner was the 
holding of an immigration convention at Sheldon, O'Brien 
County, on June 22, 1880. Here, under the direction of the 
Commissioner, subjects such as tree culture, fruit raising, 
dairying, and stock-raising were discussed in formal lec- 
tures and in question periods. Under the title Information 
for the Home-Seeker the proceedings of this gathering were 
printed and ten thousand copies distributed among those 
who desired to know the condition of agriculture in north- 

" Laws of Iowa, 1880, Ch. 168. 

''s Iowa Staats-Anzeiger (Des Moines), April 9, 1880. 

79 Eeport of Commissioner of Immigration, p. 3, in the Iowa Legislative 
Documents, 1882, Vol. I. In spite of Mr. Perkins's declaration there seems to 
have been an agent claiming to be commissioned by the State of Iowa soliciting 
settlers in England in 1881. — Iowa State Register (Weekly, Des Moines), 
February 11, 1881. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



191 



western Iowa. Other publications were later prepared. 
"Auxiliary sheets"— two page pamphlets filled with infor- 
mation regarding the State at large — were furnished in 
quantities to local land dealers who promised to print de- 
scriptions of their particular section on the reverse pages. 
One hundred and seven agents were thus secured who were 
instrumental in distributing 422,000 of these circulars. The 
history, resources, and character of the State were more 
formally set forth in a booklet Homes in the Heart of the 
Continent, of which 36,000 copies were placed in the hands 
of inquirers. Two other pamphlets, Iowa as an Agricul- 
tural State and De Volksvriend, as well as advertisements 
inserted in Eastern papers, presented the opportunities of 
Iowa to many others.*" 

But, unfortunately for the success of this endeavor, the 
same legislature that had created the office of Commission- 
er of Immigration also passed a joint resolution "Pro- 
posing to Amend the Constitution so as to Prohibit the 
Manufacture and Sale of Intoxicating Liquor as a Bever- 
age Within this State. Many of the leading citizens of 
foreign birth were most vehement in their opposition to the 
adoption of this amendment, an attitude which brought 
down upon them and upon all foreign-born residents the 
wrath of the temperance workers. On the one hand the 
pro-liquor press derided the inconsistency of trying to pro- 
mote immigration to a State where "personal liberty" was 
so little regarded. "Had the General Assembly of Iowa 
passed a good license law instead of appropriating $10,000 
for an immigration commissioner, immigration would have 
been treble to what it promises to be in the next two years", 

80 Beport of Commissioner of Immigration, pp. 3-5 in the Iowa Legislative 
DoGuments, 1882, Vol. I; Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), July 2, 
1880. 

81 Lcews of Iowa, 1880, p. 215, Joint Eesolution No. 8. 



192 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



stated the Iowa Staats-Anzeiger?^ On the other hand, the 
prohibition press openly rejoiced that people who were kept 
away on such grounds did not become citizens of Iowa, and 
recommended the putting up the bars in lowa".^^ 

The upshot of this prohibition campaign was the devel- 
opment of a strong anti-foreign sentiment throughout the 
State, with the result that measures to induce immigration 
received little support. **We no longer want people merely 
to count up in the census, or to make stopping places on our 
once wide and unsettled prairies" it was explained. "We 
want the best. For these we can afford to work or to wait. 
They will come in time."** The change that had taken 
place in the course of a few months is illustrated by the 
paper that had once been most eager to attract the op- 
pressed peoples of Europe when it relapsed into the same 
vocabulary that the Eastern States had been making use of 
for fifty years and urged the legislature to pass a law pro- 
hibiting "pauper immigration" to lowa.*^ Under these 
conditions the recommendations of the Governor and Mr. 
Perkins that the office of Commissioner of Immigration be 
retained and further supported met with no success at the 
session of 1884 ; and two years later when a bill was intro- 
duced to encourage immigration to Iowa, the House com- 
mittee to which it was referred reported it back with the 
recommendation **that the same be indefinitely post- 
poned."*^ 

With the termination of Mr, Perkins' period of service, 
the official efforts of the State to attract new inhabitants to 
its cities and farms came to an end. More than eighty years 

Iowa StaatS'Anzeiger (Des Moines), April 2, 1880. 
Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), January 21, 1881. 
»iIowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), May 28, 1880. 
Iowa State Begister (Weekly, Des Moines), May 20, 1881. 
Journal of the House of Bepresentatives, 1886, pp, 185, 213. 



IMMIGRATION TO IOWA 



193 



have now passed since the peopling of Iowa began and in 
the course of those years a stream of virile manhood and 
womanhood has flowed in from the older Commonwealths 
east of the Mississippi and the still older lands beyond the 
sea. The call of the West, the attraction of cheap lands, 
the solicitation of commercial interests, and the invitation 
of the State itself were each responsible for the coming of 
some, and in many cases there was a mingling of all these 
factors. To declare which of these was the most effective 
agent in securing settlers is impossible until each has been 
the subject of thorough investigation. Here only a sum- 
mary can be made of the efforts of the State of Iowa. 

A consideration of the preceding facts indicates that 
there has been no consistent policy. Five acts^'^ have been 
passed, but of these no two have been similar in all details. 
One provided for a Commissioner to reside in New York 
City and direct the newcomers to the State. Another lo- 
cated the Commissioner in Des Moines and his campaign of 
advertising was to be conducted from this place. An in- 
definite number of "honorary" commissioners was made 
possible by a third law. Two Boards of Immigration have 
been created — their activities from the spring of 1870 to 
1873 marking the only period of any length when a con- 
tinuous effort was made, and even this was brought to a 
premature end, leaving undistributed a great amount of 
literature. Nine and a half years is the total space of time 
covered by the terms of these boards and officials, yet they 
extended over a period of twenty-two years from 1860 to 
1882. To carry on these activities total appropriations of 
$29,500 have been made. 

The following 13 a summary of these efforts : 







Appropriation 


Service 


1860: 


Commissioner of Immigration 


$ 4,500 


2 


yrs. 


1870: 


Board of Immigration 


5,000 


2 


yrs. 


1872: 


Board of Immigration 


10,000 


iy2 


yrs. 


1878: 


Commissioners of Immigration 




2 


yrs. 


1880: 


Commissioner of Immigration 


10,000 


2 


yrs. 




Total 


$29,500 




yrs. 



194 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Statistics give no clue to the effect of tlie State's endeav- 
ors. The increase in the total number of foreign-born was 
remarkably steady from 1850 to 1900, indicating a perma- 
nent movement rather than violent fluctuations caused by 
changed policies.®^ The dates of the establishment of these 
offices come shortly after the beginning of upward trends 
in the wave of immigration indicating that they were cre- 
ated as a result of the increase in immigration rather than 
that the movement was influenced by them. Indeed, con- 
temporary sources would almost seem to show that the 
legislators were influenced not so much by a desire to get 
settlers for Iowa, as to keep other States from securing 
them. Too often politics came in to affect the decisions: 
some objected because a Governor belonging to the other 
party would have the appointment in his hands; others 
approved because they could thus secure the good will of 
voters of foreign birth. 

The abolition of all fees at the seaports which was so 
vigorously urged by the Immigration Convention in 1870 
was secured in 1876 when the Supreme Court of the United 
States declared the laws of New York and other coast 

For these acts see Laws of Iowa, 1860, Ch. 53, Sees. 1, 3, 1870, Ch. 34, Sees. 
1, 10, 1872, Ch. 23, Sees. 1, 2, 1878, Joint Eesolution No. 4, 1880, Ch. 168, 
Sees. 1, 3. 

88 The total numbers of foreign-born in Iowa according to the census reports 
were : 

1850 — 20,969. 1880 — 261,650. 

1860 — 106,077. 1890 — 324,069. 

1870 — 204,692. 1900 — 305,920. 

These figures are printed in Distribution of Immigrants, 1850-1900, pp. 445- 
447, in Reports of the Immigration Commission, Vol. XX. 



IMIGRATION TO IOWA 



195 



States, imposing fees on immigrants, unconstitutional. 
Immediately these States which were obliged to receive the 
newcomers but had no way of charging them with the ex- 
penses of such supervision began agitation for the imposi- 
tion of a national tax which, however, was effectively op- 
posed especially by the transportation interests.^^ In 1882, 
however, a law was passed which laid a duty of fifty cents 
on each passenger not a citizen of the United States. This 
sum was paid into an "immigrant fund" which was used to 
carry out the other provisions of the Act — the protection 
of newly-arrived aliens and the relief of those in distress. 
This tax was in no sense intended to act as a method of 
limiting immigration, the principle of unrestricted immi- 
gration upheld by the western States in 1870 still obtain- 
ing.»<> 

Since 1882 there has been in Iowa no definite and official 
encouragement of immigration. Indeed, so far as the of- 
ficial opinion of the State is embodied in the Governor's 
biennial and inaugural messages the sentiment favors a 
restriction on the influx of foreigners.^^ 

Maecus L. Hansen 

S9 Beports of the Immigration Commission, Vol. XXI, pp. 30, 31. 

90 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXII, p. 214. 

91 Sliambaugh's Messages and Proclamations of the Governors of Iowa, Vol. 
VI, p. 9, Vol. VII, p. 117. 



1 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE OF THE UNITED 
STATES 1860-1890^ 



I 

The purpose of this study is to consider some of the dis- 
tinctive features of the internal grain trade of the United 
States during the period from 1860 to 1890, Various move- 
ments and developments in the preceding period had re- 
sulted in the establishment, by 1860, of a mutual economic 
dependence between the three great sections of the Union 
— the manufacturing East, the plantation South, and the 
food producing West — and upon this the growing volume 
of internal trade depended.^ The three decades following 
1860 witnessed the rapid transformation of American agri- 
culture from a primitive, pioneer, largely self-sufficing type 
of industry into a modem business organized on a scien- 
tific, capitalistic, commercial basis. The most significant 
result of this transformation was the rise of the United 
States to the leading place among the nations of the world 
in the production of grain and live stock — a position which 

1 This is the first of two articles covering the period 1860—1890. Other 
phases of the period will be treated in a later article. Attention is directed to 
an earlier article by the same writer on The Internal Grain Trade of the 
United States, 1S50-1860, which appeared in The Iowa Jouknal of Histoet 
AND Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 94-124. 

2 It is interesting to note that the Federal Government made no provision 
for the collection of information on the internal trade of the United States 
until 1876 when the first annual report was issued; while from the very begin- 
ning of the national period of our history full and complete statistics on for- 
eign commerce had been collected and published in a document known as the 
Annual Report on the Commerce and Navigation of the United States. See the 
Beport of the Select Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard 
(Washington, 1874), Vol. I, p. 8, and the Annual Beport on the Internal Com- 
merce of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), 1876, 
pp. 8, 9. 

196 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



197 



this country had already long since attained and still con- 
tinued to hold with respect to cotton and tobacco. Grain 
was the most important American product and the leading 
item entering into the nation's domestic and foreign com- 
merce. Its production and distribution therefore consti- 
tutes a subject of fundamental interest and significance in 
the study of American economic development.^ 

In undertaking a consideration of the internal grain trade 
of the United States during this period, attention will be 
given to the following aspects of the problem: first, the 
rapid expansion in the production of grain; second, the 
geographic distribution of population and grain produc- 
tion; third, the principal transportation routes connecting 
the surplus grain States of the North Central region with 
the consuming States of the East and the South; fourth, 
the growth of the great primary grain markets of the Mid- 
dle West ; and fifth, the movement of grain and flour from 
the primary markets to the Atlantic and Gulf ports. The 
grain trade of the Pacific coast will not be considered in 
this paper, inasmuch as this subject may more conveniently 
be treated in another article, A study of foreign grain 
trade of the United States during this period will also be 
presented in a subsequent paper. 

THE RAPID EXPANSION IN THE PRODUCTION OF GRAIN 

The rapid development of the grain growing industry in 
the United States is shown by Table I, which gives the pro- 
duction of the six leading cereals by ten-year periods from 
1859 to 1889, It will be seen that the volume of corn pro- 
duction in 1859 amounted to 838,793,000 bushels. This was 
decreased in 1869 to 760,945,000 bushels, owing to the dis- 

3 See Schmidt 'a articles on The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 
1850-1860, in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. VIII, pp. 
94r-124; and Some Significant Aspects of the Agrariam, Eevol/ution in the 
United States in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, Vol. XVIII, 
pp, 371-395. 



198 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Table I 



Peoduction op the Six Leading Cereals of the 


United States by Ten-Year Periods 






PROM 1859 TO 1889* 






1859 


1869 


Cereal 




Bushels 




Bushels 




Bushels 


PER 


Bushels 


PER 






Capita 




Capita 


Corn 


838,792,742 


26.6 


760,944,549 


19.8 


Wheat 


173,104,924 


5.5 


287,745,626 


7.4 


Oats 


172,643,185 


5.4 


282,107,157 


7.3 


Barley 


15,825,898 


.50 


29,761,305 


.77 


Eye 


21,101,380 


.67 


16,918,795 


.43 


Buckwheat 


17,571,818 


.55 


9,921,721 


.25 


Total 


1,239,039,947 


39.22 


1,387,299,153 


35.95 






1879 


1889 


Cereal 




Bushels 




Bushels 




Bushels 


PER 


Bushels 


PER 






Capita 




Capita 


Corn 


1,754,591,676 


34.9 


2,122,327,547 


33.8 


Wheat 


459,483,137 


9.2 


468,373,968 


7.4 


Oats 


407,858,999 


8.2 


809,250,666 


13.0 


Barley 


43,997,495 


.87 


78,332,976 


LI 


Eye 


19,831,595 


.39 


28,421,398 


0.4 


Buckwheat 


11,817,327 


.23 


12,110,349 


0.19 


Total 


2,697,580,229 


53.79 


3,518,816,904 


55.89 



■* The writer is indebted to Miss Mary Nicholson of Winterset, Iowa, a senior 
student in History and Economics at the Iowa State College of Agriculture 
and Mechanic Arts during the academic year of 1920-1921, for assistance in 
the preparation of the statistical tables used in this paper. 

The statistics used in Table I, giving the complete returns of each of the six 
leading cereals for the four census years included in this period, are taken 
from the tables of the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 
72-93. The per capita returns are based on these tables and on the statistics 
of population presented in Table II of this paper. For a brief historical 
sketch of American agriculture, particularly as related to grain production, see 
Brewer's Eeport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 131-141, 
in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. For a brief state- 
ment of some of the more important aspects of grain production in the United 
States, see pp. 142-152 of the same report. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 199 



astrous effects of the Civil War on Southern agriculture 
which before 1860 had contributed a fair share of the total 
annual product. During the succeeding decade, however, 
production was more than doubled, amounting in 1879 to 
1,754,592,000 bushels. This was further increased in 1889 
to 2,122,328,000 bushels — an amount which represented 
about two and one-half times the returns of 1859. Wheat 
increased steadily from 173,105,000 bushels in 1859 to 
287,746,000 bushels in 1869, mounted rapidly to 459,483,000 
bushels in 1879, and then increased more slowly until 1889 
when 468,374,000 bushels were produced. This represented 
an increase to more than two and one-half times the amount 
shown in the returns of 1859. Oats showed even a more 
remarkable proportionate increase than either com or 
wheat, rising from 172,643,000 bushels in 1859 to 282,107,000 
bushels in 1869. This was steadily increased to 407,859,000 
bushels in 1879, after which production was expanded still 
more rapidly, amounting in 1889 to 809,251,000 bushels — 
nearly five times the volume of production in 1859. Barley 
showed a similar proportionate increase, although this 
cereal was of much less importance as to total volume of 
production which in 1859 amounted to only 15,826,000 
bushels. This was increased to 29,761,000 bushels in 1869 
after which there was a continued rise to 43,997,000 bushels 
in 1879. This was doubled during the succeeding decade, 
the volume of production in 1889 amounting to 78,333,000 
bushels, or nearly five times the returns of 1859. Rye 
which was of greater importance than barley in 1859, 
amounting in that year to 21,101,000 bushels, decreased in 
both absolute and relative importance to 16,919,000 bushels 
in 1869, then increased to 19,832,000 bushels in 1879, there- 
after rising to 28,421,000 bushels in 1889. This represented 
an increase to an amount less than one and one-half times 
the returns of 1859. Buckwheat was even of less impor- 



200 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tance than rye, decreasing from 17,572,000 bushels in 1859 
to 9,922,000 bushels in 1869, and then increasing only 
slightly to 11,817,000 bushels in 1879 and amounting to but 
12,110,000 bushels in 1889. The total volume of production 
of the six leading cereals amounted in 1859 to 1,239,040,000 
bushels. This was increased to 1,387,299,000 bushels in 
1869, in spite of the disturbances caused by the Civil War. 
The next ten years showed a marvellous expansion in 
cereal production, the returns of 1879 amounting to 
2,697,580,000 bushels, while in 1889 the returns amounted 
to 3,518,817,000 bushels. This represented an increase to 
an amount three times that returned by the United States 
Census of 1860. 

The significance of the rapid expansion in the volume of 
grain production during this period is further emphasized 
by the increase in per capita production. It will be seen by 
reference to Table I that while the production of com de- 
creased from 26.6 bushels per capita in 1859 to 19.8 bushels 
in 1869, the returns for 1879 increased to 34.9 bushels and 
thereafter were maintained at the same high average until 
1889 when 33.8 bushels were returned. Wheat production 
increased with marvellous rapidity, rising from 5.5 bushels 
per capita in 1859 to 7.4 bushels in 1869 and then to 9.2 
bushels in 1879, thereafter decreasing to 7.4 bushels in 
1889, which represented a return to the per capita produc- 
tion of 1869. Oats showed a consistent growth from 5.4 
bushels per capita in 1859 to 7.3 bushels in 1869, rising 
further to 8.2 bushels in 1879, and finally reaching 13 bush- 
els in 1889. Barley, although of minor importance, showed 
an increase of from five-tenths of a bushel in 1859 to nearly 
eight-tenths of a bushel in 1869, rising further to nine- 
tenths of a bushel in 1879, and then to one and one-tenth 
bushels in 1889. Eye decreased from seven-tenths of a 
bushel per capita in 1859 to four-tenths of a bushel in 1869, 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



201 



wMcli amount was maintained approximately in the re- 
turns of 1879 and 1889. Buckwheat showed a steady de- 
cline for each census period, decreasing from six-tenths of 
a bushel per capita in 1859 to two-tenths of a bushel in 
1889. Finally, it will be seen that while the production of 
the six leading cereals combined was decreased from 39.22 
bushels per capita in 1859 to 35.98 bushels in 1869, the re- 
turns for 1879 amounted to 53.79 bushels and finally 
reached 55.89 bushels in 1889. 

The rapid expansion in the grain-growing industry of the 
United States during this period was due to the operation 
of the following forces : first, the existence of a vast empire 
of virgin land, the soil and climate of which were well 
adapted to the raising of grain, and the liberal policy of 
the Federal Government favoring the rapid transference of 
this land from public to private ownership under the home- 
stead, preemption, and various other acts; second, the 
rapid growth of population, including a great influx of 
European immigrants who helped recruit the labor forces 
necessary for the development of agriculture, industry, and 
commerce; third, the introduction into general use of im- 
proved labor saving farm machinery ; fourth, the extension 
and development of transportation facilities; fifth, the 
growth of domestic and foreign markets; and, sixth, the 
development of agencies for the promotion of scientific 
knowledge relating to agriculture, among which may be 
mentioned the Federal and State departments of agricul- 
ture, the State colleges of agriculture and mechanic arts, 
experiment stations, farmers' organizations, and the agri- 
cultural press.^ 

Through the operation of these forces, the total area of 
land in farms was increased from 407,213,000 acres in 1860 

5 For a brief consideration of these forces, see Schmidt 's article on Some 
Significant Aspects of the Agrarian Bevolution in the United States in The 
Iowa Joubnal op History and Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 371-395. 



202 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to 623,219,000 acres in 1890. Much more significant, how- 
ever, is the fact that whereas the area of improved land in 
farms amounts to but 163,111,000 acres in 1860, this was 
rapidly expanded to 357,617,000 acres in 1890.« The in- 
crease in grain production was due in part to the cultiva- 
tion of new lands in the West and Northwest; but it was 
more largely due to the gain in the farming regions already 
occupied by 1870, the statistics of production showing that 
most of the grain was recorded for regions which had for 
some time been under cultivation.'^ 

THE GEOGEAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF POPULATION AND 
GRAIN PRODUCTION 

The North Central region became the granary of the 
nation. This section includes the twelve States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, Iowa, 
Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, and North and South Da- 
kota, which together have a land area of 756,368 square 
miles, or 484,075,520 acres — an area equal to one-fourth of 
the entire area of continental United States. It is an agri- 
cultural empire more than three and one-half times the area 
of the French Republic, more than five times the area of 
the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, and 
eleven times the area of the State of Iowa. This vast 
region is in turn divided into two geographic divisions by 
the Mississippi River: the five East North Central States 
of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Michigan, with a 
land area of 248,105 square miles, or 157,160,960 acres ; and 
the seven West North Central States of Iowa, Minnesota, 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, and the two Dakotas, with an 
area of 518,379 square miles, or 326,914,560 acres.^ Here 

6 These statistics are taken from a table in the Twelfth Censtis of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. V, pp. xviii, xix. 

7 Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 2, in the 
Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

8 These statistics are taken from tables in the Thirteenth Census of the 
United States, 1910, Vol. I, pp. 39, 45. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 203 



in this great economic empire, the agricultural possibilities 
of which were only beginning to be realized in 1860, a great 
cereal kingdom was being founded upon which the East and 
the South became to an ever increasing extent dependent 
for the bread stuffs and provisions needed to fill the grow- 
ing deficits in the home supplies. 

The predominant importance of this region as the gran- 
ary of the nation is shown by a comparative study of cereal 
production by geographic divisions during this period. The 
divisions adopted for this study are: first, the North At- 
lantic division comprising the six New England States of 
Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maine, New 
Hampshire, and Vermont, and the three middle Atlantic 
States of New York, Pennsylvania, and New Jersey; sec- 
ond, the South Atlantic division, comprising the eight 
States of Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Florida, West Virginia, Delaware, and Maryland, 
with the District of Columbia included in this division; 
third, the North Central division, comprising the twelve 
States already mentioned; fourth, the South Central divi- 
sion, comprising the eight States of Kentucky, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Oklahoma, and 
Texas; and fifth, the- Western division, comprising the 
eight mountain States and Territories of Montana, Wy- 
oming, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, and 
Idaho, and the three Pacific States of California, Oregon, 
and Washington.^ The relative importance of these five 
divisions in population and grain production will now be 
considered. 

It will be seen by reference to Table II, showing the 
geographic distribution of population in the United States 
by ten-year periods from 1860 to 1890, that the North At- 

9 These five geographic divisions are defined in accordance with the principle 
of classification adopted in the United States Census Eeports of 1890 and 1900. 



\ 



204 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Table II 



Geographic Distribution of Population in the 
United States by Ten-Year Periods 
PROM 1860 to 189010 


Division 


1860 


1870 


1880 


1890 


North Atlantic 
South Atlantic 
North Central 
South Central 
Western 


10,594,268 
5,564,703 
9,096,716 
6,768,658 
618,976 


12,298,730 
5,853,610 

12,981,111 
6,434,410 
990,510 


14,507,407 
7,597,197 

17,364,111 
8,919,371 
1,767,697 


17,401,545 
8,857,920 
22,362,279 
10,972,893 
3,027,613 


Total 


31,443,321 


38,558,371 


50,155,783 


62,622,250 



lantic division still maintained the lead in 1860 with a 
population of 10,595,000; while the North Central division 
was a close second with 9,097,000. The South Central divi- 
sion came next with 6,769,000, and the South Atlantic divi- 
sion followed with 5,565,000; while the Western division 
came last with only 619,000. By 1870, the population of the 
North Central division had been increased to 12,981,000, 
thus placing it in the lead by a small margin over the North 
Atlantic division which was now reduced to second place 
with 12,299,000. The South Central division had suffered 
a slight loss in population during the Civil War period but 
still retained third place with 6,434,000. The South Atlan- 
tic division came next with 5,854,000 ; while the population 
of the Western division now numbered 991,000. The lead 
in population which the North Central division had thus 
achieved over the North Atlantic division by 1870 was 
maintained by a considerable margin at the two succeeding 
census periods. By 1880 the population of this division had 
been increased to 17,364,000; while that of the North At- 
lantic division had been decreased to 14,507,000. The South 
Central division now had a population of 8,919,000; while 

10 These statistics are taken from a table in the Ttcelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. I, pp. xxii, xxiii. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



205 



the South Atlantic division had 7,597,000. The Western 
division had meanwhile increased its numbers to 1,768,000. 
In 1890 the North Central division had a population of 
22,362,000 — nearly 4,961,000 more than the population of 
the North Atlantic division which now numbered 17,402,000. 
The population of the South Central division now num- 
bered 10,973,000, or less than half of the population of the 
North Central division; while the South Atlantic division 
had a population of 8,858,000. The population of the West- 
ern division numbered 3,028,000, or only about one-seventh 
of the population of the North Central division. 

A study of the geographic distribution of corn produc- 
tion in the United States by ten-year periods from 1859 to 
1889, as set forth by Table III, shows that the North Cen- 
tral division was in 1859 already far in the lead with 
406,167,000 bushels which represented 48.4 per cent of the 
entire crop. This was increased in 1869 to 439,245,000 
bushels — an amount only slightly in excess of that re- 
turned for this division in 1859, but which, due to the sharp 
decline in the corn production of the Southern States dur- 
ing the Civil War and Eeconstruction period, represented 
57.7 per cent of the entire corn crop of the nation. The next 
decade was a period of remarkable expansion in the corn 
growing industry of the North Central division, the returns 
for 1879 amounting to 1,285,285,000 bushels, which was 
nearly treble the amount returned by the previous census 
and represented 73.2 per cent of the entire crop. This was 
further increased in 1889 to 1,598,870,000 bushels which rep- 
resented 75.3 per cent of the nation's product. The South 
Central division ranked second in the production of corn, 
the returns for 1859 amounting to 229,596,000 bushels, or 
27.4 per cent of the whole crop. This was decreased in 
1869 to 165,583,000 bushels, or 21.8 per cent of the entire 
crop, and then increased in 1879 to 245,520,000 bushels 



vol.. XIX — 14 



206 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



which exceeded the returns for 1859, though this product 
represented but 14 per cent of the whole product. The 
further development of corn production in this division 
during the eighties brought the returns up to 314,701,000 
bushels which represented 14.8 per cent of the entire crop. 
The South Atlantic division ranked third with a return of 
134,493,000 bushels in 1859, or 16 per cent of the entire 
crop. This was decreased in 1869 to 86,527,000 bushels, or 
11.4 per cent of the entire crop, and then increased in 1879 
to 129,266,000 bushels, which amount, however, represented 
but 7.4 per cent of the entire crop. In 1889, this division 
showed but a slight increase over the previous decade, the 
returns for that year amounting to 131,456,000 bushels, 
which represented but 6.2 per cent of the entire crop. The 
North Atlantic division ranked fourth in the production of 
corn with a return in 1859 of 67,146,000 bushels, or 8 per 
cent of the entire crop. This amount was maintained in 
1869 at almost exactly the same level, at the same time rep- 
resenting 8.8 per cent of the entire crop. During the next 
decade there was a slight increase in corn production, the 
returns for 1879 amounting to 91,039,000 bushels, which, 
however, represented but 5.2 per cent of the entire product. 
This was decreased in 1889 to 72,191,000 bushels represent- 
ing but 3.4 per cent of the nation's crop. The Western 
division came last, being of almost negligible importance in 
the production of corn, as shown by the returns of 1859 
which amounted to but 1,392,000 bushels representing only 
two-tenths of one per cent of the entire crop. In 1869, this 
was nearly doubled, the returns for that year amounting to 
2,331,000 bushels and representing three-tenths of one per 
cent of the entire crop. This was steadily increased to 1879 
when 3,482,000 bushels were produced, representing two- 
tenths of one per cent of the entire crop. Although pro- 
duction continued to increase steadily, the returns for 1889 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 207 



amounted to but 5,109,000 bushels, which represented only 
three-tenths of one per cent of the nation's entire product. 

The primary significance of the North Central division in 
the production of com is further emphasized by a compara- 
tive analysis of the average per capita production of the 
several geographic divisions. It will be noted by reference 
to Table III that while the per capita production of this 



Table III 



Geographic 


Distribution op Corn Production in the United 


States by Ten-Yeae Periods prom 1859 to 


188911 






1859 


1869 






z 


< 






< 

0. 


Division 


Bushels 


B O 


no 
a « 


Bushels 


(ago 


M -1 

KO 

s « 






K a (s 


pa A. 




H Z K 


m a. 


N. Atlantic 


67,145,711 


8.0 


6.3 


67,257,881 


8.8 


5.4 


S. Atlantic 


134,492,952 


16.0 


25.6 


86,527,333 


11.4 


13.0 


N. Central 


406,166,733 


48.4 


44.6 


439,244,945 


57.7 


33.0 


S. Centkal 


229,595,558 


27.4 


38.5 


165,583,195 


21.8 


25.7 


Western 


1,391,788 


0.2 


2.2 


2,331,195 


0.3 


2.3 






1879 


1889 






f 


< 




&■ 


-<: 
«S 






« S 


« < 






J b 

w ■< 


Division 


Bushels 


o S a, 
et-o 


so 

s « 


Bushels 


o g 
a! s- o 
M a OS 


S « 






w Z OS 


^ SI 






n b 


N. Atlantic 


91,038,700 


5.2 


6.2 


72,191,305 


3.4 


4.5 


S. Atlantic 


129,266,107 


7.4 


17.0 


131,455,786 


6.2 


14.0 


N. Central 


1,285,284,661 


73.2 


73.9 


1,598,870,008 


75.3 


71.5 


S. Central 


245,520,048 


14.0 


27.5 


314,701,239 


14.8 


28.7 


Western 


3,482,160 


0.2 


1.9 


5,109,209 


0.3 


1.6 



11 The statistics used in this table giving the complete returns of corn pro- 
duction by geographic divisions for these four census periods, together with 
the percentage of the nation's entire product contributed by each division, are 
taken from a table in the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, 
pp. 80, 81. The per capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics 
of population presented in Table II of this paper. For an extended review of 



208 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



division was decreased from 44.6 bushels in 1859 to 33 
bushels in 1869, this reduction was more than counter- 
balanced by the rapid expansion of the seventies which in 
1879 brought the per capita production of this division up 
to 73.9 bushels. This high average was maintained during 
the succeeding decade with a reduction by only a slight 
margin to 71.5 bushels in 1889. Taking the period as a 
whole it will therefore be seen that the corn production of 
this division ran far ahead of the increase in population. 
The South Central division in 1859 produced 38.5 bushels of 
corn per capita, or nearly as much as the North Central 
division produced in the same year. This was reduced in 
1869 to 25.7 bushels, then increased in 1879 to 27.5 bushels, 
and in 1889 to 28.7 bushels. Thus while the South Central 
division had by 1879 recovered sufficiently from the effects 
of the war to exceed the volume of corn which this division 
produced in 1859, the increased production did not keep 
pace with the growth of population, the per capita produc- 
tion declining from 38.5 bushels in 1859 to 28.7 bushels in 
1889 — a decrease of 9.8 bushels per capita for this period; 
while the North Central division increased its per capita 
production from 44.6 bushels in 1859 to 71.5 bushels in 1889 
— an increase of 26.9 bushels per capita during the same 
time. Or, to state it in another way: the North Central 
division in 1889 produced two and one-half times as much 
corn per capita as the South Central division produced in 
the same year. The South Atlantic division did not recover 
sufficiently by 1889 to produce the volume of corn which was 

corn production in the United States according to the census returns of 1880, 
see especially: Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United States, 
pp. 90-110, in the Tenth Census of the United States, 18S0, Vol. III. Maps 
6, 7, 8, and 9, showing the geographic distribution of corn production in the 
United States in 1879, are essential. See also: Statistical Atlas of the United 
States: Eleventh Census, 1890, maps 297, 298, 299, and 300, showing the geo- 
graphic distribution of corn production in the United States according to the 
census of 1890. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



209 



returned for this division in 1859. Consequently, its per 
capita production, which suffered a sharp decline from 25.6 
bushels in 1859 to 13 bushels in 1869, was increased in 1879 
to only 17 bushels which in 1889 was decreased to 14 bush- 
els. The per capita production of this division in 1889 was 
therefore but a little more than half of the amount returned 
in 1859; it was about half of the per capita production of 
the South Central division in 1889 ; and it was only one-fifth 
of the per capita production of the North Central division 
for the same year. The North Atlantic division, as already 
noted, occupied a position of relatively minor importance in 
the production of corn, the per capita returns reported for 
this division in 1859 amounting to but 6.3 bushels which 
were further decreased in 1869 to 5.4 bushels. This was 
increased again in 1879 to 6,2 bushels which however was 
reduced in 1889 to 4.5 bushels, or one-sixteenth of the per 
capita production of the North Central division for the same 
year. The Western division in 1859 showed the compara- 
tively insignificant return of 2.2 bushels of corn per capita 
which was maintained in 1869, but reduced in 1879 to 1.9 
bushels to be followed by a further reduction in 1889 to 1.6 
bushels. 

It will therefore be seen that while the production of corn 
was widely distributed throughout the vast region from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico and from the Atlantic 
Coast to the "Western Plains and in scattered regions be- 
yond, the North Central division contributed from one-half 
to three-fourths of the entire corn crop of the nation and 
registered the highest per capita production of the several 
geographic divisions. Of further significance is the fact 
that the bulk of the crop was produced by half a dozen 
States. These States in 1859 were, in order of their impor- 
tance: Illinois, Ohio, Missouri, Indiana, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee, which together produced 53.5 per cent of the 



210 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



entire crop. In 1869 the States of Illinois, Iowa, OMo, Mis- 
souri, Indiana, and Kentucky produced 57.1 per cent of the 
whole crop. In 1879, the States of Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Indiana, Ohio, and Kansas produced 64,8 per cent of the 
entire product. In 1889 the States of Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, 
Nebraska, Missouri, and Ohio together produced 65.6 per 
cent of the nation's product.^^ The region of greatest corn 
production extended from Ohio to the western plains of 
Kansas and Nebraska and northward from the thirty-sixth 
parallel of latitude.^^ It included the seven States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska 
which have since become designated as ''the corn-belt 
States ' The center of com production was located in these 
States, moving rapidly westward throughout this period. 
In 1849, it was about 86 miles east-southeast of Columbus, 
Ohio; in 1859 it was 47 miles west-southwest of New Al- 
bany, Indiana; in 1869, it was 90 miles southwest of Indi- 
anapolis, Indiana; 1879, it was 36 miles southeast of 
Springfield, Illinois ; and in 1889, it was 55 miles southwest 
of Springfield, or about 480 miles west and 5 miles north of 
the center of production in 1850," 

The rapid growth of the corn belt States is well illus- 
trated by Iowa. This State in 1859 produced 42,411,000 
bushels of com or 5 per cent of the entire crop; in 1869 it 
produced 68,935,000 bushels, or 9.1 per cent of the whole 
crop; in 1879, it showed the remarkably high return of 
275,014,000 bushels, or 15.7 per cent of the entire product ; 
and in 1889, it achieved first rank with 313,131,000 bushels, 
which represented 14,8 per cent of the nation's com pro- 

12 These percentages are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 80, 81. 

13 See Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 
90, 92, in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

1* Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI. p. 24. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE • 211 



duction.is rpj^g pgj. capita returns for this State amounted 
in 1859 to 62.8 bushels ; in 1869, to 57.7 bushels ; in 1879, to 
169.2 bushels ; and in 1889, to 163.8 bushels.^« Illinois af- 
fords another good illustration. In 1859, this State pro- 
duced 115,175,000 bushels, or 13.7 per cent of the entire 
crop; in 1869, it produced 129,921,000 bushels, or 17.1 per 
cent of the whole crop; in 1879, it contributed the greatly 
increased return of 325,792,000 bushels, or 18.6 per cent of 
the entire crop; and in 1889, when it was superseded by 
Iowa for first place, it made the decreased return of 
289,697,000 bushels, or 13.7 per cent of the nation's prod- 
uct." The per capita returns of Illinois amounted to 67.3 
bushels in 1859, which was reduced to 51.2 bushels in 1869. 
This was rapidly increased to 105.9 bushels in 1879 and then 
again reduced in 1889 to 75.7 bushels.^* The other States 
of the corn belt showed a similar rapid development. 

"While various causes have conduced to this increased 
production in any one State," observed W. H. Brewer, 
"among which are increase of population and better trans- 
portation facilities, yet the amounts grown in these late 
years could not have been produced and gathered by the 
population with the means and by the methods employed in 
growing the crop forty years ago. The relative increase of 
production is mostly on those soils of the West that admit 
the use of the most improved implements for the cultivation 
of the crop. The average yield per acre is about as large in 
some of the Eastern States, where the cultivation is more 
difificult, but a given amount of human labor producing a 

15 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 80, 81. 

16 Blodgett's Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Division of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 20. 

17 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 80, 81. 

18 Blodgett 's Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Division of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 20. 



212 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



smaller result, the crop is not grown to so great an extent. 
Ease of tillage, capability of planting and gathering large 
crops with a minimum of hand labor, along with sufficient 
fertility of soil to grow fair crops, characterize all the re- 
gions of specially large production. "^^ 

Wheat is the second cereal in quantity of production, but 
the first in commercial importance. It will be seen by ref- 
erence to Table IV, showing the geographic distribution of 



Table IV 



Geographic Distribution of Wheat Production in 


THE 


United States by Ten-Year Periods from 1859 to 1889 




1859 


1869 






a « 


< 

K < 






< 
- < 


Division 


Bushels 


e I; o 

H /5 OS 

di wo 


SO 

s « 

w 't 


Bushels 


Per ci 
Entir 
Crop 


so 








M £ 


N. Atlantic 


24,569,681 


14.2 


2.3 


35,153,555 


12.2 


2.8 


S. Atlantic 


28,737,216 


16.6 


5.3 


22,326,598 


7.8 


3.8 


N. Central 


95,005,130 


54.9 


10.4 


194,934,540 


67.7 


15.0 


S. Central 


17,128,600 


9.9 


2.9 


14,413,921 


5.0 


2.2 


Western 


7,664,297 


4.4 


12.4 


20,917,012 


7.3 


21.1 






1879 


1889 








< 

>J a. 




Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


< 


Division 


Bushels 


Per cei 
Entire 
Croi' 


B <. 
S O 

e Z 


Bushels 


B < 

s o 

P3 S 


N. Atlantic 


34,178,947 


7.4 


2.3 


32,012,544 


6.8 


1.8 


S. Atlantic 


28,534,367 


6.2 


3.7 


27,435,104 


5.9 


3.1 


N. Central 


329,550,755 


71.7 


18.9 


321,316,830 


68.6 


14.3 


S. Central 


24,278,499 


5.3 


2.7 


24,502,856 


5.2 


2.2 


Western 


42,940,569 


9.4 


24.3 


63,106,634 


13.5 


20.7 



19 Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 91, in 
the Tenth Ccnsm of the United States, 1S80, Vol. III. 



20 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of corn pro- 
duction by geographic divisions, together with the percentage of the nation's 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



213 



wheat production in the United States by ten-year periods 
from 1859 to 1889, that the North Central division in 1859 
was already producing more than half of the nation's crop, 
the returns for that year amounting to 95,005,000 bushels, 
which represented 54.9 per cent of the entire product. The 
high price of wheat, occasioned by the growing foreign de- 
mand during the sixties, gave a great stimulus to the wheat 
growing industry, with the result that the production of 
this division was doubled during the decade, the returns for 
1869 amounting to 194,935,000 bushels, representing 67.7 
per cent of the entire crop. This was further increased in 
1879 to 329,551,000 bushels, or 71.5 per cent of the whole 
crop; while the returns for 1889 showed a slight decrease 
to 321,317,000 bushels, representing 68.6 per cent of the en- 
tire product. The South Atlantic division in 1859 ranked 
second in the production of wheat with a return of 28,- 
737,000 bushels, or 16.6 per cent of the whole crop. In 1869, 
this division was reduced to third place, the returns for that 
year amounting to but 22,327,000 bushels, or 7.8 per cent of 
the entire crop. In 1879, it was further reduced to fourth 
place, but with a slightly increased return of 28,535,000 
bushels, which represented 6.2 per cent of the whole product. 
In 1889, it maintained the same rank with a return of 
27,435,000 bushels, representing 5.9 per cent of the nation's 
crop. The North Atlantic division in 1859 ranked third in 
wheat production, the returns for that year amounting to 

entire product contributed by each division, are taken from a table in the 
Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 92, 93. The per 
capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics of population given 
in Table II of this paper. For an extended review of wheat production in the 
United States according to the census returns of 1880, see, especially. Brewer's 
Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 60-89, in the Tenth 
Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Maps 2, 3, 4, and 5, showing the 
geographic distribution of wheat production in the United States in 1879, are 
essential. See also: Statistical Atlas of the United States: Eleventh Census, 
1890, maps 291, 292, 293, 294, showing the geographic distribution of wheat in 
the United States according to the census returns of 1890. 



214 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



24,570,000 bushels, or 14.2 per cent of the entire crop. In 
1869, this division advanced to second place with 35,154,000 
bushels, or 12.2 per cent of the whole crop, thus superseding 
the South Atlantic division which now dropped to third 
place. In 1879, the North Atlantic division again dropped 
to third place, with a slightly decreased return of 34,179,000 
bushels, representing but 7.4 per cent of the entire crop. 
In 1889, this division maintained the same rank with a con- 
tinued decrease to 32,013,000 bushels, representing 6.8 per 
cent of the nation's product. The South Central division in 
1859 ranked fourth in the production of wheat, with a re- 
turn of 17,128,000 bushels, representing 9.9 per cent of the 
whole crop. In 1869, it was reduced to fifth place, the re- 
turns for that year being decreased to 14,414,000 bushels, or 
5 per cent of the entire product. In 1879, and again in 1889, 
this division continued to hold the same rank, the returns 
for 1879 amounting to 24,278,000 bushels or 5.3 per cent of 
the whole crop, while the returns for 1889 maintained about 
the same level, amounting to 24,503,000 bushels, represent- 
ing 5.2 per cent of the entire crop. The Western division in 
1859 was at the bottom of the list, the production of wheat 
in that year being only 7,664,000 bushels, or 4.4 per cent of 
the whole crop. In 1869, it advanced to fourth place with 
20,917,000 bushels, representing 7.3 per cent of the whole 
product, thus superseding the South Central division which 
was now reduced to fifth place. By 1879, the Western divi- 
sion had forged ahead to second place, having meanwhile 
doubled its returns which now amounted to 42,941,000 bush- 
els, representing 9.4 per cent of the entire crop. The same 
rank was easily maintained in 1889 with a greatly increased 
return of 63,107,000 bushels, representing 13.5 per cent of 
the nation's product. Nearly all of the wheat reported for 
the Western division at these census periods was produced 
in the Pacific Coast States, California alone furnishing 
about two-thirds of the entire amount. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



The ascendency wMcli the North Central division had 
thus achieved in the production of wheat assumes even a 
more remarkable significance by a comparison of the per 
capita returns of the several geographic divisions. It will 
be seen by further reference to Table IV that the North 
Central division in 1859 produced 10.4 bushels of wheat per 
capita. This was rapidly increased to 15 bushels in 1869, 
finally reaching 18.9 bushels in 1879, after which it was de- 
creased to 14.3 bushels in 1889. The South Atlantic divi- 
sion in 1859 produced 5.3 bushels of wheat per capita. This 
was reduced in 1869 to 3.8 bushels which amount was main- 
tained at practically the same level at the next census period 
when 3.7 bushels were returned. In 1889, this was further 
reduced to 3.1, or only about one-fifth of the per capita re- 
turns of the North Central division in the same year. The 
North Atlantic division in 1859 showed the comparatively 
small return of 2.3 bushels of wheat per capita which was 
increased by one-half a bushel per capita in 1869, then 
decreased in 1879 to 2.3 bushels, to be still further reduced 
to 1.8 bushels per capita in 1889, or only one-eighth of the 
per capita returns of the North Central division for that 
year. The South Central division reported about the same 
per capita returns of wheat for these census periods as the 
North Atlantic division, the returns amounting in 1859 to 
2.9 bushels and decreasing in 1889 to 2.2 bushels, or nearly 
one-seventh of the amount returned for the North Central 
division in the same year. The Western division in 1859 
showed the phenomenally high record of 12.4 bushels of 
wheat per capita which was nearly doubled during the next 
decade, amounting in 1869 to 21.1 bushels. This was still 
further increased in 1879 to 24.3 bushels, and then de- 
creased in 1889 to 20.7 bushels. While these returns were 
considerably higher than the per capita returns of the 
North Central division, it is to be remembered that the 



216 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



settlement of the Western division had hardly more than 
begun, its population numbers being far behind those of the 
other divisions, thus giving this division a relatively low 
volume of production. Even so, however, the high per cap- 
ita returns furnished a considerable surplus which entered 
into the internal and export trade of the Pacific Coast. 

The North Central division had thus become the great 
wheat emporium of the nation, producing more than two- 
thirds of all the wheat raised in the country. With this 
fact in mind, the relative importance of the East and West 
North Central sections in the production of wheat now 
commands our attention. In 1859, the East North Central 
section produced 46.1 per cent of the entire crop ; while the 
West North Central section contributed but 8.8 per cent. 
In 1869, the East North Central section produced 44.3 per 
cent of the whole crop — a slight decrease as compared with 
the percentage returned by the previous census; while the 
West North Central section increased its contribution 
which now amounted to 23.4 per cent of the entire product. 
In 1879, the East North Central section returned 44.5 per 
cent of the whole product, or practically the same percent- 
age reported for 1869; while the West North Central sec- 
tion showed a further increase of production to 27.1 per 
cent of the entire crop. In 1889, the proportion of the whole 
crop returned by the East North Central section was re- 
duced to 31.4 per cent ; while the returns for the West North 
Central section amounted to 37.4 per cent.^^ Thus by 1889, 
the West North Central section had wrested the leadership 
from the East North Central section in the production of 
wheat. This fact is further emphasized by the rapidity 
with which the center of the wheat growing industry moved 
westward during this period.. In 1849, the center of pro- 
duction was 57 miles east-northeast of Columbus, Ohio ; in 

21 These percentages are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. Vi; pp. 92, 93. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 217 



1859, it was 18 miles north by east of Indianapolis, Indiana ; 
in 1869, it was located 82 miles northeast of Springfield, 
Illinois; in 1879, it was 69 miles northwest of Springfield; 
and by 1889, it had crossed the Mississippi and was located 
in Missouri at a point 138 miles south by east of Des Moines, 
Iowa. At the close of the century, it was located 70 miles 
west of Des Moines, or about 99 miles north and about 680 
miles west of the center of wheat production in 1850, which 
was nearly one and one-half times the westward movement 
of corn during the same period.^^ This shows, furthermore, 
that the center of wheat production was moving northward 
as well as westward; while the center of corn production 
was moving almost due westward — a fact of fundamental 
importance in the study of the internal grain trade of this 
period. 

Further study of the wheat returns for this period shows 
that more than half of this product was contributed by the 
six leading wheat producing States. These States in 1859, 
named in order of their importance, were Illinois, Indiana, 
Wisconsin, Ohio, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, which to- 
gether produced 56.4 per cent of the entire crop. In 1869, 
the States of Illinois, Iowa, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, and 
Pennsylvania produced 55.7 per cent of the whole product. 
In 1879, the States of Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, 
Minnesota, and Iowa produced 53.4 per cent of the entire 
crop. In 1889, the States of Minnesota, California, Illinois, 
Indiana, Ohio, and Kansas contributed 50.2 per cent of the 
nation's product.^^ The region of greatest wheat produc- 
tion included the five East North Central States of Ohio, 
Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin and the first tier 
of States beyond the Mississippi River in the West North 

22 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 32. 

23 These percentages are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 92, 93. 



218 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Central section: Iowa, Missouri, and Minnesota. Kansas 
was added near the close of the period ; while the two States 
of North and South Dakota (together known as Dakota Ter- 
ritory until 1889) were rapidly forging ahead to become 
listed among the six leading wheat growing States by the 
close of the century.^* 

The growth of the East North Central section in the pro- 
duction of wheat during this period may be illustrated by 
the State of Illinois ; while Minnesota may be taken to repre- 
sent the West North Central section. Illinois in 1859 pro- 
duced 23,837,000 bushels of wheat which represented 13.8 
per cent of the entire crop ; in 1869, it produced 30,128,000 
bushels, or 10.5 per cent of the whole product; in 1879, it 
showed the greatly increased return of 50,111,000 bushels 
representing 11.1 per cent of the entire crop ; and in 1889, 
it produced 37,389,000 bushels, or 8 per cent of the entire 
crop.^^ An analysis of the per capita returns shows that 
this State in 1859 produced 13.9 bushels of wheat per capita, 
which in 1869 was decreased to 11.9 bushels, then increased 
in 1879 to 16.6 bushels, and finally decreased again in 1889 
to 9.8 bushels.^® Minnesota, on the other hand, showed the 
comparatively insignificant return in 1859 of 2,187,000 
bushels of wheat which represented but 1.3 per cent of the 
whole crop ; in 1869 this was increased to 18,866,000 bushels, 
or 6.6 per cent of the entire crop ; in 1879 these returns were 
nearly doubled, amounting to 34,601,000 bushels, or 7.5 per 
cent of the entire crop ; and in 1889, when this State super- 
seded Illinois for first place, the returns were further in- 
creased to 52,300,000 bushels, which amount represented 

2* See the writer's article on The Westward Movement of the Wheat Growing 
Industry in the United States in The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, 
Vol. XVni, pp. 396-412. 

25 Twelfth Cen^s of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 92, 93. 

26 Blodgett 's Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 30. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 219 



11.2 per cent of the nation's product.^^ A review of the per 
capita returns shows that Minnesota in 1859 was already 
producing 12.7 bushels of wheat per capita, which in 1869 
was more than trebled, amounting in that year to 42.9 bush- 
els, after which it was maintained at practically the same 
level, the returns amounting in 1879 to 44.3 bushels and in 
1889 to 40.2 bushels.^* Iowa affords another interesting 
illustration. In 1859 this State produced 8,449,000 bushels 
of wheat, or 4.9 per cent of the whole crop ; in 1869, it pro- 
duced 10,436,000 bushels, or 10.2 per cent of the entire crop ; 
in. 1879, it produced 31,154,000 bushels, or 6.8 per cent of the 
entire crop; and in 1889, it showed the abnormally low re- 
turn of 8,250,000 bushels which represented but 1.8 per cent 
of the whole product,^® The per capita returns of wheat for 
this State amounted in 1859 to 12.5 bushels ; in 1869, to 24.7 
bushels ; in 1879, to 19,2 bushels ; and in 1889, to 4.3 bushels, 
which, however, as already pointed out, was an abnormally 
low return, as shown by the fact that the per capita produc- 
tion of this State was increased to 10.2 bushels in 1899.^** 
The rapid increase in the volume of wheat production, to- 
gether with the high per capita returns received for these 
States, reflect in a general way the importance of all the 
States comprising the North Central division in the produc- 
tion of the growing surplus of wheat which entered into the 
internal trade of the nation during this period.^ ^ 

21 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 92, 93. 

28 Blodgett 's Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 30. 

29 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 92, 93. 

30 Blodgett 's Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 30. 

31 * ' The remarkable fact here seen is not the great increase in the production 
but the increase per capita of population, notwithstanding the fact that during 
this period the country gained in population as no country ever did before." 



220 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Table V 



Geographic 


Distribution of Oat Production in 


THE United 


States by Ten-Year Periods from 1859 to 


188932 




1859 


1869 














< 








a a. 
w < 






>J Cl. 

a < 


Division 


Bushels 


5R CI 
SITIR 
tOP 


SO 

s « 


Bushels 


- b 

« £ o 
a z a 


SO 

s« 






Cm WO 


m £ 




(X WO 


CQ S 


N. Atlantic 


77,996,598 


45.2 


7.3 


84,951,544 


30.1 


6.9 


S. Atlantic 


20,220,026 


11.7 


3.7 


18,908,338 


6.7 


3.2 


N. Central 


62,953,218 


36.5 


6.09 


159,804,821 


56.7 


12.3 


S. Central 


9,338,791 


5.4 


1.6 ■ 


13,628,092 


4.8 


2.1 


Western 


2,134,552 


1.2 


3.4 


4,814,362 


1.7 


4.9 






1879 


1889 








< 

J a. 






< 


Division 


Bushels 


5R CE! 
SJTIRE 
lOP 


w < 

ao 

s « 


Bushels 




K < 
SO 

2 ts 






(l4 WO 






PhKO 


CQ ft. 


N. Atlantic 


83,967,199 


20.6 


5.9 


86,891,504 


10.8 


4.9 


S. Atlantic 


21,992,934 


5.4 


2.9 


23,736,705 


2.9 


2.6 


N. Central 


270,166,435 


66.2 


15.5 


645,127,344 


79.7 


28.8 


S. Central 


21,645,208 


5.3 


2.4 


37,859,361 


4.7 


3.4 


Western 


10,087,223 


2.5 


5.7 


15,635,752 


1.9 


5.1 



The next important cereal is oats. It will be seen by ref- 
erence to Table V, showing the geographic distribution of 
oat production in the United States by ten-year periods 
from 1859 to 1889, that while the North Central division 



Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 61, in the 
Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. See also Brewer's review 
of the conditions under which the cultivation of wheat as a successful com- 
mercial product is regulated and controlled, pp. 61-64 of this report. 

32 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of oat pro- 
duction in the United States by geographic divisions, together with the per- 
centage of the nation's product contributed by each division, are taken from a 
table in the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 84, 85, 
The per capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics of popula- 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 221 



had by 1859 already achieved a great lead over the other 
divisions in the production of com and wheat, it was still 
behind the other divisions in the production of oats, rank- 
ing second with a return of 62,953,000 bushels which repre- 
sented 36.5 per cent of the entire crop. By 1869, however, 
this division had also achieved the lead in oat production 
with the greatly increased return of 159,805,000 bushels, 
representing 56.7 per cent of the entire product. This was 
further expanded in 1879 to 270,166,000 bushels which rep- 
resented 66.2 per cent of the whole crop. In 1889, the North 
Central division reported 645,127,000 bushels of oats which 
was more than double the returns reported at the previous 
census and which represented 79.7 per cent of the nation's 
product. The North Atlantic division, as already stated, 
still held first place in 1859 in the production of oats, the 
returns for that year amounting to 77,997,000 bushels, rep- 
resenting 45.2 per cent of the entire crop. These returns 
were increased by only a slight margin in 1869 when 84,- 
952,000 bushels were reported which, due to the rapid ex- 
pansion of oat production in the North Central division, 
represented but 30.1 per cent of the entire crop, thus re- 
ducing the North Atlantic division to second place in the 
production of this cereal. Production was maintained at 
practically the same volume in 1879 when 83,967,000 bushels 
were returned representing a further decrease to 20.6 per 
cent of the whole crop, and in 1889 when 86,892,000 bushels 
were reported, representing a continued decrease to 10.8 
per cent of the entire product. The South Atlantic division 

tion given in Table II of this paper. For a brief review of oat production in 
the United States according to the census returns of 1880, see Brewer's Beport 
on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 111-116, in the Tenth Cen- 
sus of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Maps 10, 11, and 12, showing the 
geographic distribution of oat production in the United States in 1879, are 
essential. See also Statistical Atlas of the United States: Eleventh Cens^is, 
1890, maps 303, 304, 305, and 306, showing the geographic distribution of oat 
production in the United States according to the census returns of 1890. 

VOL. XIX — 15 



222 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



in 1859 ranked third in the production of oats, the returns 
for that year amounting to 20,220,000 bushels, or 11.7 per 
cent of the entire crop. This was decreased in 1869 to 
18,908,000 bushels, or 6.7 per cent of the whole crop, and 
then increased in 1879 io 21,993,000 bushels which, however, 
represented a decrease to 5.4 per cent of the entire crop. 
In 1889 this division was reduced to third place with a re- 
turn of 23,737,000 bushels which represented but 2.9 per 
cent of the nation's product. The South Central division 
in 1859 ranked fourth in the production of oats with a 
return of 9,339,000 bushels, or 5.4 per cent of the whole crop. 
In 1869, this division reported 13,628,000 bushels, or 4.8 per 
cent of the entire product. This was increased in 1879 to 
21,645,000 bushels, or 5.3 per cent of the entire crop. In 
1889 this division advanced to third place, with 37,859,000 
bushels, representing 4.7 per cent of the entire crop, thus 
superseding the South Atlantic division which was now re- 
duced to fourth place. The Western division ranked fifth 
in the production of oats throughout the period, the returns 
in 1859 amounting to but 2,135,000 bushels, representing 1.2 
per cent of the entire crop and thereafter increasing at each 
census period until 1889 when 15,636,000 bushels were re- 
ported for this division, representing 1.9 per cent of the 
entire product. It will therefore be seen that while the 
North Central division in 1859 produced but a little more 
than one-third of all the oats raised in the United States, in 
1889 it contributed four-fifths of the entire product. The 
ascendency which this division had thus achieved over the 
other divisions is also emphasized by the fact that the re- 
turns of 1889 amounted to nearly eight times the returns of 
the North Atlantic division, seventeen times the returns of 
the South Central division, twenty-seven times the returns 
of the South Atlantic division, and forty-one times the re- 
turns of the Western division. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



223 



The supremacy of the North Central division in the pro- 
duction of oats is further shown by the rapid growth in its 
per capita returns which greatly exceeded the returns of all 
the other divisions. In 1859, this division, as already noted, 
ranked only second in the volume of oats produced. This 
fact was reflected in the per capita returns for that year 
when but 6.1 bushels were produced which amount was ex- 
ceeded by the North Atlantic division. During the next 
decade, however, the North Central division advanced rap- 
idly to first place in the per capita production of oats, the 
returns for 1869 amounting to 12.3 bushels, or double the 
returns for the previous census year. This was further 
increased in 1879 to 15.5 bushels and in 1889 to 28.8 bushels. 
The North Atlantic division in 1859 ranked first with a per 
capita oat production of 7.3 bushels but at the next census 
period it was reduced to second place with a per capita re- 
turn of 6.9 bushels. This was further reduced in 1879 to 5.9 
bushels and finally to 4.9 bushels in 1889. The South At- 
lantic division reported a decreased per capita return 
throughout the period from 3.7 bushels in 1859 to 2.6 bush- 
els in 1889. The South Central division, on the other hand, 
reported an increasing per capita return of from 1.6 bushels 
in 1859 to 3.4 bushels in 1889. The Western division re- 
ported an increase from 3.4 bushels in 1859 to 5.7 bushels in 
1879 and then a slight decrease to 5.1 bushels in 1889. 

Further consideration of the geographic distribution of 
oat production in the United States during this period 
shows that nearly two-thirds of the crop was returned 
by the six leading oat producing States. These States 
in 1859, in order of their importance, were New York, 
Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Virginia, 
which together contributed 66,3 per cent of the entire crop. 
In 1869, the States of Illinois, Pennsylvania, New York, 
Ohio, Iowa, and Wisconsin produced 64.2 per cent of the 



224 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



whole crop. In 1879, the States of Illinois, Iowa, New York, 
Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, and Ohio produced 60.5 per cent 
of the entire crop. In 1889 the States of Iowa, Illinois, Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, Kansas, and Nebraska contributed 59.7 
per cent of the nation's product.^^ The region of greatest 
oat production during this period included the States of 
New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Wis- 
consin, Michigan, and Minnesota. Kansas and Nebraska 
were added near the close of the period. The rapidity with 
which the oat belt moved westward is further emphasized 
by the movement of the center of production. In 1849, the 
center of oat production was 80 miles east by south of Co- 
lumbus, Ohio ; in 1859, it was 48 miles southeast of Cleve- 
land, Ohio ; in 1869, it was 30 miles west by south of Fort 
Wayne, Indiana ; in 1879, it was 62 miles south-southeast of 
Chicago, Illinois (in Indiana) ; and in 1889, it was 39 miles 
north-northwest of Peoria, Illinois. By 1899, it had moved 
to a point 58 miles north of Burlington, Iowa. This was 
about 575 miles west and 120 miles north of the center of 
oat production in 1850.^^ 

The growth of oat production in this region may be illus- 
trated by an analysis of the returns of New York and Iowa 
for the various census periods from 1859 to 1889. New 
York in 1859 ranked first with 35,175,000 bushels which 
represented 20.4 per cent of the entire crop; in 1869 this 
State was reduced to third place with 35,294,000 bushels, 
which represented a marked decrease to 12.5 per cent of the 
whole crop; in 1879 it maintained the same rank with a 
slightly increased return of 37,576,000 bushels, represent- 
ing, however, a further decrease to 9.2 per cent of the whole 
crop; and in 1889, it was reduced to ninth place, the oat 

33 These percentages are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 84, 85. 

3* Twelfth Cens-ics of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 38. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



225 



production for that year amounting to 38,896,000 bushels 
representing but 4.8 per cent of the entire product.^^ A 
review of the per capita oat production for this State shows 
a return of 9.1 bushels in 1859, which was decreased to 8.1 
bushels in 1869, then 7.4 bushels in 1879, and finally to 6.5 
bushels in 1889.^^ Iowa in 1859 ranked seventh in the pro- 
duction of oats, the returns for that year amounting to 
5,888,000 bushels, or 3.4 per cent of the entire crop ; in 1869 
this State advanced to fifth place with 21,005,000 bushels, 
or 7.4 per cent of the whole crop; in 1879, it advanced to 
second place with 50,611,000 bushels, or 12.4 per cent of the 
entire crop; and in 1889, it achieved first place with 146,- 
679,000 bushels, representing 18.1 per cent of the nation's 
product.^^ This remarkable expansion in the volume of oat 
production is further emphasized by the rapid growth in 
per capita production which was increased from 8.7 bushels 
in 1859 to 17.6 bushels in 1869, then to 31.2 bushels in 1879, 
and finally to 76.7 bushels in 1889.^^ These two States, to- 
gether with the other States of the oat belt, furnished the 
great surplus that entered into the internal trade of the 
country during this period. 

Barley and rye occupy a place of relatively minor sig- 
nificance in the internal grain trade of the United States, 
and so these two cereals will be more briefly considered. 
Eeference to Table VI, giving the geographic distribution 
of barley production in the United States by ten-year pe- 
riods from 1859 to 1889, shows that the North Central divi- 

35 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 84, 85. 

3« Blodgett 's The Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statisrtics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 24. 

37 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 84, 85. 

38 Blodgett 's The Belations of Population and Food Products in the United 
States (Bulletin No. 24, Bureau of Statistics, United States Department of 
Agriculture, 1903), p. 24. 



226 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Table VI 



Geographic Distribution op Barley Production in the United 
States by Ten-Year Periods from 1859 to 1889 3® 


Division 


1859 


1869 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
per Capita 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
per Capita 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Central 
S. Central 
Western 


5,941,416 
128,003 

4,908,723 
383,783 

4,463,973 


37.6 
0.8 

31.0 
2.4 

28.2 


.05 
.02 
.54 
.06 
7.2 


9,047,525 
84,326 
10,612,507 
370,199 
9,646,748 


30.4 
0.3 

35.7 
1.2 

32.4 


.73 
.01 
.91 
.05 
9.7 




Division 


1879 


1889 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
j PER Capita 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


< 

>j a. 
X < 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Central 
S. Central 
Western 


8,932,137 
68,133 
19,007,888 
596,712 
15,392,625 


20.3 
0.1 

43.2 
1.4 

35.0 


.61 
.01 

1.9 
.06 

8.7 


9,587,050 
84,482 
47,257,785 
282,552 
21,121,107 


12.2 
0.1 

60.3 
0.4 

27.0 


.5 

.008 
2.1 

.002 
6.9 



sion in 1859 ranked second in the production of barley, the 
returns for that year amounting to 4,909,000 bushels which 
represented 31 per cent of the entire crop. In 1869, this 



39 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of barley 
production in the United States by geographic divisions together with the per- 
centage of the nation's entire product contributed by each division, are taken 
from a table in the Ttvelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 
72, 73. The per capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics of 
population given in Table II of this paper. For a brief review of barley pro- 
duction in the United States according to the census returns of 1880, see 
Brewer's Eeport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 117-121, 
in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Maps 13 and 14 are 
essential. See also Statistical Atla^ of the United States: Eleventh Census, 
1890, maps 313 and 314, showing the geographic distribution of barley produc- 
tion in the United States according to the census returns of 1890. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 227 



division achieved first place, thereafter maintaining the 
lead with a rapidly increasing volume of production which 
was practically doubled every census year until by 1889 it 
reported a return of 47,258,000 bushels representing 60.3 
per cent of the entire product of the nation. The North 
Atlantic division in 1859 ranked first in barley production 
with 5,941,000 bushels, representing 37.6 per cent of the en- 
tire crop. In 1869, the returns were increased to 9,049,000 
bushels, which, however, were exceeded by the returns re- 
ported for the North Central and Western divisions, thus 
reducing the North Atlantic division to third place. There- 
after, this division barely maintained its production of 
barley at the level of 1869, the returns for 1889 amounting 
to 9,587,000 bushels which represented but 12.2 per cent of 
the entire crop. The Western division, it is interesting to 
note, ranked third in 1859 in the production of barley with 
a return of 4,464,000 bushels representing 28.2 per cent of 
the entire crop. In 1869, it advanced to second place with 
more than double the returns reported in 1859. This was 
again more than doubled by 1889 when the returns reported 
for this division amounted to 21,121,000 bushels which, how- 
ever, represented a slight decrease to 27 per cent of the 
entire crop. The South Central division ranked fourth in 
the production of barley throughout the period, the returns 
for this division amounting in 1859 to 384,000 bushels rep- 
resenting 2.4 per cent of the entire crop, then fluctuating at 
the next two census periods, but finally decreasing in 1889 
to 283,000 bushels, representing but four-tenths of one per 
cent of the entire product. The South Atlantic division was 
at the bottom of the list in barley production, the returns 
for 1859 amounting to 128,000 bushels, or eight-tenths of 
one per cent of the entire crop. This was decreased at the 
next two census periods and then increased by a very small 
margin in 1889 when 84,000 bushels were reported, repre- 



228 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



senting but one-tenth of one per cent of the entire product. 

Further reference to Table VI shows that the Western 
division reported the highest per capita production of bar- 
ley at these census periods. In 1859 it produced 7.2 bushels 
per capita which amount was further increased in 1869 to 
9.7 bushels. This was decreased to 8.7 bushels in 1879 and 
finally to 6.9 bushels in 1889. The North Central division 
ranked second with a per capita production in 1859 of a 
little more than one-half a bushel which was increased at 
each succeeding census period until 1889 when it amounted 
to a fraction over two bushels. The North Atlantic division 
ranked third with a per capita production in 1859 of one- 
twentieth of a bushel which was increased in 1869 to nearly 
three-fourths of a bushel, then decreased in 1879 to nearly 
two-thirds of a bushel, and then decreased still further in 
1889 to one-half a bushel. The South Atlantic and South 
Central divisions followed next in order with a decreasing 
per capita production which at the respective census years 
represented but a small fraction of a bushel. 

Four-fifths of the barley grown in the United States was 
contributed by the six leading barley producing States. 
These States in 1859 were in order of their importance: 
California, New York, Ohio, Illinois, Maine, and Wisconsin, 
which together produced 81 per cent of the entire crop. In 
1869, the States of California, New York, Illinois, Iowa, 
Ohio, and Wisconsin produced 80.7 per cent of the whole 
crop. In 1879, the States of California, New York, Wis- 
consin, Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska produced 77.4 per 
cent of the entire crop. In 1889, the States of California, 
Wisconsin, Iowa, Minnesota, New York, and Michigan con- 
tributed 84.2 per cent of the nation's entire product.*** The 
region of greatest production therefore included : first, the 

*o These statistics are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 72, 73. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 229 



State of California; and, second, the States of New York, 
Ohio, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Iowa, and 
Minnesota ; while the two Dakotas entered the list near the 
close of the century as important barley producing States. 
The center of production moved rapidly westward during 
this period, "Although no accurate mathematical calcula- 
tion of that center has been made", the statistics of produc- 
tion show that in 1849, it was located "in the State of New 
York, and probably east of the center of that State"; while 
as a result of ' * the great development of barley growing in 
the States of California, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, South 
Dakota, and Washington" the center of production in 1899 
"was somewhere near the junction of Iowa and South Da- 
kota."" 

California alone contributed about one-fourth of the en- 
tire barley product. The returns reported for that State in 
1859 amounting to 4,415,000 bushels, or 27.9 per cent; in 
1869 to 8,783,000 bushels, or 29.5 per cent; in 1879, to 12,- 
464,000 bushels, or 28.3 per cent; and in 1889, to 17,548,000 
bushels, or 22.4 per cent.^^ The reasons for this great pro- 
duction were : first, that the soil and climate were, of course, 
well adapted to the crop; and second, neither the soil nor 
the climate was so well adapted to the growth of either com 
or oats. Consequently barley was raised on the Pacific 
Coast primarily for feeding purposes. The rapid growth 
of barley production in the North Central region was due to 
other causes : first, the growing demand occasioned by the 
increasing consumption of beer and ale ; and second, that it 
frequently took the place of wheat as a crop in localities 
where the Hessian fly rendered wheat growing precarious. 
The latter fact had much to do with stimulating the pro- 
duction of barley in New York which State ranked next to 

*i Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 43. 

42 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 72, 73. 



230 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



California until 1889, when it was replaced by Wisconsin. 
The same cause operated also in the States of Ohio and 
lowa.^^ Wisconsin may be taken to illustrate the rapid 
growth of barley production during this period. In 1859, 
this State produced 707,000 bushels, or 4.5 per cent of the 
entire crop; in 1869, it produced 1,645,000 bushels, or 5.5 
per cent ; in 1879, it produced 5,043,000 bushels, or 11.5 per 
cent ; and, in 1889, it ranked second to California with a re- 
turn of 15,226,000 bushels, representing 19.4 per cent of the 
entire product.** 

Rye, as shown by Table I, was in 1859 more important 
than barley as to quantity of production. Thereafter it de- 
clined in relative importance, ranking fifth among the 
cereals. Production, though gradually increased, did not 
keep pace with the growth in population. Consequently the 
per capita returns of this grain suffered a decline, the ex- 
planation for which may be stated as follows : 

* * With the opening up of transportation routes, and since 
wheat grown west of the Appalachians has been so abun- 
dantly and cheaply transported to the sea-coast, rye as a 
grain product has steadily declined in relative importance, 
until in many regions it has about ceased to be grown 
merely for its grain. So completely has this come about 
that in some districts where the previous generation knew 
it as their chief breadstuff now thousands of families, even 
the poorest ones, know not even the taste of rye bread. 

A review of the geographic distribution of rye produc- 
tion in the United States, similar to that undertaken for 
barley, is presented by Table VII. The North Atlantic 
division in 1859 ranked first in the production of this cereal, 

*3 Brewer's Eeport on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 117, in 
the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

44 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 72, 73. 

45 Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 123, in 
the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 
Table VII 



Geographic Distribution op Rye Production in the United 
States by Ten- Year Periods prom 1859 to 188946 




1859 


1869 


Division 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
PER Capita 


Bushels 


Per CENT 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
per Capita 


N. Atlantic 


13,127,041 


62.2 


1.2 


7,325,920 


43.3 


.6 


S. Atlantic 


2,160,144 


10.2 


.44 


1,652,310 


9.8 


.28 


N. Centeal 


4,105,858 


19.5 


.45 


6,472,904 


38.2 


.49 


S. Central 


1,651,197 


7.8 


.28 


1,423,247 


8.4 


.02 


Western 


57,140 


.3 


.09 


44,414 


.3 


.04 






1879 


1889 








< 

B< 




H i 


< 

^ a. 


Division 


Bushels 


"2 c, 
« £ o 
a Z K 
OjKO 


BUSHl 
PER CJ 


Bushels 


O S B, 

ago 

H Z « 


BUSH] 
PER Ci 


N. Atlantic 


7,997,590 


40.3 


.55 


8,085,361 


28.4 


.46 


S. Atlantic 


1,152,226 


5.8 


.01 


1,268,879 


4.5 


.14 


N. Central 


9,538,706 


48.1 


.54 


17,951,629 


63.2 


.8 


S. Central 


906,804 


4.6 


.10 


686,607 


2.4 


.006 


Western 


236,269 


1.2 


.13 


428,922 


1.5 


.14 



the returns for that year amounting to 13,127,000 bushels, 
which represented 62.2 per cent or nearly two-thirds of the 
entire crop. In 1869, it still retained the same rank with a 



*6 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of rye pro- 
duction in the United States by geographic divisions, together with the per- 
centage of the nation's entire product contributed by each division, are taken 
from a table in the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 
88, 89. The per capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics of 
population given in Table II of this paper. For a brief review of rye produc- 
tion in the United States according to the census returns of 1880, see Brewer's 
Eeport on the Cereal Production of tlie United States, pp. 122-125, in the 
Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Map 15 is essential. See 
also Statistical Atlas of the United States: Eleventh Census, 1890, maps 309 
and 310, showing the geographic distribution of rye production in the United 
States according to the census returns of 1890. 



232 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



reduced production which amounted to but a little more 
than half of the returns reported for the previous census, 
but which nevertheless represented 43.3 per cent, or more 
than two-fifths of the entire crop. In 1879 it was reduced to 
second place with a return which amounted to 7,998,000 
bushels, representing 40.3 per cent of the entire crop. Ap- 
proximately the same volume of production was reported 
for 1889, representing, however, but 28.4 per cent of the 
entire product. The North Central division in 1859 ranked 
second in the production of rye with a return of 4,106,000 
bushels, representing 19.5 per cent of the entire crop. In 
1869, it reported 6,473,000 bushels, representing 38.2 per 
cent of the whole crop. In 1879, it achieved first place with 
a return of 9,539,000 bushels, representing 48.1 per cent, or 
almost half, of the whole crop. In 1889, it reported nearly 
twice this amount representing 63.2 per cent, or nearly two- 
thirds, of the entire product of the nation. The South At- 
lantic division ranked third in rye production throughout 
the period, the returns for that division in 1859 amounting 
to 2,160,000 bushels representing 10.2 per cent of the entire 
crop. This was reduced at each succeeding census period 
until by 1889, the returns amounted to only 1,269,000 bush- 
els, representing but 4.5 per cent of the entire product. 
The South Central ranked fourth in rye production with a 
return in 1859 amounting to 1,651,000 bushels representing 
7.8 per cent of the entire crop which was reduced at each 
succeeding census period until by 1889 it amounted to only 
687,000 bushels, representing but 2.4 per cent of the entire 
crop. The Western division was at the bottom of the list 
with only 57,000 bushels in 1859 representing but three- 
tenths of one per cent of the entire crop, which, however, 
was increased in 1889 to 429,000 bushels, representing 1.5 
per cent of the entire product. It will therefore be seen that 
while the rye production of the North Central division in 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 233 



1859 was but one-third as large as that of the North Atlan- 
tic division, in 1889 it was more than twice as large. These 
two divisions together in 1859 produced 81.7 per cent of all 
the rye raised in the United States ; in 1889, they contrib- 
uted 91.6 per cent of all the rye production. The other 
three divisions were therefore of negligible importance in 
the production of this grain. 

These facts are further emphasized by an analysis of the 
per capita production of rye of the several geographic divi- 
sions, as set forth by Table VII, to which only a brief refer- 
ence needs to be made. It will be noted that the per capita 
rye production of the North Atlantic division was decreased 
from one and two-tenths bushels in 1859 to five-tenths of a 
bushel in 1889 ; while the per capita production of the North 
Central division was increased during the same period from 
five-tenths of a bushel to eight-tenths of a bushel. All the 
other divisions reported a per capita return which for the 
various census periods amounted to less than one-half a 
bushel. 

More than two-thirds of the rye produced in the United 
States during this period was contributed by the six leading 
rye growing States. These States in 1859 were in order of 
their importance: Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, 
Kentucky, Illinois, and Virginia, which together produced 
69.5 per cent of the entire crop. In 1869, the States of 
Pennsylvania, New York, Illinois, Wisconsin, Kentucky, 
and Ohio produced 69.7 per cent of the entire crop. In 
1879, the States of Pennsylvania, Illinois, New York, Wis- 
consin, Iowa, and New Jersey produced 71.7 per cent of the 
entire crop. In 1889, the States of Wisconsin, New York, 
Kansas, Illinois, and Michigan contributed 65.9 per cent of 
the nation's product.*^ The region of greatest production 

47 The statistics are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 88, 89. 



234 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



included the States of Pennsylvania, New York, Ohio, 
Michigan, Wisconsin, Illinois, Kentucky, and Iowa; while 
Kansas entered the list near the close of the period as an 
important rye producing State. The center of rye produc- 
tion in 1849 was not far west of the center of the States of 
Pennsylvania and New York and near the boundary line 
between those States. At the close of the century it was 
located in the State of Illinois.*® 

Pennsylvania and Wisconsin may be taken to illustrate 
the growth of rye production in this region. Pennsylvania, 
as already noted, led in the production of rye at the first 
three census periods. In 1859, it produced 5,475,000 bush- 
els, which represented 26 per cent of the entire crop; in 
1869 it produced 3,578,000 bushels, or 21.1 per cent of the 
entire crop; in 1879, it produced 3,684,000 bushels, or 18.6 
per cent of the whole crop and in 1889, when it was reduced 
to second place, it contributed 3,742,000 bushels which rep- 
resented 13.2 per cent of the entire product. Wisconsin in 
1859 ranked seventh in rye production with a return of 
889,000 bushels representing 4.2 per cent of the whole crop ; 
in 1869 it ranked fourth with 1,325,000 bushels, representing 
7.8 per cent of the entire crop; in 1879, it maintained the 
same rank with 2,299,000 bushels, representing 11.6 per 
cent of the entire crop ; and, in 1889, it achieved first place 
with 4,251,000 bushels which represented 15 per cent of the 
entire product of the nation.*'* 

Buckwheat is the least important of the six leading ce- 
reals of the United States. Until about the middle of the 
century, it was a very important breadstuff over consider- 
able areas of the country; but after 1850 its importance 
rapidly diminished. Buckwheat production decreased rela- 
tively both to population and to the other cereals, until by 

48 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 47. 

49 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 88, 89. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 235 



1880 it became too insignificant in amount to produce any 
material effect on the bread supply of the country at large. 
Consequently, this grain is omitted from the list of cereals 
mentioned in the annual reports of the various commercial 
exchanges. Even so, however, buckwheat deserves brief 
mention in view of the fact that its production during this 
period was concentrated largely in the North Atlantic divi- 
sion, thus furnishing a small contribution to the supply of 
breadstuffs needed by that division. 

Table VIH 



Geographic Distribution op Buckwheat Production in the 
United States by Ten-Year Periods from 1859 to 1889^"' 




1859 


1869 


Division 


Bushels 


Pee cent 

Entire 

Cbop 


BUSHEIiS 

PER Capita 


Bushels 


t< 

§ S 

OS o 
» a 


Bushels 
per Capita 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Centbal 
S. Centeal 
Western 


12,366,529 
745,777 
4,140,622 
38,473 
80,417 


71.5 
4.2 

23.6 
0.2 
0.5 


1.1 
.13 
.45 
.006 
.13 


7,979,599 
228,037 

1,504,684 
83,173 
26,228 


81.2 
2.3 

15.3 
0.9 
0.3 


.65 
.04 
.12 
.01 
.03 






1879 


1889 


Division 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
PER Capita 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
PER Capita 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Central 
S. Central 
Western 


9,560,283 
608,896 

1,571,759 
44,822 
31,567 


80.9 
5.1 

13.3 
0.4 
0.2 


.65 
.08 
.09 
.005 
0.2 


8,750,506 
277,899 

3,042,395 
22,251 
17,300 


72.3 
2.3 

25.1 
0.2 
0.1 


0.51 

0.003 

0.13 

0.0002 

0.005 



50 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of buckwheat 
production in the United States by geographic divisions, together with the per- 
centage of the nation's entire product contributed by each division, are taken 
from a table in the Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 



236 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It will be seen by reference to Table VIII, showing the ge- 
ographic distribution of buckwheat production in the United 
States by ten-year periods from 1859 to 1889, that the 
North Atlantic division maintained first place throughout 
the period. The returns for 1859 amounted to 12,367,000 
bushels which represented 71.5 per cent of the entire crop. 
In 1869, the returns were decreased to 7,980,000 bushels 
representing, however, 81.2 per cent of the whole crop. This 
was increased in 1879 to 9,560,000 bushels, or 80.9 per cent 
of the entire crop and then decreased again in 1889 to 
8,751,000 bushels which represented 72.3 per cent of the 
entire crop. The North Atlantic division therefore contrib- 
uted from three-fourths to four-fifths of all the buckwheat 
produced in the United States during this period. The 
North Central division ranked second in buckwheat pro- 
duction with 4,141,000 bushels in 1859 representing 23.6 per 
cent of the entire crop. In 1869 it produced only 1,505,000 
bushels or 15.3 per cent of the whole crop. This return was 
barely maintained in 1879, to be doubled however in 1889 
when 3,042,000 bushels were reported, representing 25.1 per 
cent of the entire product. If the returns of the North At- 
lantic and North Central divisions be combined it will be 
seen that these two divisions contributed more than nine- 
tenths of all the buckwheat in the country. The South 
Atlantic division ranked third in buckwheat production; 
while the South Central and Western divisions came next; 
but the returns reported for these three divisions were 
too insignificant to be mentioned. The decline in buckwheat 
production is emphasized finally by the fact that the per 
capita returns of the North Atlantic division were reduced 

76, 77. The per capita returns are based on this table and on the statistics of 
population given in Table II of this paper. For a brief review of buckwheat 
production in the United States according to the census returns of 1880, see 
Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 126-129, 
in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Map 16 is essential. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



237 



from 1.1 bushels in 1859 to one-half a bushel in 1889 ; while 
the per capita production of the North Central division was 
decreased during the same period from nearly one-half a 
bushel to a little more than one-tenth of a bushel. The other 
divisions reported but a small fraction of a bushel per 
capita at the various census periods. 

More than one-half of the buckwheat raised in the United 
States was contributed by the two States of New York and 
Pennsylvania which together in 1859 produced 60.9 per cent 
of the entire crop ; in 1869 they produced 65.6 per cent ; in 
1879, they produced 68.1 per cent; and in 1889, they fur- 
nished 64 per cent of the entire product.^^ Among the other 
buckwheat producing States during this period may be men- 
tioned Maine in the East ; and in the West, Ohio, Michigan, 
and Wisconsin. The center of buckwheat production at the 
close of the century remained practically where it was in 
1849: somewhere in the western part of New York or 
Pennsylvania.^^ 

The relative importance of the several geographic divi- 
sions in the production of the six leading cereals during 
this period may now be summarized. In 1859, the North 
Central division was first in wheat and corn — the two most 
important bread-stuffs ; and second in oats, barley, rye, and 
buckwheat. The North Atlantic division was first in oats, 
barley, rye, and buckwheat; third in wheat; and fourth in 
corn. The South Atlantic division was second in wheat; 
third in corn, oats, rye, and buckwheat ; and fifth in barley. 
The South Central division was second in corn; fourth in 
wheat, oats, barley, and rye; and fifth in buckwheat. The 
Western division was third in barley; fourth in buckwheat; 
and fifth in corn, wheat, oats, and rye. In 1869, the North 

51 These statistics are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 76, 77. 

52 Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, p. 51. 

VOL. xrx — 16 



238 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Central division, in addition to the lead already gained in 
corn and wheat, also achieved first place in oats and barley, 
at the same time retaining second place in rye and buck- 
wheat. The North Atlantic division (the nearest compet- 
itor of the North Central division at the previous census 
period) still retained first place only in rye and buckwheat; 
while it dropped to second in oats and to third in barley, 
rose to second in wheat, and remained fourth in corn. The 
South Atlantic division now held third place in corn, wheat, 
oats, and rye ; third in buckwheat ; and fifth in barley. The 
South Central division was second in corn; fourth in oats, 
barley, rye, and buckwheat; and fifth in wheat. The West- 
ern division was second in barley; fourth in wheat; and 
fifth in oats, corn, rye, and buckwheat. By 1879, the North 
Central division had acquired the lead in all the principal 
cereals, except buckwheat; while the North Atlantic divi- 
sion was first in buckwheat; second in oats and rye; third 
in wheat and barley, and fourth in com. The South At- 
lantic division retained third place in corn, oats, rye, and 
buckwheat; while it dropped to fourth in wheat and to 
fifth in barley. The South Central division retained the 
same rank in each product as in the preceding census re- 
turns. The Western division gained second in wheat, 
retained second in barley, and remained fifth in corn, oats, 
rye, and buckwheat as before. In 1889, the relative impor- 
tance of the several geographic divisions in the production 
of the six leading cereals remained unchanged, except for 
the rise of the South Central division from fourth to third 
place in oat production and the consequent reduction of the 
South Atlantic division from third to fourth place. 

The important position achieved by the North Central 
division during this period as the granary of the nation is 
shown finally by a study of the relative importance of the 
several geographic divisions in the production of all the 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 239 



Table IX 



Geographic Distribution of thei Six Leading Cereals op the 
United States by Ten- Year Periods from 1859 to 1889 




1859 


1869 


Division 


Bushels 


H >? « 

A< HO 


< 

s < 
KO 

M £ 


Bushels 


&■ 

g« 
« £ o 
CLh WO 


Bushels 
PER Capita 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Central 
S. Central 
Western 


201,146,976 
186,484,118 
577,280,284 
258,136,402 
15,792,167 


16.2 
15.0 
46.7 
20.9 
1.2 


18.25 
35.13 
62.53 
43.35 
25.42 


211,716,024 
129,726,942 
812,674,401 
195,501,827 
37,779,959 


15.2 
9.3 
58.7 
14.1 
2.7 


17.18 
20.33 
61.82 
30.08 
38.07 






1879 


1889 


Division 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
PER Capita 


Bushels 


Per cent 

Entire 

Crop 


Bushels 
pee Capita 


N. Atlantic 
S. Atlantic 
N. Central 
S. Central 
Western 


225,674,856 
181,622,663 
1,915,120,204 
292,992,093 
72,170,413 


8.4 
6.7 
71.4 
10.8 
2.7 


15.21 
23.70 
110.83 
32.77 
40.93 


207,518,270 
184,258,853 
2,633,565,991 
378,054,866 
105,418,924 


6.0 
5.3 
75.1 
10.6 
3.0 


11.92 
20.80 
117.76 
34.45 
34.81 



leading cereals (corn, wheat, oats, barley, rye, and buck- 
wheat) combined. It will be seen by reference to Table IX, 
giving the geographic distribution of cereal production in 
the United States by ten-year periods from 1859 to 1889, 



53 The statistics used in this table, giving the complete returns of grain pro- 
duction (com, wheat, oats, barley, rye, and buckwheat combined) in the United 
States by geographic divisions, together with the percentage of the nation's 
entire product contributed by each division, are based on the tables in the 
Twelfth Census of the United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 72-93. The per 
capita returns are based on these tables and on the statistics of population 
given in Table II of this paper. For a brief general review of grain produc- 
tion in the United States, according to the census returns of 1880, see Brewer's 
Eeport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 9-18, in the Tenth 
Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. Map No. 1, showing the geo- 



240 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



that the North Central division in 1859 was already far in 
the lead with the comparatively large return of 577,280,000 
bushels representing 46.7 per cent, or nearly half, of the 
entire product. In 1869, it produced 812,674,000 bushels, or 
58.7 per cent of the whole crop. In 1879, it reported a re- 
turn of more than double that amount, representing 71.4 
per cent of the entire crop. This was rapidly increased 
during the succeeding decade until by 1889 the North Cen- 
tral division was able to report 2,633,566,000 bushels of 
grain which represented 75.1 per cent, or three-fourths, of 
the entire cereal product of the nation. The South Central 
division in 1859 ranked second in the production of grain, 
the returns for that year amounting to 258,136,000 bushels, 
representing 20.9 per cent of the entire crop. In 1869, it 
was reduced to third place with a decreased return of 
195,502,000 bushels, representing but 14.1 per cent of the 
whole product; by 1879, it had recovered sufficiently from 
the effects of the war to hold second place again with an 
increased return of 292,992,000 bushels, representing, how- 
ever, due to the rapid expansion of cereal production in the 
North Central division, a decrease to 10.8 per cent of the 
entire product. In 1889, the South Central division further 
increased its volume of production to 378,055,000 bushels 
which represented substantially the same percentage of the 
nation's entire product at the previous census period. The 
North Atlantic division in 1859 ranked third in grain pro- 
duction with 201,147,000 bushels, representing 16.2 per cent 
of the entire product. In 1869, it advanced to second place 
with a slightly increased return of 211,716,000 bushels, rep- 
resenting 15.2 per cent of the whole product, thus super- 
seding the South Central division, which, as already noted, 

graphic distribution of grain production, is essential. See also Statistical 
Atlas of the United States: Eleventh Ceiis^t-s, 1890, map No. 317, showing the 
geographic distribution of grain production in the United States according to 
the census of 1890. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



241 



was temporarily reduced to third place. In 1879, the North 
Atlantic division reported only a slight increase in grain 
production which now represented but 8.4 per cent of the 
whole product, with the result that this division was again 
reduced to third place. In 1889, it reported a decreased 
production amounting to 207,518,000 bushels, representing 
but 6 per cent of the nation's entire product. The South 
Atlantic division ranked fourth in grain production 
throughout the period. In 1859 it reported a return of 
186,484,000 bushels or 15 per cent of the whole product. 
This was decreased in 1869 to 129,727,000 bushels, repre- 
senting a reduction to 9.3 per cent of the whole crop. In 
1879, the South Atlantic division reported a slightly in- 
creased production amounting to 181,623,000 bushels but 
representing a decrease to 6.7 per cent of the entire product. 
The volume of production was barely maintained in 1889 
when a return of 184,259,000 bushels representing but 5.3 
per cent of the nation's entire product was reported. In 
volume of grain production and the percentage of the entire 
crop which this represented, the South Atlantic division in 
1889 therefore began to crowd the North Atlantic division 
for third place. The "Western division ranked fifth in grain 
production with the comparatively insignificant return in 
1859 of 15,792,000 bushels representing but 1.2 per cent of 
the entire product. This was more than doubled in 1869, 
the returns reported for that year amounting to 37,780,000 
bushels or 2.7 per cent of the whole product. The volume 
of production was again doubled in 1879, amounting to 
72,170,000 bushels, which represented the same percentage 
of the whole product as that reported at the previous cen- 
sus. In 1889, this division contributed 105,419,000 bushels 
representing 3 per cent of the entire product. Finally, a 
comparison of the volume of grain production of the sev- 
eral geographic divisions at the close of the period, shows 



242 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



that the North Central division produced thirteen times as 
much grain as the North Atlantic division ; more than four- 
teen times as much as the South Atlantic division; seven 
times as much as the South Central division; and twenty- 
five times as much as the Western division. 

The real significance of the position which the North 
Central division had thus achieved as the granary of the 
nation is to be found, however, in the remarkable expan- 
sion in its per capita production of corn, wheat, oats, bar- 
ley, rye, and buckwheat combined. It will be seen by refer- 
ence to Table IX that this division had by 1859 already 
achieved a considerable lead over all the other divisions 
with the relatively high per capita return of 62.5 bushels. 
In 1869, it reported practically the same amount, or 61.8 
bushels. During the succeeding decade, grain production 
ran far ahead of the rapid growth in population, as shown 
by the greatly increased per capita return of 110.8 bushels 
which this division reported in 1879. The continued expan- 
sion in grain production after that date brought the per 
capita returns in 1889 up to 117.8 bushels. The South Cen- 
tral division in 1859 ranked second in grain production with 
a per capita return of 43.4 bushels. In 1869, it was reduced 
to third place with a per capita return of 30.1 bushels. This 
was decreased still further in 1879 to 32.8 bushels, and then 
increased by a small margin in 1889 to 34.5 bushels. The 
South Atlantic division in 1859 ranked third in the per 
capita production of grain, with a return of 35.1 bushels. 
In 1869 it was reduced to fourth place with a per capita pro- 
duction amounting to 20.3 bushels. In 1879, it reported an 
increased return of 23.7 bushels which in 1889 was again 
decreased to 20.8 bushels, or practically the same per capita 
return reported in 1869, The western division in 1859 
ranked fourth with a per capita production of 25.4 bushels. 
In 1869, it achieved second place with 38.1 bushels, thus 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



243 



superseding the South Central and South Atlantic divi- 
sions which were reduced to third and fourth places respec- 
tively. In 1879, it maintained the same rank with but a 
slight increase to 40.9 bushels which in 1889 was reduced to 
34.8 bushels. The North Atlantic division ranked fifth in 
the per capita production of grain throughout the period. 
In 1859, it produced 18.3 bushels per capita. This was de- 
creased in 1869 to 17.2 bushels and in 1879 to 15.2 bushels. 
By 1889 the per capita production of grain returned by the 
North Atlantic division amounted to but 11.9 bushels. This 
was only about one-eleventh of the per capita production of 
the North Central division which in thirty years had been 
expanded from 62.5 bushels to 117.8 bushels. 

More than one-half of all the grain raised in the United 
States during this period was produced by the six leading 
grain growing States. These States in 1859 were in order 
of their importance : Illinois, Ohio, Indiana, Missouri, Penn- 
sylvania, and New York, which together contributed 48.4 
per cent of the entire product. In 1869, the States of Illi- 
nois, Ohio, Iowa, Missouri, Pennsylvania, and Indiana pro- 
duced 53.1 per cent of all the grain. In 1879, the States of 
Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Ohio, Indiana, and Kansas pro- 
duced 57.6 per cent of the whole product. In 1889, the 
States of Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and 
Ohio contributed 57.1 per cent of the nation's entire prod- 
uct.^* The rapidity with which the grain belt moved west- 
ward in the North Central division is shown by the fact 
that while the six leading grain growing States in 1859 in- 
cluded two North Atlantic States (New York and Pennsyl- 
vania), three East North Central States (Ohio, Indiana, 
and Illinois), and one West North Central State (Missouri), 

5* These percentages are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the 
United States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 64, 65. This table includes rice and Kafir 
com, which rank seventh and eighth respectively among the cereals, and so 
occupy a place of negligible importance in the present study. 



244 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



in 1869 New York was dropped out and Iowa was added ; in 
1879, Pennsylvania was dropped out and Kansas was add- 
ed; and in 1889, Indiana was dropped out and Nebraska 
was added. Or, to state it differently, whereas in 1859 but 
one West North Central State was listed among the six 
leading grain growing States, in 1889 four West North 
Central States were included in this group. ' ' The region of 
greatest cereal production in the United States", said 
Brewer in his Report on the Cereal Production of the 
United States in 1880, "is oval in outline stretching west- 
ward from the Eastern borders of Ohio about 800 miles, 
and is about 600 miles wide near the Mississippi river. "^^ 
It included the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Mis- 
souri, the eastern half of Kansas and Nebraska, Minnesota 
(including the valley of the Eed River of the North), the 
southwestern half of Wisconsin, Southern Michigan, and 
small sections of western Kentucky and Tennessee. The 
rapid growth of grain production in this region may be 
illustrated by Iowa which is located in the midst of the 
grain belt. In 1859, Iowa ranked tenth in grain production 
with 57,614,000 bushels, representing 46 per cent of the en- 
tire product. By 1869, it had advanced to third place with 
121,952,000 bushels, representing 7 per cent of the whole 
crop. In 1879, it ranked second with 362,487,000 bushels, 
representing 13.4 per cent of the whole product. By 1889, 
this State had achieved first place in grain production with 
483,198,000 bushels which represented 13.7 per cent, or 
more than one-eighth of the entire product of the nation.^^ 
This comparative review of the several geographic divi- 
sions in the production of the six leading cereals has been 

55 Brewer's Report on the Cereal Production of the United States, p. 18, in 
the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 

56 These statistics are based on a table in the Twelfth Census of the United 
States, 1900, Vol. VI, pp. 64, 65. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 245 



presented somewhat in detail in order to show the extent 
to which the manufacturing-commercial East and the 
cotton-growing South had by 1890 given way to the food- 
producing West in the production of grain, thus illustrating 
that territorial division of labor (mentioned at the begin- 
ning of this paper) upon which the growing volume of in- 
ternal trade depended, A great cereal and live-stock 
kingdom had been founded in the North Central region, 
furnishing the huge surplus of grain and provisions which 
were required in ever increasing volume to fill the annually 
recurring deficits in the food supplies of the East and the 
South and of the countries of Western Europe. This sur- 
plus developed the great primary and provision markets of 
the Middle West, expanded the volume of internal com- 
merce which found its way eastward and southward via the 
great interior waterways and the trunk line railroads, and 
contributed to the development of the Atlantic seaboard 
cities as distributing centers for western agricultural prod- 
ucts. These aspects of the problem will be presented in the 
next article. 

Louis Beenakd Schmidt 

The Iowa State College of 
Ageicultuee and Mechanic Arts 
Ames Iowa 

57 For a brief analysis of the relations of grain and live stock production, 
see Brewer's Beport on the Cereal Production of the United States, pp. 150- 
152, in the Tenth Cen^s of the United States, 1880, Vol. III. 



LETTERS OF GOVERNOR JOHN CHAMBERS 
ON INDIAN AFFAIRS, 1845 

[John Chambers was Governor of the Territory of Iowa and Superintendent 
of Indian Affairs for the same jurisdiction, from 1841 to 1845. Among the 
papers of the Chambers family were found, some years ago, forty manuscript 
pages apparently belonging to a letter book kept for the transcription of out- 
going correspondence on the subject of Indian affairs. The stitches and glue 
of the binding still hold these pages together, but since they are unnumbered, 
there is no clue to the size of the original volume. That this is a fragment of 
the oflScial record is scarcely to be doubted, and its publication seems advisable, 
especially in view of the fact that extended search has not resulted in the dis- 
covery of the balance of the record, or of the Executive Journals of either 
Governor Chambers or his successor James Clarke. 

This fragment includes fifty-one letters covering the brief period from 
May 5, 1845, to July 11, 1845. All relate to the Indians in the Territory 
except three — one of these three exceptions being a long letter to President 
James K. Polk regarding troubles over the boundary between Missouri and 
the Territory of Iowa. Practically no change has been made in the spelling, 
punctuation, or capitalization of the original manuscript. — The Editor] 

Executive Office, Iowa City, lowa^ 
5^^ May 1845 

Sir 

I received the enclosed letter from Mr Mac Gregor 
Sub-Indian Agent at Turkey River last evening by private 
conveyance. I think it probable that there will be great 
suffering among the Winnebagoes before their annuity pro- 
visions will reach them; but the danger that, in case their 
request is complied with they may be instigated to refuse 
to receipt to him for the amount expended for them, and 
the necessity of advertising for contracts for the supplies 

1 Immediately preceding this letter, on the first page of the fragmentary 
manuscript, appear the last few lines of a letter, addressed to James Mac- 
Gregor, United States sub-agent at the Turkey River sub-agency, in which 
Governor Chambers gives the advice which he mentions in his letter of May 5th 
to Mr. Crawford. The sub-agency on the headwaters of the Turkey River in 
what is now Winneshiek County, Iowa, was established in 1840 for the benefit 
of the Winnebagoes who had moved to the Neutral Ground. 

246 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 247 



they need and the consequent delay in obtaining them has 
constrained me to decline giving Mr Mac Gregor directions 
to purchase for them. But I have said to him that if he 
has perfect confidence that they will receipt to him for the 
amount of provisions procured for them when their annuity 
payment is made, and is willing to incur the risk, it would 
be an act of humanity, and I presume he will do so, for I 
learn from the bearer of his letter that he has already lent 
them a considerable proportion of the provisions laid in for 
the use of the labourers on the farms. It would perhaps be 
well to sanction any expenditure he may make for them 
within the limit of [the] ^ $4000, and to authorize him to 
retain [that much] out of their annuity for this year, — of 
this however you will be the best judge. 

I enclose you the written request of the ''Chiefs and Head 
Men" to Mr Mac Gregor to purchase provisions for them — 
If they could be taught by experience in suffering, their 
present condition would make them feel the absurdity and 
folly of their opposition to the measure you authorized last 
autumn to guard them against the condition they are now in. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of IndJ^ Aff^ 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
5*11 May 1845 

Sir 

The enclosed letters — one from Mr Olmstead the Su- 
perintendent of the Winnebagoe Farms, and one from Mr 

2 The manuscript is torn at this point and the above substitutions are 
conjectural. 



248 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Mac Gregor Sub. Ind. Agt, both (I presume) relate to the 
same subject the employment of a mechanic to repair the 
building at the Sub Agency, and keep the farming utensils 
in repair — It is with you to decide on their application. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

T Haetley Ceawfokd Esqr ^^^^ Chambers 

Com'^ of Ind^ Aff^ 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
g.^ - May 1845 

I send you enclosed a copy of a letter from the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs approving your recent nomi- 
nations 

Eespectfully 

Your obt sert 

Colo a J. Bruce U. S. Ind. Agt^ • ^^^^ Chambers 
St Peters 
Iowa. 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
g.^ " May 1845 

The receipt of your accounts &c per 1^* Qr of this year 
is acknowledged from the office of Indian Affairs. 

Your letter covering your monthly abstracts for last 
month followed me here, and was received last night. — I 

3 Amos J. Bruce was the agent in charge of the Sioux Indians on the St. 
Peter's River (now the Minnesota River) near Fort Snelling. This territory 
was included within the jurisdiction of Iowa from 1838 to 1846 and the Gov- 
ernor of the Territory of Iowa was in charge of the Indian agencies. 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 249 

shall probably be detained here throughout this month, if I 
remain in office so long. 

With great regard 
Your obt sert 

Capt J Beach U. S. Ind. Agt* John Chambeks 

Eaccoon Eiver Agency, Iowa 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
g.j. May 1845 

You will find enclosed a letter which I received last 
night from Capt Beach Sac and Fox Agent, relative to the 
removal of that tribe to their new residence, which removed 
aU difficulty as to the payment of their Annuities in ad- 
vance of their removal — they are acting with great pru- 
dence and I feel an increased attachment to them — they 
are manly and confiding. In another letter Capt Beach 
informs me of the death of Pash-epaho (the Stabbing 
Chief) he was a restless, turbulent fellow and possessed of 
a good deal of influence — Keokuk will feel relieved by his 
departure. If the tribe was rid of Wolf Skin and Crow of 
the Fox band, there would be no jealousy or collision among 
them and the Sacs — those . fellows ought to be closely 
watched about the time of their removal or they will carry 
off a good many of the Foxes and render them troublesome. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

rp TT /-I in John Chambebs 

T Haetley Ceawfoed JIiSQe 

Com^ of Ind^ Aff^ 

War Department 

4 John Beaeh was the agent for the Sac and Fox Indians from 1840 until 
1846. At the time this letter was written the agency was located about a mile 
east of Fort Des Moines which had been established at the junction of the 
Eaccoon and Des Moines rivers. 



250 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
18*5^ May 1845 

Sir 

Capt Beach, Sac and Fox Indian Agent reports under 
date of 6*^ inst. that on the 3^^ two Indians of the Fox band 
made an attack upon a white man named Lamb, Contractor 
for the supply of forage for the dragoon horses at Fort 
Des Moines and demanded money of him, and beat him with 
their horse whips until he was somewhat bruised — a third 
Indian rescued him — the assailants were drunk. Capt 
Beach called the Chiefs together and demanded them, and 
they were immediately surrendered, and put under guard 
at the Fort to wait my instructions, but the fellows appear- 
ing very penitent the Chiefs begged very hard to have them 
released, promising to surrender them again if I required 
it, and after detaining them one night they were released, 
Mr Lamb joining in the request that they should not be 
further punished. 

I shall inform Capt Beach that I approve his course and 
request him to inform the Chiefs that their general good 
character and conduct has saved their men from punish- 
ment, but that the next offence of that kind will be severely 
punished. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com' of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
g.^ 18th May 1845 

I received your letters of the 6*^ and 9*^ inst last night 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 251 



— The course you pursued in relation to the abuse of Mr 
Lamb by the two drunken Indians was in all respects proper 

— Please to say to the Chiefs in relation to that affair, that 
the general good conduct of the tribe has saved these men 
from punishment, but that a similar occurrence will be vis- 
ited with severe punishment. 

Their prudence in relation to the payment of their annu- 
ity in advance of their removal deserves the highest com- 
mendations, and if a proper occasion occurs I wish you 
would tell them that I think very highly of their conduct, 
and that they are acting wisely, as I have always told their 
Great Father they would do — And say to them that if it 
is in my power I will take them by the hand before they 
leave the Des Moines, but that if I do not see them again I 
will pray the Great Spirit to be kind to them. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Capt John Beach U S Ind Agt 
Eaccoon Eiver Agency 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
20*11 May 1845 

Sir 

The enclosed letter from Jas Mac Gregor Sub Indian 
Agent at Turkey river and the communication made to him 
by a man by the name of Alaxander with Mr. Wilcoxs^ let- 
ter to me, came to me by the last mail (we have but two 
mails a week here) and I beg permission to refer them to 
you. These people ''connected by marriage to the tribe" 

5 Letters further explaining the charge made hj L. G. Alexander are found 
on pp. 267, 272. The Mr. Wilcox mentioned here ia perhaps the Nathaniel 
Wilcox referred to on p. 273. 



252 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



are always making mischief — the time consmned by the 
Blacksmith in getting fuel cannot be of much importance 
as the wood is within a half mile of his residence, and there 
has been no complaint from the Indians of a neglect to do 
their work. Mechanics employed among the Indians must 
be permitted to pay some attention to their families, as 
they have no market to resort to and the price of labour is 
very high, but care should be taken by the Agents to see 
that they do not neglect their proper duties. 

I remain with great respect 
Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office Burlington Iowa 
g.j. 19^^ May 1845 

Since I had the honor to address you under date of 
19*^ ult°, and to enclose a copy of my letter of the same 
date to the Governor of Missouri, I have learned from 
gentlemen from the southern part of the territory, that the 
conciliatory course I had deemed it my duty to adopt in 
relation to the contested jurisdiction of Missouri and this 
Territory over the narrow slip of land within the limits 
assigned by congress to the territory, has not produced the 
effect I had hoped for, but that on the contrary the Sheriff 
of the Territorial County of Davis has been arrested by 
the Sheriff of Schuyler County in Missouri and taken be- 
fore a Justice of the peace of that State, charged with vio- 
lating the laws of Missouri in arresting the Sheriff and 
deputy Sheriff I had pardoned, and who had not in fact 
been committed to prison before they were released from 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 253 



custody. The Sheriff, of Davis was detained in custody 
about twenty four hours while his prosecutors were in 
search of witnesses and then discharged for want of evi- 
dence. On his return home he obtained process against the 
Sheriff who had arrested him, and in turn brought him be- 
fore a Justice of the Peace of Davis County, who upon a 
hearing required him to give bail for his appearance before 
the territorial court at its next session, and upon his re- 
fusal to do so committed him to the jail of Van Buren 
County there being no prison in Davis. 

This perseverance in arresting the citizens of this terri- 
tory within the boundary to which its jurisdiction extends 
under the laws of the United States, has now in three recent 
instances led to the arrest and detention of the civil author- 
ities of Missouri, and the release of one of them after con- 
viction and another before he was tried, seems to have pro- 
duced no other effect than to embolden them to persevere 
in the attempt to subject citizens claiming the protection of 
the territorial government to the laws of Missouri. 

I have not yet received from Gov'" Edwards any acknowl- 
edgement of the receipt of the letter of which I had the 
honor to enclose you a copy and until I can entertain a 
reasonable hope that the efforts of the authorities of Mis- 
souri to punish our Sheriffs for the faithful discharge of 
their duties, will not be further prosecuted, their citizens 
must, so far as depends on my official action, abide the con- 
sequences of violating our laws. But I have serious appre- 
hensions that the contest will lead to consequences which 
every good citizen will deplore : these repeated arrests and 
rescues will ere long I fear be participated in by a number 
of the excited population residing on and adjacent to the 
disputed territory, and blood will in that case almost cer- 
tainly be shed. 

I took the liberty of sending you a copy of my message to 

VOL, XIX — 17 



254 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the territorial legislature now in session, it expresses my 
feelings on this unpleasant subject. I have not the least 
ambition to figure in a civil war, and am fully sensible that 
such a controversy would afford the enemies of our institu- 
tions cause for exultation, but a sense of duty will compel 
me to afford such protection as may be in my power to the 
people who reside upon the disputed ground, and claim the 
protection of the territorial government. 

I am sorry sir to trouble you with this controversy, but 
consequences may grow out of it which will render it impor- 
tant that you should be fully informed of its rise and 
progress. 

I have the honor to be 
With great respect 

Your obedient servant 
John Chambers 

Jas K. Polk President of the U. S. 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
20th May 1845 

Sir 

You will receive enclosed a nomination from Jas Mac 
Gregor Esqr. of a Striker in the Winnebagoe Black Smiths 
shop, with the certificate of character &c of the nominee by 
two of the teachers of the Winnebagoe school. I recom- 
mend the confirmation of the nomination. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ Indian Affairs 
War Department 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 255 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
22<i May 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a letter from James Mac Gregor 
jr Esqr Sub Indian Agent at Turkey Eiver together with 
the papers therein refered to, evidencing the claim of 
James Beatty and George Van doren against the Winne- 
bagoes for an alleged destruction by some of them of some 
stacks of oats. 

"Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambees 

T Hartley Ceawpoed Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
22d May 1845 

Sir 

You will find enclosed a letter which I received by the 
last mail from Jas Mac Gregor jr Esqr Sub Indian Agent 
at Turkey Eiver giving an account of an Assault and Bat- 
tery committed by a Winnebagoe Indian upon Mr Snyders 
mfe one of the Blacksmiths employed for the tribe. 

I suppose Mr Mac Gregor has "delivered them up to the 
civil law" as he thought of doing. 

The insolence of these Indians in committing such an out- 
rage in sight of the agency house is I fear the result of Mr 
Mac Gregors timidity, and want of controul over them even 
when in his presence. It will not be worth while to give 
him any instructions relative to this affair as he will have 



256 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

disposed of it some way or other before a letter can reach 
him. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

m TT n in JoHN CHAMBERS 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
22d May 1845 

Sir 

The enclosed letter from Mr Mac Gregor Sub Indian 
Agent gives an account of a **spec of War" in the Winne- 
bagoe horizon, which has fortunately been dispersed with- 
out bloodshed. If the contemplated expedition had been 
prosecuted those concerned in it would probably never have 
returned to give an account of its fate — Keokuk would 
have made but **a breakfast spell" of scalping them. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr John Chambers 

Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
24*1^ May 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the 8*^ inst directing me 
to make a report of all persons employed in my superin- 
tendency up to the 30*^ of September next, with their names 
&c. 

I will immediately instruct the agents to prepare and 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 257 



forward the reports required in time to enable whoever may- 
exercise the office of Superintendent to make the full report 
by the time indicated by your letter, which I understand to 
embrace all the employees of the government in the Super- 
intendency and not barely those employed at the Superin- 
tendents office. 

I remain with great respect 
Your obt servant 
T Hartley Crawford Esqr ^^^^^ Chambers 

Com^ Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
24*11 May 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the 15^^ inst with its en- 
closures. While my attention is devoted to Executive du- 
ties at this place (the Legislature being in Session) it is not 
possible for me to dispose of your case. On my return to 
Burlington (if I remain in office) I will compare the evi- 
dence and decide the matter. 

It is not true, I presume, that any papers relative to this 
matter have been sent to Washington, for they would have 
been referred to me if such had been the case. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

H M Rice Esqr ^^^^ Chambers 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa Tery 
24*1^ May 1845 

Sir 

I have this day granted leave of absence for sixty days 



258 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to Mrs. Lucy Davis, one of the female teachers long em- 
ployed in the Winnebagoe School, (and recently married) 
The measure was recommended by the other teachers and 
the Sub Agent. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com'- of Ind° Afe« 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
3l8t May 1845 

Sir 

I send you with this what purports to be the account 
current, abstract and voucher of Jas Mac Gregor Esqr Sub 
Indian Agent at Turkey river for the quarter, ending with 
the month of March last, and also the reports of the prin- 
cipal Teacher of the Winnebagoe School, and of the Farmer 
employed for the benefit of the tribe. These papers came to 
Burlington since I left there on the 3^ inst and being marked 
with the enormous postage (including duplicates) of $21.00, 
my private Secretary retained them a few days for a pri- 
vate conveyance to me. The presure of legislative duties 
while the legislature is in session deprives me of the time 
to examine them, but I would respectfully suggest the pro- 
priety of having the whole of his accounts strictly examined 
without loss of time. Mr Mac Gregor is in my opinion very 
little qualified for the discharge of the duties of the office 
he holds and it may save trouble to have his accounts 
strictly scrutinized as soon as may be convenient. 

It is probable our Legislature will adjourn in about ten 
days, in the mean time I shall, if rumour may be credited, 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 259 



be relieved from my duty by the arrival of my successor in 
office. 

I remain with great respect 
Your obt sert 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr ^^^^ Chambers 

Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
3d June 1845 

Sir 

I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 12*^ 
ult°, requesting me to furnish you with a list of the names 
of the counties of this territory, and the names of the Seats 
of Justice thereof. I enclose you the information you re- 
quest. The counties not yet organized are severally at- 
tached to one of those that are — for Judicial purposes, 
and have no established Seats of Justice. 

I have the honor to be Sir 

Your obedient servant 

John Chambers 

Hon E L Walker 

Secretary of the Treasury 
Washington City 

The following are the names of the Counties in the Terri- 
tory of Iowa, with the names of the Seats of Justice of such 
of them as have been organized — 

Counties Seats of Justice 

Cedar Tipton 

Clayton Jacksonville 

Clinton Dewitt 

Davis Bloomfield 



260 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Counties Seats of Justice 



Delaware 


Delhi 


Des Moines 


Burlington 


Dubuque 


Dubuque 


Henry 


Mt Pleasant 


Jackson 


Andrew 


Jefferson 


Fairfield 


J ohnson 


Iowa City 


Iowa 


Edinburgh 


Keokuck 


Sigourney 


Lee 


West Point 


Linn 


H IT • 

Marion 


ijouisa 


VV eippclHJ 


Mahaska 


Ouscaloosa 


Muscatine 


Bloomington 


Scott 


Davenport 


Washington 


Washington 


"Wappello 


Ottumwah 


Van Buren 


Keosaqua 


Unorganized Counties 


Appanoose 


Iowa 


Burton 


Kishkikosh 


Black Hawk 


Powesheik 


Buchanan 


Tama 


Fayette 





Executive Office, Iowa City, Iowa 
June 1845 

Sir 

The enclosed letter from Capt Beach Sac and Fox 
Agent reached me yesterday by private conveyance. You 
will see from it that the difficulties among the Foxes about 
their removal, which I have several times suggested to you 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 261 



as probable are begining to develope themselves, and I in- 
cline to think are more matured than Capt Beach supposes. 
It is not very probable that I shall have any controul over 
or agency in their removal when the time for action arrives, 
but you will pardon me for saying (perhaps repeating) that 
the Fox Chief Powesheik, and his braves Wolf Skin and 
Crow ought in case of opposition to the removal of the tribe 
be promptly seized and secured, so as to make their removal 
certain — the rest of the band would then cease to resist. 

My health continues decidedly bad and my Executive du- 
ties are at this time sufficient to occupy every moment in 
which I am able to attend to business, you will therefore 
I hope excuse me for not further remarking upon the sub- 
jects of Capt Beaches letter. It will be important that he 
should hear from you at your earliest convenience. The 
territorial legislature will probably adjourn in eight or ten 
days. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

JoHiT Chambbes 

T Haetlet Ceawfoed Esqe 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
June 6^^ 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed the papers relative to a claim made 
by Beatty and Van doren for damages for depredations 
alleged to have been committed by Winnebagoe Indians 
upon them, in destroying some stacks of oats — these pa- 
pers have been transmitted to the office of Indian affairs 
and are now returned and disallowed. The Commissioner 
says the claim is not sustained by the evidence — You will 



262 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



please so to inform the claimants when they call on you. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Gen^ J E Fletcher^ 
U. S. Sub-Indian Agent 
Turkey River Sub Agency 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
13th June 1845 

Sir 

The enclosed letter from Mr Mac Gregor Sub Indian 
Agent at Turkey River and the accompanying voucher and 
letter from the Supt Indian Farms, all relative to the item 
of his acct for 4*^ Quarter 1844 of hay purchased for the 
use of the Stock at the Sub Agency 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
13*1^ June 1845 

Sir 

I have received a letter from Capt E V Sumner^ of 
the 1^* Regt of dragoons enclosing me a copy of a letter 

6 Jonathan E. Fletcher was appointed sub-agent for the Winnebagoes on 
June 2, 1845. 

7 Captain Edwin V. Sumner was in command of the troops at Fort Atkinson 
located near the the Winnebago Indian agency. The incident for which the 
punishment was inflicted is mentioned in a letter found on p. 255. 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 263 



3^ Military Department dated 11*^ ult°, reporting the course 
pursued by him towards a Winnebagoe Indian who had com- 
mitted a brutal outrage upon a white woman at the Sub 
Agency on Turkey river. 

The circumstances of this case had reached me some time 
ago — You will remember that I enclosed you a letter from 
Mr Mac Gregor the Sub Indian Agent stating the arrest of 
the two Indians mentioned by Capt Sumner in his letter to 
the Asst Adjt Genl, who were released — This case having 
taken the proper military direction it is perhaps not neces- 
sary that I should trouble you with it. But I do decidedly 
approve of the conduct of Capt Sumner in inflicting the lash 
upon this villian that I deem it a duty to express through 
you to the Hon Secretary of War, my entire conviction that 
but for the prompt punishment inflicted in this case it would 
soon have become impossible for a white woman to reside 
with the families of the employees of the government at the 
Turkey River Sub Agency, and even under this example 
there will be constant danger of personal violence to fami- 
lies residing near this beastly tribe. Capt Sumner men- 
tions another similar case since that for which he inflicted 
punishment. 

I hope the conduct of that prompt and excellent office [r] 
in this instance will meet the thanks which it deserves — 
I have always found him prompt efficient and prudent in the 
performance of his duties. I have not deemed it necessary 
to enclose a copy of this letter to the Asst. Adjt. Genl. as it 
will of course have reached the department before this time. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Ceawford Esqr ^ 
Com'' of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



264 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
IP^ June 1845 

Sir 

I returned to this place from tlie Seat of the territorial 
government on the 11*^ inst. By this evenings mail I have 
received your letter of 3^ inst informing me of the appoint- 
ment of Jonathan E Fletcher in place of James Mac Gregor 
jr. as Sub Indian Agent for the Winnebagoes — and without 
waiting for Gen^ Fletcher to report himself, have written to 
him requesting that he will enter upon the duties of his 
office as soon as he can make his arrangements to do so, and 
in the mean time, if in his power, to give me an opportunity 
of a full and free communication with him in relation to the 
state of things among the Winnebagoes, and the duties of 
his office. He lives about six hours run of Steam Boat above 
this place on the river. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
June 14*11 1845 

Sir 

I received the enclosed letters dated 21^* and 29*^ inst 
from Mr Mac Gregor Sub Indian Agent at Turkey river, 
by the last mail from the North From the first of which 
you will see that he considered himself authorized to grant 
''permits" to Missionaries and Teachers to erect churches 
and schools in the Indian country without even communi- 
cating the fact to his official superiors, and that he has so 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 265 



grossly misunderstood my letter to him on the subject of 
which I enclosed you a copy with my letter of 22^ April last. 
In that letter I informed him that such establishments could 
not be made in the Indian country but by the permission of 
the department, and he has, or pretends to have understood 
that I had "prohibited all Missionaries from establishing a 
school on the Neutral Ground" I now believe that this 
mans stupidity or viciousness has in a great degree given 
rise to the complaints made by the Catholic Bishop of Iowa, 
about the rejection and expulsion of Catholic Priests as 
teachers. 

The enclosed letter of the 29^^ ult® quoting a part of a 
communication from Eev^ Jos Cretin^ to Mr Mac Gregor 
shews a spirit on the part of that Eev* gentleman, which 
induces me to think it is well that the Winnebagoe school 
did not fall into his hands. You will please direct what dis- 
position shall be made of his Reverence. I hope however 
that he will not be permitted to become a Martyr, which he 
is evidently seeking to do. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Haetley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 
Washington City 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
U^^ June 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the 21"* ult^ in explana- 
tion of a suspended item of your account for the 4*^ Quarter 

8 Further references to Eeverend Jos. Cretin are found in letters on pp. 
266, 278, 279, 285, 286. 



266 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



1844, and have forwarded it with the accompanying papers 
to the office of Indian Affairs. I have also received another 
letter from you of the same date in which you say that ' ' not 
being aware that the general government had any objection 
to the effort of any missionary of respectable standing and 
character," &c you had granted "a Permit" to Rev^ Joseph 
Cretin to establish a school &c — and again, you say that on 
receiving my letter you **lost no time in communicating to 
Mr Cretin my order prohibiting all missionaries from estab- 
lishing a school on the Neutral Ground" — So that you seem 
not to be aware of what is not the fact — that the general 
government has objections to the efforts of Missionaries to 
establish schools among the Indians — and you have in- 
formed the Rev"^ Mr Cretin, what the letter, which you call 
my order, in no rational construction of it, can justify. You 
had better look at it again, and instead of "prohibiting all 
Missionaries from establishing a school on the Neutral 
Ground ' ' you will find that I informed you that such estab- 
lishments could only be made with the consent of the Indian 
department, which if you had taken any pains to understand 
your duties you would have known, and instead of assuming 
the authority to grant "Permit" yourself, would have re- 
ferred the application to the Commissioner. 

Your obt servant 

T Tvr n XT' John Chambers 

J AS Mac Gregor jr JIjSQR 

Sub Indian Agent 

Turkey River Sub Agency 

Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
g.^ June 18*11 1845 

Your predecessor in office Mr Mac Gregor, some time 
last month forwarded to me a complaint made by a man by 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 267 



the name of Alexander that the Blacksmiths employed for 
the Indians were wasting the time in which they ought to be 
at work for the Indians in getting fuel and other necessaries 
for their families. I forwarded the complaint to the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs and now enclose you a copy of 
his answer for your government in relation to the matter. 

This Alexander who made the complaint is a white man 
with an Indian wife, and I incline to think you will find him 
a troublesome fellow, if you indulge him, interfering with 
the business of the Indians. Your best course with such 
men will be to let them understand at once, firmly and de- 
cisively that they must not annoy you in any way 

Eespectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Gen^ J E Fletcher Sub. Ind. Agt. 
Turkey River Sub Agency 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
18tt June 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a copy of a letter which I have just 
received from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in rela- 
tion to a purchase of provisions made by Mr Mac G-regor, 
your predecessor in office, for the Winnebagoe Indians. The 
letter will be your guide in endeavouring to save Mr Mac 
Grregor from loss and at the same time put you on your 
guard against the recurrence of a similar state of things 
In this instance Mr Mac Gregors intentions were good — 
the Indians were in a starving condition and made a writ- 
ten application to him to expend some money in advance of 
this annuity of this year in purchasing provisions for them. 



268 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It would therefore be well to retain the amount of Mr Mac 
Gregors purchases not exceeding four thousand dollars 
(that being the limit of the purchases as stated in the re- 
quest of the chiefs) and altho Mr Mac G-regor can have 
created no obligation upon the government to pay the 
amount of his purchases, the fact of his being a public 
officer, will have created the impression that the money was 
to be paid by the government and if from any cause it 
should not reach the hands of those to whom it is payable 
much dissatisfaction and complaint will result from it; it 
will therefore be proper to ascertain accurately the amount 
of Mr Mac Gregors purchases and the names of the persons 
to whom the money is payable, and pay them yourself, 
without permitting the money to go into Mr Mac Gregors 
hands, except when he may have made payments out of his 
own purse. To enable you to do this it will be proper to 
retain the amount out of the Indian annuity of this year, 
treating it as a matter of course with them, without they 
positively refuse to permit the application of it in that way, 
and even then you will remonstrate with them against the 
injustice and dishonesty of refusing to pay for provisions 
purchased at their own request. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Geni J E. Fletcher U. S. Sub-Ind. Agt 
Turkey River Sub Agency 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
18tt June 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the 6*^ inst enclosing a 
copy of a paper purporting to be a petition from the chiefs 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 269 



and liead men of the Winnebago Indians to the Secretary 
of War, and requesting me to "report fully upon all the 
points contained in it " — I proceed at once to do so — 

The first position assumed by the petitioners is, that be- 
ing a free people they ought to be permitted to build 
churches and school houses on their own land at their own 
expense without let or hindrance from the Agent or any 
other person — If this claim be conceded, it will amount to 
a virtual abandonment of the guardianship assumed by the 
government over the tribe, and would lead to the introduc- 
tion of numerous vagabonds among them under the charac- 
ters of teachers &c, and would be the entering wedge to 
enlarged demands for settling traders and others among 
them without the License of the government, and because 
the land on which they live is their own. This tribe is 
decidedly the most profligate, worthless and ignorant of all 
the tribes in this Superintendency, and perhaps of all west 
of the Mississippi river, are less qualified to judge of their 
own interests than any other, and are consequently the 
mere creatures of malign influences. 

Secondly — They request that white men who have be- 
come connected with the tribe by marriage and have fami- 
lies, may be prefered in appointments to "office" in the 
tribe, to men not so connected with them. — To this request 
it is objected that a very large proportion of the white men 
who marry among the Indians, and especially among such 
Indians as the Winnebagoes are idle and worthless fellows, 
who either to avoid labour and live in savage idleness, or 
because their association with their own race has become 
dangerous to themselves, have sought a residence with the 
Indians, and are in most cases the instigators of discontent 
and turbulence among the tribe. Where exceptions to these 
remarks are found they have generally been prefered. 

Under the third head they request to be informed why 

VOL. xrx — 18 



270 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"the present teachers in the government school" are con- 
tinued in office when they have in national council requested 
the Sub Agent to have them removed ? for reasons — 

l^t That the children that have attended that school are 
more immoral than others of the Same tribe — 2^ That 
they "are all one way of thinking on the subject of religion, 
and do not wish to have their children taught different from 
what they themselves believe to be right " — 3^ That the 
present teachers have had the management of the school a 
sufficient length of time to satisfy the petitioners that no 
good is to result to the Indians under their management — 
4*^1 That over forty thousand dollars of their money has 
been paid for the support of that school contrary to their 
wish and that not a scholar has left the school but is a dis- 
grace to the tribe — Upon all which I beg leave to remark, 
that I have never before heard of a "National Council of 
the tribe ' ' to request the Sub Agent to remove the Teachers. 
Heretofore this business has been managed in the name of 
certain half breeds, but the same influences that instigated 
them could no doubt get up a National Council and dictate 
its course. 

They repeat the allegations made by Bishop Loras as 
represented by Mr Mudd on which I had the honor to report 
under date of 29*^^ April last — That the children who have 
attended the school are more immoral than others of the 
tribe who have not attended it — Since I made the report 
above alluded to, I have made inquiries in relation to this 
allegation from several person who are employed in the 
Neutral Ground or are there frequently, and am satisfied 
that it is totally without foundation as is that (which is 
naturally connected with it) that the scholars from that 
school are a "disgrace to the tribe". Indeed it is hardly 
possible to conceive how they could disgrace such a tribe. 

They allege that they are all of one way of thinking on 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 271 



the subject of religion and object to their children being- 
taught "different from what they believe to be right" This 
idea to one who knows the character of the Winnebagoes or 
has been among them is absolutely farcical, for with the 
exception of a few half breeds educated at Prairie du Chein 
there is, perhaps, not ten adults in the tribe who either 
know or care any thing about religion. 

Until the late Sub Agent Mr Mac Gregor went among the 
tribe, no complaint was heard from the tribe or any portion 
of them against the Teacher or an expression of a prefer- 
ence in favour of any sect of Christians — but as soon as 
Mr Mac Gregor found that he could not succeed in dis- 
missing the employees of the Indian department generally 
at his Sub agency, these complaints were got up and have 
been perseveringly continued up to this time; and without 
the department thinks it proper to yield to the pertinacious 
efforts of a few managers of this business it will, I think, be 
found necessary to put it down by a decisive assurance that 
they cannot and will not be indulged in further prosecuting 
it. 

Under date of 14^^ inst I enclosed you a letter from Sub 
agent Mac Gregor stating that a Priest who had located 
himself near the Sub Agency, had determined to remain 
there until carried out of the country by force — Since that 
time I have received a private communication from a gentle- 
man residing in the Neutral Ground confirming Mr Mac 
Gregors statement — the object of this movement, must be, 
I presume, to break up or interfere with the Winnebagoe 
School, otherwise this man would have selected some one of 
the numerous camps of the tribe remote from the school. 
At a distance of about fifteen miles from the Agency on the 
Bed Cedar river is a considerable number of the tribe lo- 
cated, who might derive from such an establishment all the 
benefits which a Missionary school would afford them. But 



272 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



it is due to candour to say that the character of the tribe 
must undergo a great change before missionaries or schools 
will benefit them to any great extent. 

The petition to which this report relates is certified by 
four persons — one of whom L G. Alexander, I know is a 
white man married to a squaw, the same who some time 
ago complained that the Blacksmiths were permitted to get 
fuel &c for their families — a troublesome fellow I presume 
— of the others I know nothing. Such papers to entitle 
them to attention ought to be authenticated by the agents 
and officers of the Army where such are stationed — other- 
wise the department will be subject to be greatly annoyed 
by white men connected with the tribe by marriage, taking 
upon themselves to express the feelings and wishes of the 
tribe. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com'" of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
June 1845 

Sir 

I wrote by the last mail to inform you of the necessity 
of your repairing to your Sub Agency as early as possible. 
I have since been informed of the shipment of the annuity 
provisions of the Winnebagoes from St Louis for Prairie 
du Chein — they left on the 10*^ inst, and if Mr Mac G-regor 
should have heard of his removal from office, he may decline 
to take charge of them, and in that case great waste and 
loss may happen; it is therefore the more important that 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 273 



you should go up immediately, and in case it should be 
necessary to return you will please inform the officer in 
command at Fort Atkinson, and request his attention to 
the business of the Agency until you can return. The pro- 
visions must not be delivered in mass, or they will pass im- 
mediately into the hands of the traders and whiskey sellers. 
Give each band as much as may be necessary for their 
immediate use and deliver it to them in that way from time 
to time, keeping an account of the quantity delivered to 
each band and finally taking vouchers for the whole. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Greni J Fletcher Sub. Ind. Agt 
Bloomington 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
19tt June 1845 

Sir 

Nathaniel Wilcox was nominated last month by your 
predecessor in office for the place of striker in the Black- 
smith shop worked for the Winnebagoes at your Sub- Agen- 
cy, and the nomination has been confirmed by the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Affairs under date of 6*^ inst. Mr. Wilcox 
will be entitled to pay from the time he commenced work. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Geni J. E. Fletcher U S Sub Ind Agt 
Turkey River Sub Agency 
Iowa 



274 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
22d June 1845 

Sir 

General Jonathan E Fletcher Sub Indian Agent for 
the Winnebagoes has just left the enclosed Official Bond in 
my hands to be forwarded to you. I have had an hours 
conversation with him and am pleased with the indications 
he gives of intelligence and candour. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqb 
Com'" of Indian Affairs 
War Department. 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
23d June 1845 

Sir 

I have this moment received a letter from the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs dated 12*^ inst. enclosing a let- 
ter from Capt Backus Commanding at Fort Snelling to 
Assistant Adjutant General H S. Turner 3^ military de- 
partment with a copy of a Report made by Lieut Hall to 
Capt Backus dated 23^ April, in which he stated that Dun- 
can Campbell and others engaged as Lieut Hall learned in 
selling whiskey to the Indians are residing at Wabashaws 
on the Sioux half breed tract so called, where they consider 
themselves protected from the laws applicable to their prac- 
tices in the Indian country. The Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs entertains no doubt that those laws apply in full 
force to that tract of country and that to all legal purposes 
it is Indian country and requests that I will give you such 
directions as may be necessary to break up this infamous 



INDIAN LETTERS OP GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 275 



den of whiskey sellers. You will therefore please to apply 
to Capt Backus or the officer in command at Fort Snelling 
(to whom I have written on the subject for such military 
assistance as may be necessary [)] and proceed with as little 
delay as practicable to make a thorough search for the per- 
sons resident on the half breed tract suspected of selling 
whiskey and for their liquors, which you will destroy at 
once and institute prosecutions against the offenders under 
the laws of the United States. You will also give notice to 
all white men of suspicious character or habits who reside 
at that place or elsewhere in the Indian Country to with- 
draw immediately from the Sioux Country You will please 
report fully your proceedings in this business as early as 
possible with any information or remarks you may deem 
necessary. 

Respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambees 

Colo, a J. Bruce U. S. Ind. Agt 
St Peters 
Iowa. 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
23^ June 1845 

Sir 

I have this moment received a letter from the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs dated 12*^ inst enclosing a copy 
of your letter of the 23d April last to St H S. Turner Ass* 
Adjt Geni 3d Mil7 Dep^ with a copy of the Report of that 
date made to you by Lt Hall relative to Mr Duncan Camp- 
bell and other whiskey sellers resident upon the land grant- 
ed the half breed Sioux. The Commissioner of Indian 
Affairs entertains no doubt ''that the half breed tract is as 
much Indian country as the circumjacent lands west of the 



276 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



river", and requests me to give such directions as will effec- 
tually put a stop to the infamous practises of these men. I 
have therefore to request that you will give such assistance 
to A J Bruce Esqr Sioux Agent at St Peters as will effectu- 
ally break up this den of whiskey sellers, and bring them to 
punishment. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Capt E Backus U. S. Army 

Commanding at Fort Snelling^ 
Iowa 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
23d June 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a letter from Col^ Bruce Sioux 
Agent relative to the payment by the Quarter Master at 
Fort Snelling, of the claim of the Sioux Chiefs for wood 
cut off their land by the troops of that Post. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambees 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs ' 
War Department 



, Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 

23d June 1845 

Sir 

Enclosed herewith I send you a letter from Col° Bruce 

9 The jurisdiction of the Iowa Territorial government included the site of 
Fort Snelling. 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 277 



of the Sioux Agency, reporting that the two Indians charged 
with the murder of a Mr Samuel Watson last October have 
been brought down by the Chiefs according to promise, and 
delivered to the Commanding Officer at Fort Snelling. 

I shall advise the Commanding Officer to send them to 
Dubuque for trial as there is not any prison at Prairie La 
Porte. 

Very respectfully 
' Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Habtley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
"War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
23d June 1845 

Sir 

Your two letters of the inst have been received and 
forwarded to the Office of Indian Affairs. 

The two Indians charged with the murder of Mr Watson 
had better be taken as soon as the necessary testimony can 
be obtained, to some place in the territory where the proper 
officers to receive them can be found, and delivered up. It 
is probable there will be no prison found at Prairie La 
Porte, but the civil authorities having them in their pos- 
session may send them to Dubuque if necessary to serve 
them. 

Eespectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Colo a J. Bruce U. S. Ind. Agt 
St Peters Agency 
Iowa 



278 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
25*11 June 1845 

Sir 

I received by the last mail your letter of the 12*1^ inst. 
enclosing a copy of the letter of Capt Backus of the U. S. 
Army to Ass*. Adj*. Gen^ Turner of the 3^ Military depart- 
ment, and a copy of the Report of Lieut Hall in relation to 
the whiskey sellers who have sought refuge in in the Half 
breed Sioux lands at Wabashaw — I fully concur in your 
opinion that those lands can be considered in no other light 
than as Indian country, and have instructed Mr Bruce Ind 
Agt at St Peters to apply to the officer in command at Fort 
Snelling for a sufficient force, and to make a thorough 
search for these miscreants and their poison and secure 
and prosecute them and destroy it, and to give all the whites 
of bad character or suspicious habits in relation to their 
intercourse with the Indians, against whom there is not suf- 
ficient evidence to sustain a prosecution, [orders] to leave 
the Indian country immediately. I have also written to 
Capt Backus requesting him to give Mr Bruce the necessary 
assistance. These letters will go this evening to St Peters 
by a Boat ascending to that point. 

With great respect 
Your obt sert 

rx, TT n in John" Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford JHjsqr 

Com^ of Indian Affairs 

War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
3d July 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a letter dated 10*^ ult° from Rev* 
Jos Cretin a Catholic Priest the same of whom I wrote you 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 279 



some time ago, that lie had determined to remain in the 
Indian country until taken out by force. You will see from 
his letter that his tone is somewhat softened, and but for 
the strong impression on my mind that his residence in the 
vicinity of the Winnebagoe School may effect its prosperity, 
I should be entirely willing that he should prosecute his 
religious objects any where in the Neutral Ground. You 
however will please give such instructions on the subject as 
you may think proper. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
July 6tt 1845 

Sir 

I send enclosed a letter which I have just received from 
A J Bruce Esqr Indian Agent at St Peters, relative to the 
murder of a Sioux by some Chippewas. I shall wait further 
information relative to the surrender of the perpetrators 
of the offence before I reply to Mr Bruces letter. The sur- 
render of hostages by the Chippewa Chiefs has a favour- 
able aspect. 

Eespectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



280 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
6tt July 1845 

Sir 

I send you herewith the account current with abstracts 
and vouchers, return of property &c of A J Bruce Esqr 
Indian Agent at St Peters for the 2^ Quarter of the present 
year. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr ^^^^ Chambers 

Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
6*11 July 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed the answer of A J Bruce Esqr 
U. S. Ind. Agt at St Peters to my letter communicating to 
him your opinion of the legal character of the half breed 
Sioux lands and directing how to proceed in relation to the 
whiskey sellers who have located themselves there. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

m TT n TT" John" Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 

Com^ of Indian Affairs 

War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
6tt July 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a duplicate of a letter from A J. 
Bruce Indian Agent at St Peters transmitting duplicate 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 281 



contracts ''for two fanners and a Striker for the Black- 
smith" for the Sioux, of which I send herewith one set. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambeks 

T Haetley Ceawford Esqb 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department. 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
6tt July 1845 

Sir 

I send you herewith the account current Abstracts and 
vouchers, return of property, and list of persons employed, 
of Capt John Beach TJ. S, Indian Agent at the Raccoon 
river Agency, for the quarter ending 30*^ June, which have 
this moment reached me by private conveyance — they will 
be found in his usual neat and business like manner. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
July 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the 26*^ ult^ enclosing one 
of the same date to Capt Beach Sac and Fox Indian Agent, 
which will be forwarded by the first mail going west, with 
my earnest recommendation to the Chiefs to comply with 



282 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the wishes of the Department, that they send some of their 
boys to the Choctaw Academy in Kentucky. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 



I send you herewith a letter addressed to you from the 
Office of Indian Affairs "by the special direction of the 
Secretary of War" — with it I received a letter from the 
same source requesting that in forwarding the letter I 
would "add the weight of my influence and exertions to 
forward the object in view" I would therefore beg that 
you will please represent to the influential of the tribe that, 
feeling, as I really do, a very sincere interest in their well 
fare, and convinced that they have the material among them 
for making truly great and useful men I earnestly advise 
them in the spirit of friendship to select from six to ten of 
their most promising boys and send as directed. The great- 
er the number they send the better, as they will on their 
return to the tribe sustain each other more effectually than 
one or two would do. If they conclude to send them, and I 
go, as I hope to do about the 1^* of Sepf, I would like to 
take them and their conductor with me and would go out of 
my way to see them properly placed. 



T Hartley Ceawfoed Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



John Chambers 



Sir 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
lOtii July 1845 



Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 



Capt J. Beach U. S. Ind. Agt 
Des Moines River Agency*" 
Iowa. 



John Chambees 



10 See note 4 above. 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 283 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
July 1845 

Sir 

I have received your account current. Abstracts and 
vouchers &c for the Quarter ending with last month, and 
your monthly Report for June ult^. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Capt John Beach U. S. Ind. Agt 
Des Moines River Agency 
Iowa. 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
10th July 1845 

Sir 

I have received a letter from Capt J Beach Sac and 
Fox Agent of which the enclosed is a duplicate, from which 
you will find that $500 have been received by him from the 
representatives of the late Genl Street for the use of the 
half breed child of Amos Farrow. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambees 

T Haetley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department. 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
10th July 1845 

Sir 

I have omitted to acknowledge the receipt of your let- 
ter of the ulto directing a deposite of the balance of the 



284 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



proceeds of the sale of the Sac and Fox Farm in the Bank 
of the State of Missouri, to the credit of the Treasurer of 
the United States, until I could send you the evidence of 
the deposite. I enclosed a check to the cashier of the Bank 
for the amount payable to the Treasurer which he has just 
returned to me informing me that it is necessary that I 
inform him on what account the money is deposited, a fact 
which I did not before know. I will give him the necessary 
information and send the check with it, and will be able 
then to send you the proper voucher. The money is in 
Bank. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambebs 

T Hartley Ceawford Esqb 
Com'" of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
July 1845 

Sir 

I have received your letter of the ult^ recommend- 
ing economy in the matter of postage. Your instructions 
shall be strictly attended to as far as depends upon me. 
How will the plan I now adopt do? See another letter on 
this sheet. It will lessen your files as well as save expense. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

T Hartley Crawford Esqr 
Com^ of Indian Affairs 
War Department 



INDIAN LETTERS OF GOVERNOR CHAMBERS 285 



Burlington, Iowa 
lOtii July, 1845 
Cashier of the Bank of the State of Missouri pay to the 
Treasurer of the United States, Fifteen hundred and four- 
teen dollars and fifty one cents. 

Dolls 1514.51/100 (signed) John Chambees 

Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 
lOtt July 1845 

Sir 

The above sum of Fifteen hundred and fourteen dollars 
51/100 is the proceeds of the Sale of the Sac and Fox farm, 
in this territory, sold by me under the direction of the Sec- 
retary of War, by whom I am instructed to deposite it in 
your Bank to the credit of the Treasurer of the United 
States. You will please therefore pass it to his credit and 
send me your duplicate certificate of deposite. 

Eespectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambers 

Cashier of the Bank of Missouri 
St Louis 
Mo 



Executive Office, Burlington, Iowa 

11*51 July 1845 

Sir 

I send you enclosed a letter to Eev^ J os Cretin, a Cath- 
olic Priest, who has located himself somewhere near your 
Sub Agency, which, having read, you will please seal and 
deliver to him. 

The pertinacity with which this man and some of his 
coadjutors have attempted to get possession of the Winne- 

VOL. XIX — ]9 



286 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

bagoe School renders it necessary that they should be pre- 
vented from withdrawing or causing the Indians to with- 
draw the children from the established school. You will 
please therefore to keep an eye to that subject and if you 
become satisfied that such is the object of Mr Cretin, or if 
such should be the effect of his residence near the school, 
you will please remind him that such consequences of his 
residence must be prevented, and that he can no longer 
reside near the school unless all interference with it or 
influence over it is strictly abstained from. 

Very respectfully 

Your obt sert 

John Chambeks 

Geni J E Fletcher U. S. Sub. Ind. Agt 
Turkey River Sub Agency 
Iowa 



* 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 

A History of the People of lotva. By Cyrenus Cole. Cedar Rap- 
ids : The Torch Press. 1921. Pp. 572. Plates, maps. For many 
years those interested in the history of Iowa have wished for an 
adequate, one-volume history of the State. Numerous books, mono- 
graphs, collections of source material, and magazine articles have 
treated of various phases or periods of political, economic, military, 
and educational history of the Commonwealth. Brigham's Iowa: 
Its History and Its Foremost Citizens, and Gue's History of Iowa 
tell the story in three and four volumes respectively. Salter's 
Iowa: The First Free State in the Louisiana Purchase deals with 
the period prior to 1846. Mr. Cole's book, the product of long 
years of preparation, covers the entire period from the earliest times 
to 1920, and it presents the story in a single volume. The author 
divides the book into nine parts: "Discovery and Possession", 
"The Indians (1804-1833)", "Settlements and Territorial Gov- 
ernments (1833-1846)", "The First State Constitution (1846- 
1857)", "The Remaking of the State (1854-1859)", "The Civil 
War and After (1860-1867) ", "The Years Between (1865-1885) ", 
"Social and Economic Legislation (1884-1896)", and "Unto this 
Last (1897-1920) ". The proportion of space given to the various 
periods is excellent, although one could wish that the period of the 
last quarter century with which the author has been intimately 
connected by reason of his personal participation in public affairs 
might have been given more than the forty-six pages allotted to it. 

The entire account is written with vigor and with much color and 
life, which makes the book more than usually readable. It is the 
work of a man thoroughly in sympathy with the subject in hand, 
and possessed of an ability to see and write the history of two and 
a half centuries with clear perspective and fine historical imagina- 
tion. He has read widely, and weighed evidence judiciously, and 
the result is a valuable addition io the historical literature of the 

287 



288 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



State. It is certain to be read both widely and profitably. The 
book is excellent in its physical make-up, and its contents are made 
usable by an adequate index. 

Publications of the Nebraska State Historical Society. Volume 
XIX. Edited by Albert Watkins. Lincoln: The Nebraska State 
Historical Society, 1919. Pp. 357. Plates, maps. This volume 
contains the following articles relating to the Indians of Nebraska 
and the settlement and territorial history of the Commonwealth: 
Incidents of the Indian Outbreak of 1864, by James Green, E. B. 
Murphy, and John Grilbert; The Beginning of Bed Willow County, 
by Albert Watkins ; The True Logan Fontenelle, by Melvin R. Gil- 
more; At Bellevue in the Thirties, by Mrs. E. Anderson; Swedes in 
Nebraska, by Joseph Alexis; Clan Organization of the Winnebago, 
by Oliver Lamere ; Women of Territorial Nebraska, by Mrs. Kittie 
McGrew ; First Settlement of the Scotts Bluff Country, by Grant 
L. Shumway ; The Omaha Indians Forty Years Ago, by Jacob Vore; 
Earliest Settlers in Richardson County, by Sarah E. Wilhite ; Some 
Indian Place Names in Nebraska, by Melvin R. Gilmore ; Bohemians 
in Nebraska, by Sarka B. Hrbkova ; Incidents in the Impeachment 
of Governor Butler, by Ebenezer E. Cunningham ; The Mescal So- 
ciety Among the Omaha Indians, by Melvin R. Gilmore; Rem- 
iniscences of William Augustus Gwyer; Nebraska in the Fifties, by 
David M. Johnston ; and Contested Elections in Nebraska, by Albert 
Watkins. The proceedings of the Society for 1917 are also included 
in the volume which is provided with an index. 



American Industry in the War — A Report of the War Indus- 
tries Board has been compiled by Bernard M. Barueh, the chairman 
of the Board, and published by the United States government. 

Europe in the Summer of 1920, by Lucy E. Textor, The Cold- 
ward Course of Progress, by S. C. Gil Fillan, and The Bibliogra- 
pher as Historian, by Elbridge Colby, are three of the papers in the 
January issue of The Historical Outlook. The February number 
contains an account of the Thirty-Fifth Anmial Meeting of the 
American Historical Association. In addition to this there is A 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



289 



Letter from Europe, by Justin H. Smith, and a Short Sketch of 
Party History, by 0. F. Grubbs. 

The discussion entitled the City-Manager Movement, by Harrison 
Gray Otis, in the March number of the National Municipal Review 
contains reports of various Iowa cities under this form of govern- 
ment. 

The Mennonites: A Brief History of Their Origin and Later 
Development in Both Europe and America, by C. Henry Smith, is a 
contribution to the religious history of both Europe and America. 
A number of the adherents of this sect are located in Iowa. One 
chapter, devoted to the Church and the State, contains a discussion 
of the problem raised by the refusal of the Mennonites to do mili- 
tary service. Although the total number of all branches of the 
Mennonites in Canada and the United States is given as less than 
100,000, it is estimated that a large per cent of the conscientious 
objectors came from among this sect. 

America's Munitions, 1917-1918, by Benedict CroweU, Assistant 
Secretary of War and Director of Munitions during the period of 
the participation of the United States in the World War, is a vol- 
ume of almost six hundred pages presenting a non-technical ac- 
count of munition production during the war. It is divided into 
seven books or sections dealing with the following subjects: ord- 
nance, the air service, the engineer corps, chemical warfare, quar- 
termaster activities, the construction division, and the signal corps. 
Numerous illustrations and charts add to the interest and useful- 
ness of the volume which tells the story of the production and 
transportation of vast quantities of war supplies. Nothing appears 
to have been omitted — not even the buttons for which the govern- 
ment spent some three million dollars. 

WESTERN AMERICANA 

The University of California Chronicle for January, 1921, ap- 
pears in an enlarged size, with a new cover design. The scope of 
this magazine is indicated by the following titles of some of the 
contributions to this number: Mesopotamia and Persia and Eng- 



290 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



land, by Roland S. Vaile; An Apology for Ethics, by George P. 
Adams; Financial Support for Our Universities, by Charles B. 
Lipman; and Climate in Geological Time, by Andrew C. Law6on 

The Western Reserve and Early Ohio, by P. P. Cherry, is a vol- 
ume recently issued by the Western Reserve Company. It is espe- 
cially designed for schools and libraries. 

Michigan at Shiloh, a report of the Michigan Shiloh Soldiers' 
Monument Commission, has been issued as Bulletin No. 13 by the 
Michigan Historical Commission. It was Representative David B. 
Henderson of Iowa who was largely instrumental in securing the 
Federal appropriation for the Shiloh National Military Park. 

The University of Minnesota has begun a Bibliographical Series 
in the Research Publications of the University of Minnesota. The 
first number is a compilation of Sources of English History of the 
Seventeenth Century, 1603-1689, in the University of Minnesota 
Library, by James Thayer Gerould. 

The Colonization of North America, 1492-1783, by Herbert 
Eugene Bolton and Thomas Maitland Marshall, represents an at- 
tempt to unify and expand the history of the settlements down to 
1783, without the usual emphasis on the thirteen English colonies. 
The authors believe that a knowledge of the Spanish settlements in 
the southwest, the French in Canada, and the English colonies 
outside the United States is essential to the understanding of Amer- 
ican history. They have, therefore, shifted the historical search- 
light from the Atlantic coast to other sections of the country. The 
volume is divided into three parts : the Founding of the Colonies ; 
Expansion and International Conflict ; and the Revolt of the Eng- 
lish Colonies. Students of western history will find this study of 
great value in its presentation of this early period. 

lOWANA 

The February number of Autumn Leaves contains an account of 
the "Cutlerite" faction of the Mormons, by Hallie M. Gould, under 
the title Like Sheep That Went Astray. This branch of the church 
settled at Clitherall, Minnesota. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



291 



A recent number of the Cornell College Bulletin is in the form 
of a memorial to Hamline Hurlburt Freer who died at Mount 
Vernon on August 26, 1920. 

The Teaching of Citizenship, compiled by Henry J. Peterson, is 
a syllabus issued by the Extension Division of The Iowa State 
Teachers College as one of the college bulletins. 

The January issue of the Annals of Iowa contains a reprint of 
Gulland's Iowa Emigrant: Containing a Map, and General Descrip- 
tions of Iowa Territory, published in 1840. The author, Isaac Gal- 
land, was a prominent character in early southeastern Iowa. The 
map is also reproduced. In addition there is a biographical sketch 
of Major-General Lewis Addison Grant, by Charles Keyes, Letters 
of General Joseph M. Street to Dr. Alexander Posey, and a brief 
article entitled How Booneshoro Lost a Badroad Station, by Alonzo 
J. Barkley. 

Volume twenty-six of the Proceedings of the Iowa State Bar As- 
sociation contains, in addition to the various reports, a number of 
addresses and papers delivered at the meeting at Cedar Rapids, in 
June, 1920. Among these the following may be noted: The Jones 
Co^mty Calf Case, by Charles E. Wheeler; Government and Its 
Menace, by Emmet Tinley; and Court Organization, Procedure, 
and the Psychopathic Laboratory, by Harry Olson. 

The Alumnus of Iowa State College for March contains a bio- 
graphical sketch of Henry C. Wallace, the Secretary of Agriculture, 
contributed by Harlan Miller. 

Should We Have a New Federal Constitution?, by Jesse Macy, 
The Fetish of Sovereignty, by Harold P. Strong, and Panama and 
Its People, by Lloyd W. Taylor, are three short papers in The 
Grinnell Review for January. Europe Judges America, by Henry 
York-Steiner, is an article of current interest in the February issue. 
Among the contributions in the March number are the following: 
The New History, by Cecil Fairfield Lavell; America's Opportu- 
nity, by Garrett P. Wyckoff; D'Annunzio, by John S. Nollen; and 
The Esch-Cummins Act, by Eliot Jones. 



292 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Gleanings in Ancestry of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale, by 
Heman Hale Smith, is continued in the Journal of History for 
October, 1920. A Biographical Sketch of G. M. Hinkle, by S. J. 
Hinkle, and History of the Cutlerite Faction of the Latter Day 
Saints, by Emma L. Anderson, are other contributions to this issue. 

The loiva Law BiUletin for January contains the following pa- 
pers: Executor of His Own Wrong, by D. 0. McGovney; General 
Limitation of Real Estate Actions, by Donald McClain ; Code Anno- 
tations, by U. G. Whitney ; and Scope of the Denial in Iowa Code 
Pleading, by Frank H. Randall. "Illusory" Promises and Prom- 
isors' Options, by Edwin W. Patterson, and The Industrial Court 
Bill, by John T. Clarkson, are the two articles in the March number. 

Frank C. Lake and Lloyd N. Prince are the pioneers in the com- 
pilation and publication of the initial volume of Who's Who in 
Iowa for the years 1920-1921. This volume supplies a long-felt 
want in Iowa for there are many persons whose lives are of interest 
in the State whose names are not found in the larger volume of 
Who's Who in America. The difficulties of such an undertaking 
are obvious : first the names of those who are included must be se- 
cured and selected, and secondly the necessary biographical mate- 
rial concerning them must be collected. Neither of these tasks is 
easy, even in case of a well established series, and the difficulties of 
the first venture are even greater. For this volume the publishers 
have secured biographies of some 1100 lowans which have been 
arranged alphabetically in two sections. This arrangement is due 
in some degree to the delay in receiving replies to requests for 
biographical information, and it is the more to be regretted since 
the supplementary section contains the names of a number of 
prominent men. Difficulties of this sort will diminish as the people 
of Iowa become more familiar with the idea. Lack of appreciation 
of the purpose and value of the work is likewise probably respon- 
sible for the fact that certain localities in the State are more 
largely represented than others and a number of men and women 
of State wide importance are not included at all. The volume also 
contains brief sketches of leading educational institutions. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



293 



SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Agg, T. R., (Joint author) 

The Use of Iowa Gravel for Concrete. Ames : The Iowa State 
College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 1920. 

Aldrieh, Bess Streeter, 

How I 3Iixed Stories with Doughnuts (The American Maga- 
zine, February, 1921). 

Anderson, Emma L., 

History of the Cutlerite Faction of the Latter Day Saints 
(Journal of History, October, 1920). 

Aumer, Nellie Slayton, 

"Men and Days" (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1921). 
Baldwin, Bird T., 

Studies in Experimental Education (The Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity Studies in Education, No. 3). 

Bender, Wilbur H., 

Vocational Education and New Legislation on Industrial Be- 
hahiUtation (Proceedings of the Twenty-first Iowa State 
Conference of Social Work, 1920). 

Bennett, George, 

The American School of Wild Life Protection and Propagation 

(Iowa Conservation, July-September, 1920). 
Dedication of the Keosauqua State Park (Iowa Conservation, 
July-September, 1920). 

Brant, Irving N., 

The Wild Rose (The Midland, February, 1921). 

Brewer, Luther A., 

The Delights of a Hohhy: Some Experiences in Book Collect- 
ing (Reprinted from the Nineteenth Year Book of the Biblio- 
phile Society, 1920). 

Briggs, John E., 

Along the Old Military Boad (The Palimpsest, February, 
1921). 



294 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Brindley, John Edwin, 

History of Taxation in Iowa, 1910-1920 (The Iowa Journal 
of History and Polities, January, 1921). 

Brown, Bemice, 

Double Barriers (McCall's Magazine, March, 1921). 
Stranger — My Dog (Collier's Magazine, February 5, 1921). 
The Wild Un (Green Book, April, 1921). 

Brown, Howard Clark, 

Bradford — A Prairie Village (The Palimpsest, March, 1921). 

Brownell, Mrs. Fred D., 

The Farm Bureau Movement (Proceedings of the Twenty-first 
Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 1920). 

Butler, Ellis Parker, 

The Man Who Murdered a Fairy (Pictorial Review, April, 
1921). 

Byfield, Albert H., (Joint author) 

Investigations in the Artificial Feeding of Children. Iowa 
City: The State University of Iowa. 1921. 

Campbell, Macy, 

Legislative Sidelights on Consolidation (Midland Schools, 

February, 1921). 
Sidelights on Consolidation (Midland Schools, January, 1921). 

Carver, Thomas Nixon, 

Is There Such a Thing as Bight Thinking (Weekly Review, 
January 5, 1921). 

Clarkson, John T., 

The Industrial Court Bill (Iowa Law Bulletin, March, 1921). 

Daniels, Amy, (Joint author) 

Investigations in the Artificial Feeding of Children. Iowa 
City : The State University of Iowa. 1921, 

Devine, Edward Thomas, 

Uniform Trust for PuUic Uses (The Survey, February 12, 
1921). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



295 



Douglas, James Lee, 

The Father of Creation (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 
The Gorilla Man (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 
The Mother of the Pla/ins (poem) (The Grinnell Review, 
March, 1921). 

Esliek, T. P., 

Probation in Relation to Juvenile Courts (Proceedings of the 
Twenty-first Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 1920). 

Evermann, Barton Warren, 

Can the Alaska Salmon Fisheries Be Saved (Scientific Month- 
ly, February, 1921). 

Ficke, Arthur Davison, 

Don Quixote (North American Review, December 20, 1920). 
Leaf-Movement (Poetry, April, 1921). 

GaUaher, Ruth Augusta, 

The English Community in Iowa (The Palimpsest, March, 
1921). 

Germane, Charles E., 

Value of the Controlled Mental Summary as a Method of 
Studying (School and Society, December 11, 1920). 

Yal\ie of the Corrected Summury as Compared With the Re- 
reading of the Same Article (Elementary School Journal, 
February, 1921). 

Gessler, Clifford Franklin, 

Sonnets of Memories (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 

Gittens, Ann, 

Troubles and Travels in China (The Iowa Alumnus, March, 
1921). 

Grainger, A. J., 

Present Prices of Farm Products Will Cripple All Business 
(The Northwestern Banker, January, 1921). 

Haines, EUa Lister, 

Mary Jean's Easter Babbit (Woman's Weekly, March, 1921). 



296 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Hall, James Norman, (Joint author) 

Faery Lands of the Sea (Harper's Magazine, January, 1921). 

Hansen, Marcus Lee, 

Phantoms on the Old Road (The Palimpsest, February, 1921). 

Hanson, Leslie, 

Business Uncertainty Gives Way to Confidence and Optimism 
(The Northwestern Banker, February, 1921). 

European Conditions Must Be Bettered to Assure Prosperity 
in America (The Northwestern Banker, March, 1921). 

Hathaway, Esse Virginia, (Joint author) 

The Skyline in English Literature. New York: D. Appleton 
Co. 1920. 

Hill, James L., 

Revisiting the Earth. Boston: Richard C. Badger Co. 1921. 
Hinkle, S. J., 

A Biographical Sketch of G. M. Hinkle (Journal of History, 
October, 1920). 

Hoover, Herbert Clark, 

How Much Longer Must We Feed Europe? (The Forum, De- 
cember, 1920). 

Horack, Frank Edward, 

The Operation of the Primary Election Law in Iowa (The 
Iowa Journal of History and Polities, January, 1921). 

Homaday, William Temple, 

Deer Family (Mentor, July 15, 1920). 

Masterpieces of Wild Animal Photography (Scribner's Maga- 
zine, July, 1920). 

Rescued Fur Seal Industry (Science, July 23, 1920). 

Wild Animal Models at the Zoo (Scientific American, Febru- 
ary 7, 1920). 

' Hougas, T. A., 

The Works of the Farmers' Union (Proceedings of the Twen- 
ty-first Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 1920). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



297 



Hrbkova, Sarka B., 

Bohemians in Nebraska (Publications of the Nebraska State 
Historical Society, Vol. XIX), 

Hunt, W. A., 

Taxation and Motor Vehicle Law (American Municipalities, 
January, 1921). 

Irish, John Powell, 

Japanese Issue in California (The Annals of the American 
Academy of Political and Social Science, January, 1921). 

Kennedy, Carl, 

Farm Bureau Work (Proceedings of the Twenty-first Iowa 
State Conference of Social Work, 1920). 

Knipe, Emilie Benson, and Alden Arthur, 

Luck of Denewood (St. Nicholas, November, December, 1920, 
January-March, 1921). 

Laird, Charlton G., 

The Little Brown Church in the Vale (The Palimpsest, March, 
1921). 

Lavell, Cecil Fairfield, 

The New History (The Grinnell Review, March, 1921). 

Lindsey, Arthur Ward, 

The Hesperioidea of America North of Mexico. Iowa City: 
The State University of Iowa. 1921. 

Lowden, Eleanor, 

An Early Christmas Play (The Grinnell Review, January, 
1921). 

McClaiQ, Donald, 

General Limitation of Real Estate Actions (Iowa Law Bul- 
letia, January, 1921). 

McGovney, D. 0., 

Executor of His Own Wrong (Iowa Law Bulletin, January, 
1921). 



298 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Maey, Jesse, 

Should We Have a New Federal Constitution? (The Grinnell 
Review, January, 1921.) 

Merriam, Charles Edward, 

American Political Ideas. New York : Macmillan Co. 1921. 
Recent Tendencies in Primary Election Systems (National 
Municipal Review, February, 1921). 

Merriam, John Campbell, 

Earth Sciences as the Background of History (Scientific 
Monthly, January, 1921). 

Nollen, John S., 

D'Annunzio (The Grinnell Review, March, 1921). 

Nutting, Charles Cleveland, 

Relation of Mendelism and the Mutation Theory to Natural 
Selection (Science, February 11, 1921). 

'Grady, Rose, (Mrs. W. B. Kerr) 

S. Weinstein's Special (Smith's Magazine, April, 1921). 

Orton, Samuel T., 

The Relation of the Iowa State Psychopathic Hospital to the 
State Hospitals for the Insane (Bulletin of State Institu- 
tions, July, 1920). 
Suggestions for a Constructive Program for the Detention, 
Care and Treatment of the Defective and hisane (Proceed- 
ings of the Twenty-first Iowa State Conference of Social 
Work, 1920). 

Pammel, Louis Hermann, 

Some Economic Phases of Botany (Science, January 7, 1921). 

Parish, John Carl, 

Efficiency and Robert Louis Stevenson (The Bookman, Janu- 
ary, 1921). 

Historical Activities in the Trans-Mississippi Northwest (The 
Mississippi Valley Historical Review, December, 1920). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



299 



Patterson, Edwin W., 

"Illusory" Promises and Promisors' Options (Iowa Law Bul- 
letin, March, 1921). 

Payne, Charles E., 

Bohert Smillie (The Grinnell Eeview, January, 1921). 

Peterson, Henry J., 

The Teaching of Citizenship. Cedar Falls: The Iowa State 
Teachers College. 1920. 

Pierce, Bessie L., 

Alia Tempora, Alii Mores (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 
1921). 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

Home (Poetry, March, 1921). 
March Wind (Poetry, March, 1921). 
Whispering Often (Poetry, March, 1921). 

Plant, Oscar H., 

The Effect of Carminative Volatile Oils on the Muscular Move- 
ment of the Intestines (Journal of Pharmacology and Ex- 
perimental Therapeutics, November, 1920). 

Porter, Mabel W., 

Mental and Moral Incapacity (Proceedings of the Twenty- 
first Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 1920). 

Pride, H. E., 

Iowa Coal. Ames : Iowa State College of Agriculture and Me- 
chanic Arts. 1920. 

Randall, Frank H., 

Scope of the Denial in Iowa Code Pleading (Iowa Law Bul- 
letin, January, 1921). 

Raymond, William Gait, 

Borrowing Power and a Fair Return for Public Utilities (Re- 
printed from Engineering News-Record, December 30, 1920). 
Value Versus Investment as a Basis for Utility Service Bates 
(Reprinted from the Journal of the American Water Works 
Association, January, 1921). 



300 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Reed, Ervin E., 

A Page of the Rock Record (Iowa Conservation, October-De- 
cember, 1920). 

Rhodes, Mrs. F. H., 

The Coming Park at Estherville (Iowa Conservation, October- 
December, 1920). 

Robbins, Charles L., 

The Scholar and the World (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 
1921). 

Roberts, George Evan, 

The Socialized Recitation. Boston : AUyn and Bacon, 1920. 

Eow the Federal Reserve Eases the Crisis (The American Re- 
view of Reviews, January, 1921). 

The Stupendous Fall in Prices (The American Review of Re- 
views, February, 1921 ) . 

Rollins, Leighton, 

The Aviator (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 

Rosenbaum, Benjamin, 

My Purple Gown from Tyre (Poetry, January, 1921). 

Ross, Edward Alsworth, 

Prohibition as the Sociologist Sees It (Harper's Monthly Mag- 
azine, January, 1921). 

Russell, "William F., (Joint author) 

Elementary Americanism. Iowa City: Published by the 
authors. 1920. 

Sampson, F. E., 

Suggestions for a Five Year Health Program (Proceedings of 
the Twenty-first Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 
1920). 

Saunders, Whitelaw, 

The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



301 



Seashore, Carl E., 

The Inheritance of Musical Talent. New York: G. Sehirmer. 
1920. 

Sharp, Mildred J., 

Early Cabins in Iowa (The Palimpsest, January, 1921). 

Sherman, Althea R., 

Bird Conservation (Iowa Conservation, July-September, 1920). 

Sickels, Lucy M., 

Delinquency and What is the Remedy (Bulletin of State Insti- 
tutions, July, 1920). 

Sly, John Fairfield, 

Providing for a State Constitutional Convention (The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, January, 1921). 

Smith, Grace Partridge, 

Visualizing Mythology (Visual Education, November, 1920). 

Smith, Heman Hale, 

Gleanings in Ancestry of Joseph Smith and Emma Hale (Jour- 
nal of History, October, 1920). 

Smith, Leon 0., 

The High School Library (Middle-West School Keview, Janu- 
ary, 1921). 

The Menace of the Feeble-Minded (]\Iiddle-West School Review, 
March, 1921). 

Mental Tests in Primary Grades (Middle- West School Review, 
February, 1921). 

Smith, Lewis Worthington, (Joint author) 

The Skyline in English Literature. New York: D. Appleton 
Co. 1920. 

Steiner, Edward A., 

The Knot in the Handkerchief (The Grinnell Review, March, 
1921). 

VOL. XIX — 20 



302 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Stevens, Truman S., 

Control of the Appellate Courts Over Inferior Judicial Tri- 
bunals (Proceedings of the Iowa State Bar Association, Vol. 
XXVI, 1920). 

Strief, J. H., 

What the State is Doing for Orphaned, Neglected, Dependent, 
Delinquent and Mentally Deficient Children (Proceedings of 
the Twenty-first Iowa State Conference of Social Work, 

1920) . 

Strong, Harold F., 

The Fetish of Sovereignty (The Grinnell Review, January, 

1921) . 

Suckow, Ruth, 

Uprooted (The Midland, February, 1921). 

Sykes, Mildred J., 

Visiting the Battlefields — 1920 (The Iowa Alumnus, January, 
1921). 

Taylor, Alonzo Englebert, 

After-the-War Economic Food Prohlems (Journal of Home 

Economics, January, 1921). 
Credits for Export (The Saturday Evening Post, February 
12, 1921). 

To Reduce the Cost of Eating (The Saturday Evening Post, 
March 5, 1921). 

Taylor, Lloyd W., 

Panama and Its People (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 

Thompson, Beryl V., 

Homeward Bound (Designer, March, 1921). 

Tinley, Emmet, 

Government and Its Menace (Proceedings of the Iowa State 
Bar Association, Vol. XXVI, 1920). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



303 



"Wade, Martin J., (Joint author) 

Elementary Americanism. Iowa City: Published by the 
authors. 1920. 

Lessons in Americanism. Des Moines : American Publicity Co. 
1920. 

WaUeser, Joseph, 

Suspended Accounts (The Grinnell Review, February, 1921). 
Watters, Dennis Alonzo, 

The Trail to Boyhood. Cincinnati: Jennings and Graham. 
1920. 

Welch, F. A., 

Some Problems of the Village School (Midland Schools, Janu- 
ary, 1921). 

Weller, Charles Heald, 

Alchemy in Iowa (The Iowa Alumnus, January, 1921). 
Things Material and Immaterial (The Iowa Alumnus, Febru- 
ary, 1921). 

"Wetherell, Frank E., 

Recreation and City Planning (American Municipalities, Jan- 
uary and February, 1921). 

Wheeler, Charles E., 

The Jones County Calf Case (Proceedings of the Iowa State 
Bar Association, Vol. XXVI, 1920). 

Whitford, W. G., (Joint author) 

PossiMlities of Pottery Manufacture from Iowa Clays. Ames : 
The Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 
1920. 

Whitney, U. G., 

Code Annota,tions (Iowa Law Bulletin, January, 1921). 

Whittemore, 0. J., (Joint author) 

Possibilities of Pottery Manufacture from Iowa Clays. Ames : 
The Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. 
1920. 



304 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Williams, Ira A., 

Lost in an Iowa Blizzard (The Palimpsest, January, 1921). 

Williams, Oscar, 

On Death (The Grinnell Review, January, 1921). 

Wilson, Charles Bundy, 

A Bit of History (The Iowa Alumnus, February, 1921). 

Wyckoff, Garrett P., 

America's Opportunity (The Grinnell Review, March, 1921). 

Wylie, Robert B., 

The Need of Public Parks on the Okohoji Lakes (Iowa Conser- 
vation, October-December, 1920). 

SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

Sketch of the life of Charles E. Stallcop, in the Sac City Sun, De- 
cember 30, 1920. 

Sketch of the life of Amos Hiatt, in the Des Moines Register, Janu- 
ary 2, 1921. 

Early history of Jackson County, by T. E. Blanchard, in the Sa- 
tula Gazette, January 6, 13, 20, and 27, and February 3, 1921. 

Early settlers in Elk Township, in the Aurelia Sentinel, January 6, 
1921. 

Memories of Pella, by C. M. Moore, in the Pella Chronicle, January 
6, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Clarke County, by W. H. Kegley, in the Osceola 
Tribune, January 7, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Ramey Kindred, said to be oldest settler in 
Iowa, in the Fairfield Tribune, January 7, 1921. 

Reorganization of Dodge's company, in the Des Moines Register, 
January 9, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Matthew Henry McElroy, in the Sidney Her- 
ald, January 13, 1921. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



305 



Lineoln and Vinnie Ream Hoxie, in the loiva City Press-Citizen, 
January 14, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of John McAllister, in the Cedar Rapids Gazette,, 
January 18, 1921. 

How the town of Charlotte was named, in the Oakland Acorn, 
January 20, 1921. 

Early Osage history, in the Osage News, January 20, 1921. 
Pioneer prices, in the Independence Bulletin-Journal, January 20, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of George B. Stewart, in the Keokuh Gate City, 
January 21, 1921. 

Seventy-seventh anniversary of the founding of Mahaska County, 
in the OsJcaloosa Times, January 21, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Abbie Gardner Sharp, in the Des Moines Cap- 
ital, the Des Moines Register, MarsJialltown Times-Republican, 
January 24, 1921, the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, January 25, 
1921, the Sioux City Journal, the Fort Dodge Messenger, and 
the Estherville Republican, January 26, 1921, the Spirit Lake 
Beacon, the Grinnell Register, the Manson Journal, and the 
Forest City Summit, January 27, 1921, the Traer Star-Clipper, 
January 28, 1921, and the Cedar Rapids Republican, January 
30, 1921. 

Historical sketch of Fort Dodge, in the Fort Dodge Messenger, 
January 26, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Hancock County, by Mrs. Lavina Avery, in the 
Britt News, January 27, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Darwin Maltby, in the Council Bluffs Non- 
pareil, January 27, 1921. 

"Captain" George W. Streeter was former lowan, in the Bedford 
Times-Republican, January 27, 1921. 

Old families of Fort Madison, by Edward M. Roberts, in the Fort 
Madison Democrat, January 31, 1921. 



306 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Sketch of the life of A. H. Guzman, in the Davenport Democrat, 
February 1, 1921. 

Birmingham and Keosauqua landmarks, by William Harrison, in 
the Keosauqua Bepuhlican, February 3, 1921. 

James, John, and David Condon, early settlers of Webster County, 
in the Fort Dodge Messenger, February 5, 1921. 

Daughter of Betsy Ross lived at Fort Madison, Iowa, in the Des 
Moines Register, February 6, 1921. 

How Clarinda was named, in the Clarinda Journal, February 10, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of George M. Curtis, in the Davenport Democrat, 
February 10, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of C. W. Strother, oldest man in Hardin County, 
in the Eldora Herald, February 10, 1921. 

When Abraham Lincoln came to Council Bluffs, in the Council 
Bluffs Nonpareil, February 13, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. R. E. Rariek, early settler of Waterloo, in 
the Waterloo Times-Tribune, February 13, 1921. 

The Corydon Times in 1877, in the Corydon Democrat, February 

16, 1921. 

How Waukon became the county seat in 1853, in the Waukon 
Standard, February 16, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Emmetsburg, by Henry Funkley, in the Emmets- 
iurg Reporter, February 17, 1921. 

Early land sales in Lee County, in the Keokuk Gate City, Febru- 
ary 17, 1921. 

A glimpse of pioneer days, by P. C. Chambers, in the Osceola Sen- 
tinel, February 17, 1921. 

Ancient gun found in oak tree near Fertile, in the Britt News, 
February 17, 1921. 

Lyon County fifty years old, in the Bock Rapids Review, February 

17, 1921. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 397 

Struggle over timber on lands of Des Moines Navigation Company, 
in the Madrid News, February 17, 1921. 

Carr and Musiek's drove of cattle, in the Keokuk Gate City, Febru- 
ary 19, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of D. 0. Stone, in the Des Moines Capital, Febru- 
ary 19, 1921, and the Hawarden Independent, February 24, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of Henry Bruce Scott, in the Burlington Hawk- 
Eye, February 23, 1921. 

"Monticello House", landmark of Monticello, in the Monticello 
Express, February 24, 1921. 

Two Indian Wars in Cerro Gordo County, in the Clear Lake Mir- 
ror, February 24, 1921. 

Soldiers' Monument at Fort Des Moines, in the Des Moines Register, 
February 27, 1921. 

Old Winnebago Indian mission, in the Des Moines Register, Febru- 
ary 27, 1921. 

Was Samuel Isaac North the first white child bom in Iowa, in the 
Oskaloosa Herald, February 28, 1921, and the Burlington 
Hawk-Eye, March 6, 1921. 

Indian towns in Lee County, in the Keokuk Gate City, March 1, 
1921. 

Early history of Emmet County, in the Estherville Vindicator- 
Republican, March 2, 1921. 

William Graham, oldest lawyer in Dubuque, in the Duluque Tele- 
graph-Herald, March 3, 1921, 

A Civil War incident, in the Osceola Sentinel, March 3, 1921. 

Oldest living resident of Iowa, in the Griswold American, March 3, 
1921, the Vinton Eagle, and the Cedar Rapids Gazette, March 
4, 1921, and the Waterloo Times-Trihune, March 6, 1921. 

lowans who have served in the cabinet, in the Des Moines Evening 
Tribune, March 4, 1921. 



308 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Early schools in Iowa, by Carrie Bailey-Letchford, in the Waukon 
Standard, March 9, 1921. 

Humorous reminiscences of Bloomfield, by Dillon H. Payne, in the 
Bloomfield BepubUoan, March 10, 31, 1921. 

Early settlement at Steam Boat Mound, in the West Union Union, 
March 10, 1921. 

Prices of commodities in 1877, in the Winterset Madisonian, March 
16, 1921. 

Early days in Indianola, by E. W. Perry, in the Indianola Herald, 
March 17, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Caroline A. Davis, in the Bloomfield Bepub- 
lican, March 17, 1921. 

The boundaries of Iowa, in the Madrid News, March 17, 1921. 

Civil War letters, by R. B. Leighton, in the Griswold American, 
March 17, 1921. 

Sketch of the career of George A. Ide, in the Afton Star-Enterprise, 
March 17, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of H. M, Pickell, in the Des Moines Capital, 
March 18, 1921. 

Marquette and Joliet in Iowa, in the Madrid News, March 24, 1921. 

Old house at Cascade, in the Cascade Pioneer, March 24, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Anson Avery, the first woman settler in 
Hancock County, in the MarshaXltown Times-Bepuhlican, 
March 26, 1921. 

Reminiscences of the Sioux massacre in 1862, in the Duhuque 
Telegraph-Herald, March 27, 1921. 

How Boonesboro lost a railroad station, in the Boone News-Bepuh- 
lican, Maroh 29, 1921. 

Narrow gauge railroads, in the Adel News, March 30, 1921. 

Early days in Ottumwa, by C. M. Work, in the Ottumwa Courier, 
March 30, 1921. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 

PUBLICATIONS 

Publication number 102 of the Transactions of The Western Re- 
serve Historical Society contains the annual reports of the Society 
for the years 1919 and 1920. 

The annual report of the Society makes up the issue of The 
Quarterly Publication of the Historical and Philosophical Society 
of Ohio for October-December, 1920. 

Constitutions and Constitutional Conventions in Missouri, a mon- 
ograph by Isidor Loeb, has been published by the State Historical 
Society of Missouri. 

The second volume of the Annual Report of the American His- 
torical Association for the year 1918 which has recently been dis- 
tributed, contains the Autobiography of Martin Van Buren, written 
in 1854 when the author was seventy-one years of age. Unfortu- 
nately the work is carried down only to the year 1832 although 
there are occasional references to events occurring after this date. 
Volume one has not yet been issued. 

A number of documents and papers make up the issue of The 
Virginia Magazine of History and Biography for October, 1920. 
Among these are Documents Relating to the Boundaries of the 
Northern Neck, contributed by Charles E. Kemper, Minutes of the 
Council and General Court, 1622-1629, and a continuation of the 
Preston Papers. 

A third volume of The Papers of Thomas Ruffin, collected and 
edited by J. G. de Roulhac Hamilton, have been published as one 
number of the Publications of the North Carolina Historical Com- 
mission. The letters included in this volume relate chiefly to the 
Civil "War period and present interesting comments on the men, 
conditions of life, and problems in North Carolina during the war. 

309 



310 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Oklahoma Historical Society has launched a new quarterly 
magazine to which the name, Chronicles of Oklahoma, has been 
given. James S. Buchanan is the editor of the new publication and 
Edward E. Dale associate editor. The first number bears the date, 
January, 1921, and contains four articles as follows: Separation of 
Kansas and Nebraska from Indian Territory, by Roy Gittinger; 
Some Letters of General Stand Watie, edited by Edward E. Dale; 
The History of No-Man's Land, or Old Beaver County, by Morris 
L. Wardell; and The Cheyenne Dog Soldiers, by Walter S. Camp- 
bell. In addition there is an editorial, a number of book reviews, 
and a section entitled Historical News Items. 

The Washington Historical Quarterly for January contains the 
following papers: A New Log of the Columbia, by John Boit; 
Authorship of the Anonymous Account of Captain Cook's Last 
Voyage, by F. W. Howay; and a continuation of the paper by 
Edmond S. Meany on the Origin of Washington Geographic Names. 
The Nisqually Journal, edited by Victor J. Farrar, is also con- 
tinued in this number. 

The Mississippi Valley Historical Revietv for December, 1920, 
contains the following papers and addresses : The Pilgrims and the 
Melting Pot, by Carl Russell Pish ; Jane Grey Swisshelm: Agitator, 
by Lester Burrell Shippee; The First Push Westward of the Al- 
bany Traders, by Helen Broshar; and Historical Activities in the 
Trans-Mississippi Northwest, by John C. Parish. Under the head- 
ing Notes and Documents is a Report of Inspection of the Ninth 
Military Department, 1819. 

Hindostan, Greenwich and Mt. Pleasant: The Pioneer Towns of 
Martin County — Memoirs of Thomas Jefferson Brooks, edited by 
George R. Wilson, A Pioneer Wedding, edited by Esther U. McNitt, 
The Pocket in Indiana History, by Thomas James de la Hunt, and 
The History of Madison, by The Women's Club of Madison, are 
four of the papers presented in the Indiana Magazine of History, 
for December, 1920. The "Pocket" discussed in Mr. de la Hunt's 
paper includes the counties bounded by the Blue, Ohio, Wabash, 
and White rivers. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



311 



An Historical Retrospect, an address delivered by Edward Chan- 
ning at the meeting of the American Historical Association, Decem- 
ber 27, 1920, and a third installment of New Light on the Origins 
of the World War, by Sidney B. Fay, are two of the papers in The 
American Historical Review for January. 

The Louisiana Background of the Colonization of Texas, 1763- 
1803, by Mattie Austin Hatcher, Miraheau Buonaparte Lamar, by 
A. K. Christian, and A Ray of Light on the Gadsden Treaty, by J. 
Fred Rippy, are the three articles in The Southwestern Historical 
Quarterly for January. 

The January issue of The Missouri Historical Review is a Mis- 
souri centennial number, like the one for October, 1920. It con- 
tains the following papers and articles: The Missouri Tavern, by 
Walter B. Stevens; A Century of Missouri Agriculture, by F. B. 
Mumford; A Century of Education in Missouri, by C. A. Phillips; 
A Century of Missouri Politics, by C. H, McClure ; A Model Cen- 
tennial Program for Local Celebrations, by E. M. Violette; and 
One Hundred Tears of Banking in Missouri, by Breckenridge 
Jones. 

The Republican Party Originated in Pittsburgh, by Charles W. 
Dahlinger, The Lincolns of Fayette County, Pennsylvania, by John 
S. Ritenour, and The American Indian in the Great War, by George 
P. Donehoo, are three articles of general interest in the January 
number of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 

The January issue of The Register of the Kentucky State His- 
torical Society contains a brief sketch of The Kentucky State His- 
torical Society, a fourth installment of the History of Woodford 
County, by "William E. Railey, and A Relic of Indian Days, by 
Geo. A. Lewis. There are also a number of biographical sketches. 

The January-March, 1920, number of Nebraska History and Rec- 
ord of Pioneer Days contains an article by Albert "Watkins on the 
Genesis of the Great Seal of Nebraska and some further information 
is contributed by Addison E. Sheldon. The issue for April-June, 
1920, contains a story of Pawnee history by George Bird Grinnell, 



312 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and an address by B. W. Atkinson on ' ' General Atkinson, founder 
of Fort Atkinson". 

In addition to the report of the meeting of the New York State 
Historical Association in October, 1920, The Quarterly Journal of 
the New York State Historical Association for January contains a 
paper on Bear Mountain, by G. A. Blauvelt, and one entitled Some 
Historical Aspects of Belief in New York State, by Homer Folks. 

The Adventures of De Sota, by W. A. Henderson, Andrew John- 
son and the Early Phases of the Homestead Bill, by St. George L. 
Sioussat, and The North Carolina-Tennessee Boundary Line Sur- 
vey, 1799, by Sam'l C. Williams, are three articles of general inter- 
est in the Tennessee Historical Magazine for July, 1920. 

The Military Education of Grant as General, by Arthur L. 
Conger, Doctor William Beaumont: His Life in Mackinac and Wis- 
consin, 1820-1834, by Deborah Beaumont Martin, Chronicles of 
Early Watertown, by William F. Whyte, and An Historical Mu- 
seum, by Carl Russell Fish, are some of the papers and articles in 
The Wisconsin Magazine of History for March. A sixth install- 
ment of Historic Spots in Wisconsin, by W. A. Titus, bears the sub- 
title Meeme, A Frontier Settlement That Developed Strong Men. 
There is also a continuation of the Letters of a Badger Boy iii Blue: 
Into the Southland and a short discussion by M. M. Quaife, en- 
titled More Light on Jonathan Carver. 

The Michigan History Magazine for April-July, 1920, contains a 
large number of papers and articles among which are the following : 
Michigan in the Great War, by Chas. H. Landrum; Reminiscences 
of Life at Mackinac, 1835-1863: A Tribute to Old Memories of the 
"Isle of Beauty", by Constance Saltonstall Patton (Mrs. William 
Ludlow) ; Work of the Michigan Committee, National League for 
Women's Service, 1919-1920, by Mrs. R. C. Sherrill; The Joys and 
Sorrows of an Emigrant Family, by Joseph Ruff; The Woman's 
Relief Corps as a Pioneer, by Franc L. Adams ; and The Story of a 
Famous Mission (L'Arbre Croche Mission), by H. Bedford Jones. 
Fort Gratiot (a poem), Our Society: How Help It to Serve, by 
Alvah H. Sawyer, The Minnesota Historical Society, by Solon J. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



313 



Buck, Aid to Education hy the National Government, by Jonathan 
L. Snyder, War Patriotism in a Michigan Prison, by James Russell, 
and Michigan War Legislation, 1917, by Charles H. Landrum, are 
some of the contributions to the October issue. This number also 
contains accounts of the "Soo" pageant at Sault Ste. Marie, on 
June 15 and 16, 1920, and the Marquette pageant presented near 
Marquette, Michigan, on July 5, 1920. 

ACTIVITIES 

The State Historical Department at Des Moines has recently 
received from Ole Nelson of Slater, Iowa, a collection of arrow 
points and flints made by H. L. Skavlem, a Norse arrow maker of 
Stoughton, Wisconsin. 

The annual meeting of the Hawkeye Natives was held at Bur- 
lington on February 22, 1921. C. C. Clark gave the principal 
address. 

In November, 1920, the State Historical and Natural History 
Society of Colorado began the publication of a quarterly bulletin 
for the purpose of informing the public of the activities of the 
Society. 

The Kentucky State Historical Society held its annual meeting 
at Frankfort on October 2, 1920. H. V. McChesney was reelected 
first vice president and Edgar E. Hume second vice president for 
the ensuing year. The Governor of Kentucky is ex officio president 
of the Historical Society. 

The Michigan Historical Commission has made arrangements to 
distribute complete sets of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical 
Collections to members of the American Historical Association and 
college and university libraries, which do not already possess the 
set. The transportation charges are to be paid by the recipients. 
Other individuals may obtain desired numbers of the series for a 
dollar a volume and transportation. The set includes forty-one 
volumes, two of which contain general indices. 



314 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETT OF IOWA 

The Thirty-ninth General Assembly added $20,500 to the perma- 
nent annual support fund of The State Historical Society of Iowa. 
With this generous financial support the Society expects to con- 
tinue its work of preserving and publishing the history of Iowa. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Dr. John W. BiUingsley, Newton, Iowa; Mrs. 
Carrie S. Buechele, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. D. S. Chamberlain, Des 
Moines, Iowa ; Mr. W. C. Children, Council Bluffs, Iowa ; Mr. W. B. 
Coltman, Independence, Iowa ; Mr. George E. Cottrell, Des Moines, 
Iowa; Mr. D, M. Douglass, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. S. E. Fackler, 
Prescott, Iowa ; Mr. J. J. Ferguson, Council Bluffs, Iowa ; Mr. H. C. 
Hargrove, Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. Frank C. Lake, Sioux City, Iowa ; 
Mr. John M. McDonald, Sioux City, Iowa ; Mr. John B. McDougal, 
Des Moines, Iowa ; Mr. C. E. Narey, Spirit Lake, Iowa ; Mr. W. C. 
Scott, Farragut, Iowa; Dr. M. L. Turner, Des Moines, Iowa; Mr. 
A. H. Wright, Ames, Iowa ; Mr. Geo. A. Anderson, Clarinda, Iowa ; 
Mr. Henry Bregman, Paullina, Iowa; Mr. Thomas Farrell, Iowa 
City, Iowa; Mr. F. C. Gilchrist, Laurens, Iowa; Mrs. E. W. Nea- 
sham, Fairfeld, Iowa; Mr. Wm. B. Parrott, Manning, Iowa; Mr. 
Frederick S. Rice, Waterloo, Iowa; Mr. H. H. Schulte, Manly, 
Iowa ; Mr. Vincent Starzinger, Des Moines, Iowa ; Rev. Thos. Batho, 
Rock Rapids, Iowa; Dr. W. L. Bierring, Des Moines, Iowa; Dr. 
Robert L. Borland, Vinton, Iowa; Miss Ella M. Dungan, Perry, 
Iowa; Mr. W. W. Dunsmoor, Britt, Iowa; Mr. Gordon L. Elliott, 
Des Moines, Iowa; Mrs. D. E. Graham, Ottumwa, Iowa; Mr. A. G. 
Thurman, Oskaloosa, Iowa ; and Mr. Louis L. Vamer, Ames, Iowa. 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



A portrait of former Judge W. H. Tedford was recently pre- 
sented to the District Court of Wayne County and will hang in the 
court room where he presided for so many years. Judge Tedford 
died in 1917. 

The early history of Ames was the topic at a meeting of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution on February 22, 1921. 

The buildings and grounds of old Fort Atkinson in nothern Iowa 
will be preserved in a State park if the arrangements now in 
progress are carried out. Fort Atkinson was established in 1840. 

The Des Moines Capital is making a search for the most famous 
tree in Iowa in order that its record may be preserved in the hall of 
fame — for trees — established by the American Forestry Asso- 
ciation. 

A portrait of Mrs. Cyrus C. Carpenter, the wife of the late Gov- 
ernor Carpenter, has been presented to the State Historical Depart- 
ment at Des Moines and wiU be hung in the Historical Building 
beside that of the Governor. 

A meeting of the pioneers of Lyon County, to be held at Rock 
Rapids in June, has been suggested by George Moonlux in a letter 
to a local paper, with the idea of organizing a Lyon County pio- 
neers association. 

An historical pageant of Henry County will be one of the fea- 
tures of the county fair at Mount Pleasant on August 17, 1921. 

The twenty-second annual conference of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution was held at Grinnell March 23 and 24, 1921. 
Plans were made to mark the camping place of Lewis and Clark at 
Blue Lake near Onawa, Iowa. 

Charles R. Hall, a painter of Council Bluffs, is planning a paint- 
ing of Council Bluffs as Lincoln saw it in 1859. 

315 



316 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Yale University Press has discontinued the publication of 
Writings on American History and this bibliography will hereafter 
be printed in the annual reports of the American Historical Associ- 
ation as it was in 1909, 1910, and 1911. 

The eighteenth biennial session of the Iowa Pioneer Lawmakers' 
Association was held at Des Moines on March 16, 1921. Among 
those present was J. H. Peters, the only surviving member of the 
constitutional convention of 1857, Former Governor "Warren 
Garst was chosen chairman for the next two years, Major Fleming 
was reappointed secretary, and Ruth Dennis was continued as hon- 
orary assistant secretary. All persons who were members of the 
legislature prior to 1911 are eligible to membership in this asso- 
ciation. 

An additional appropriation of $15,000 was voted by the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly for the completion of the war roster which 
was authorized by the preceding legislature. The Governor and 
the Adjutant General are the members of the commission and the 
work is in charge of the Adjutant General. 

A pageant representing the history of Boone County will be 
given in June if the present plans mature. The undertaking is 
financed by the American Legion Post and the Thurston Manage- 
ment, Incorporated, of Minneapolis will have charge. 

The Department of Historical Research in the Carnegie Institu- 
tion of "Washington is collecting the material for an edition, in sev- 
eral volumes, of the correspondence of Andrew Jackson, to be 
edited by Professor John Spencer Bassett of Smith College, who 
has written a biography of Andrew Jackson. All persons who 
possess letters of General Jackson or important letters to him, or 
who know where there are collections of his correspondence or even 
single letters, are requested to communicate with Dr. J. F. Jameson, 
the Director of the Department of Historical Research at 1140 
"Woodward Building, "Washington, D. C. 

Three laws concerning State and local historical activities were 
enacted by the recent session of the Indiana legislature. One pro- 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



317 



vides that county commissioners in each county where there is an 
historical society may appropriate a maximum of $1500 a year for 
the payment of a curator and other expenses incurred for the pur- 
pose of collecting and preserving historical materials. A second act 
authorizes county commissioners to appropriate the sum of $1000 
for the printing of county war histories. Each public library and 
each American Legion post in the county is to receive a copy free, 
aU other copies are to be sold at cost. It is expected that every 
county in Indiana will publish a county war history. A third act 
authorizes the State Historical Commission to present one copy of 
the State Gold Star Volume to the family or next of kin of each of 
the 3,353 soldiers and 15 nurses, whose records appear in this me- 
morial volume. 

MRS. ABBIB GAEDNER SHAEP 

No other incident in Iowa history possesses the tragic interest of 
the Spirit Lake Massacre in March, 1857, and the story of the 
woman who for many years survived the experiences of those days 
of massacre and servitude is unique in the annals of the State. 
Abbie Gardner was bom in the State of New York in 1843 and 
came to Iowa in 1856 with her parents who were among the earliest 
settlers on the shores of Lake Okoboji. At the time of the massacre 
Abbie was one of the four women who were taken prisoner by the 
Indians after being compelled to witness the murder and mutila- 
tion of their relatives and friends. The experiences of the captives 
during the days of captivity have been told by Mrs. Sharp in her 
History of the Spirit Lake Massacre and Captivity of Miss Ahhie 
Gardner. Two of the captives were later murdered by the Indians 
but one of the older women and the fourteen year old girl were 
finally purchased by friendly Indians and turned over to their 
friends. Soon after her release Abbie Gardner married Casville 
Sharp. In 1891, she returned to the region of the lakes and pur- 
chased the lot on which stood the cabin in which her family had 
been massacred and from which she had been dragged as a captive. 
Here she made her home until her death which occurred January 
21, 1921. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Marcus Lee Hansen, Research Associate in The State His- 
torical Society of Iowa. Bom at Neenah, Wisconsin, December 
8, 1892. Eeceived the degree of B. A. from the State Univer- 
sity of Iowa, 1916, and the degree of M. A. from the same 
institution in 1917. Author of Old Fort Snelling, Welfare 
Campaigns in Iowa, and several magazine articles. 

Louis Beenard Schmidt, Professor of History in the Iowa 
State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. (See The 
Iowa Journal of History and Politics for October, 1912, p. 
593.) 



318 



THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

EstABUSHSD BY LAW IN THS YSAR 1857 

iNOoaPOBATVO : 1S67 akd 1893 
LooATXO AT Iowa City Iowa. 



RALPH P. LOWE 
S. J. KIEKWOOD 
F. H. LEB 
W. PENN CLAEKE 



FORMER PRESIDENTS 
JAMES W. GEIMES, First President 
EGBERT HUTCHINSON 
M. J. MOBSMAN 
WILLIAM Q. HAMMOND 
GEOEGE G. WRIGHT 



JOSLIH L. PICKARD 
PETEB A, DEY 
EUCLID SANDEE3 



OFFICERS 

BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH.., SuPsaiNTENDKKX 



MABVIN. H. DEY Psesidbnt 

PAUL A. KOBAB , .TaaASUBEB 



BOARD OP CURATORS 



Elected the Society 

Abtehb J. Oox A. SwisHXB 

MabVih H. DX7 Ceakles M. DtrxoHm 
HxNKT Q. Wauos Gko. E. Gbus 
Hkubt Albekt Mobton 0. Muuua 
W. 0. Coast 



Appointed hy the Governor 



A. F. Aixen 

J. P. CatrncsHAKK 

CHAEUCS J- POLTON 

John M. Gbucm 



John M. Lindly 
John T. Mosott 
W. P. Moceb 
Chas. E. Pickbtt 



H, 0. Weaves 



MEMBERSHIP 

Any person may become a member of The State Historical SociEmr of 
Iowa npon election by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance fee 
of $3.00. 

Membership in this Society may be retained after the first year upon the 
payment of $3.00 annually. 

Members of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and all other 
publicationa of the Society during the continuance of their membership. 

Address all Communications to 



The State Histoeical Sooiett Iowa City Iowa 



Iowa Journal 




H i storj'and Politics 



JULY 1921 




PublisKed Quarterly by 

HE STATE fflSTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

lowet City lowev 



•A December 26 1902 ai towa C!ty r 



EDITOR 

BENJAMIN F, SHAMBAUQH 
Associate Editor, JOHN C. PARISH 



Vol XIX JULY 1921 No 3 



CONTENTS 



Iowa and the Diplomatic Service 

John E. Briogs 321 

Kasson and the First International Postal Conf erence 

John E. Briogs 366 

Mechanics' Jnstitutions 

Clarence Kay Aurner 3b9 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States 

1860-1890 (II) Louis Bernard Schmidt 414 

Some Publications 456 

Western Americana . 462 

lowana . . ... 463 
Historical Societies ,477 

Notes and Comment 483 

Contributors ....... 486 



Copyright IStl hy tU BicAe Eisiorieal 0<niiety of Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

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THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

JULY NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 
VOLUME NINETEEN NUMBER THREE 



VOL, XIX — 21 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



History may be studied from several viewpoints. First, 
the element of time may be made the basis of investigation. 
That is, all events of whatever nature that occur during a 
particular period of time whether it be a day or a century 
may be taken into consideration. Another standard for 
limiting the field of historical research is that of place. A 
student may confine his endeavor to the events that have 
occurred within a particular area, and the chosen area may 
be large or small. Again, history may be approached 
through the consideration of the thoughts and actions of 
those who have participated in an event or a series of 
events. Usually the study of the past is limited in all of 
these ways — in respect to time, place, and participants 
combined — though one element may be selected as the 
primary limitation. Thus, the history of the United States 
is studied during the Civil War period; or the history of 
Iowa is studied from the earliest times to the present; or 
attention is centered upon a biography. 

The history of a relatively small area can not be ade- 
quately understood except in relation to larger areas of 
which it is a part or with which it is associated. The his- 
tory of Iowa is somewhat dependent upon the history of 
the nation and at the same time constitutes a part of it. 
Iowa history is the resultant of external as well as internal 
events : it can not be limited by State boundaries. Wher- 
ever citizens of Iowa may be, especially in official capacity, 
there Iowa history is being made. As the history of any 
country includes the exploits of its citizens both at home 
and abroad, so it is proper to include in the history of this 

321 



322 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Commonwealth not only the acts of the people living within 
the borders of the State but also the deeds of those who 
participate in national and international affairs. In this 
sense there is a relationship between Iowa and the diplo- 
matic service. 

During the time that Iowa has been a State, at least 
eleven residents of this Commonwealth have been heads of 
embassies or legations in foreign countries. Some of these 
men have served for many years and in several countries. 
Some have also acted as special commissioners on various 
occasions. There have been a few lowans who, having 
been nominated for a post in the diplomatic service, have 
declined acceptance. The first appointment of an lowan 
to the head of a foreign mission was made in 1855 and the 
last in 1910.1 

Partly due to the fact that the rank of ambassador was 
not established by the United States until 1893, there have 
been only two appointments of lowans to that grade: 
Edwin H. Conger was ambassador to Mexico in 1905, and 
Thomas C. Dawson held that rank on a special mission to 
Venezuela in 1911. There have been twelve appointments 
of lowans to the rank of envoy extraordinary and minister 
plenipotentiary, four appointments to the rank of minister 
resident, and two appointments to the rank of minister resi- 
dent and consul general; while on special missions there 
have been six appointments bearing the title of commis- 
sioner, two with the title high commissioner, three dele- 
gates, one delegate plenipotentiary, one representative, and 
two agents. 

In addition to the lowans who have been heads of embas- 

1 The list of diplomatic appointments from Iowa used in connection with 
this article was obtained for the State Historical Society of Iowa by Dr. 
Newton D. Mereness from the files in the Department of State, Washington, 
D. C. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 323 



sies or legations, or who have served as special diplomatic 
agents, there have been several who have served as secre- 
taries of legations, a few of whom have later become 
envoys. There have also been a few student interpreters 
sent to China and one to Turkey. As many if not more 
lowans have received appointments to the consular as to 
the diplomatic branch of the foreign service. Indeed, it 
has been said that Philip C. Hanna of Waterloo was, at the 
time of his retirement, the dean of the United States con- 
sular service. The contribution of Iowa to the consular 
service, however, will not be considered in this article. A 
list of Iowa diplomats is given below: 

DIPLOMATS FROM IOWA 

Name and Title Diplomatic Post Date 

Bainbeidge, WmLIAM E. 

Second Secretary of 

Legation China 1898-1903 

Commissioner U. S. and Venezuela 

Claims Commission 1903 



Buchanan, WuliLiam I. 

Minister Plenipotentiary 
Delegate 

Minister Plenipotentiary 
Delegate 

Delegate Plenipotentiary 
Representative 
Higli Commissioner 
High Commissioner 



Argentine Republic 1894-1899 
Second International 

American Conference 1901 
Panama 1903-1904 
Third International 

American Conferentje 1906 
Second Hague Peace 

Conference 1907 
Central American Peace 

Conference 1907 
Central American Court 

of Justice 1908 
Venezuela — American 

claims 1908-1909 



324 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Name and Title 
Agent 



Clark, Alexander 

Minister Resident and 
Consul General 



Diplomatic Post 

Hague arbitration, 
Orinoco Steamship 
Company 



Liberia 



Bate 



Conger, Edwin H. 

Minister Plenipotentiary Brazil 

Minister Plenipotentiary Brazil 

Minister Plenipotentiary China 

Ambassador Mexico 



Dawson, Thomas C. 

Secretary of Legation 
Minister Resident and 

Consul General 
Minister Plenipotentiary 
Minister Plenipotentiary 
Chief of Division of Latin 

American Affairs 
Minister Plenipotentiary 
Agent 
Ambassador 

Resident Diplomatic 
Officer • 

Dodge, Augustus C. 

Minister Plenipotentiary 

Hudson, Silas A. 

Minister Resident 



Brazil 

Dominican Republic 

Colombia 

Chile 

State Department 

Panama 

Nicaragua 

Venezuela Centennial 
Celebration 

State Department 



Spain 



Guatemala 



1909 



1890-1891 



1890-1893 

1897- 1898 

1898- 1905 
1905 



1897-1904 

1904-1907 
1907-1909 
1909 

1909- 1910 

1910- 1911 
1910 

1911 

1911- 1912 

1855-1859 
1869-1872 



Irwin, John N. 

Minister Plenipotentiary Portugal 



1899-1901 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



325 



Name and Title 



Diplomatic Post 



Date 



Jones, George W. 
Minister Resident 



New Grenada- 
Colombia 



1859-1861 



Kasson, John A. 
Commissioner 

Commissioner 

Minister Plenipotentiary 
Minister Plenipotentiary 
Delegate 

Commissioner 

Commissioner 
Commissioner 



International Postal 

Conference, Paris 1863 
Postal conventions, 

European countries 1867 

Austria-Hungary 1877-1881 

Germany 1884-1885 
Congo Conference, 

Berlin 1884-1885 
Samoan Conference, 

Berlin 1889 

Reciprocity treaties 1897-1903 
British American Joint 

High Commission 1898-1899 



Wareen, Fitz Henry 

Minister Resident Guatemala 1866-1869 

WuLiLWEBER, CHRISTIAN 

Minister Resident Ecuador 1875-1877 

Why have there been only twelve diplomats from Iowa in 
seventy-five years? A number of reasons may be sug- 
gested, some of which have exerted slight influence, if any 
at all, while others may very nearly explain the situation. 
So far as this article is concerned they are all speculative, 
the chief purpose here being to suggest possibilities. 
Perhaps the exact importance of any particular reason for 
few appointments to the diplomatic service from Iowa can 
not be determined. The few instances in which appoint- 
ments have been refused throw little light on the subject. 
They serve to explain in particular instances why certain 



326 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



lowans have not been attracted to specified foreign posts 
at particular times, but offer no explanation as to why the 
appointment was tendered to a resident of Iowa. To 
reason conversely from the circumstances that have led to 
appointments produces only suggestions of causes in the 
exceptional instances when lowans have received diplo- 
matic positions, and not general reasons why the exception 
has occurred or why it does not happen more frequently. 

One of the most plausible explanations of appointments, 
independent of personal considerations, is the practice in 
the United States of paying some attention to distribution 
of diplomatic positions among the several States according 
to population. There is no written rule governing such 
apportionment of the more important diplomatic posts, nor 
is the practice strictly observed in the appointment of heads 
of missions. But according to an executive order issued by 
President Taft in 1909 persons appointed to the diplomatic 
service after examination shall be distributed as far as pos- 
sible according to the population of the different States. 
Under this rule Iowa in 1912 was entitled to 2.59 positions 
in the diplomatic service filled by appointment after exam- 
ination. There was only one such representative from Iowa 
that year; and while representation of the States west of 
the Mississippi has increased since 1906, this region (in- 
cluding Iowa) has usually been under-represented. In the 
consular service, however, Iowa was over-represented in 
1912, eleven positions filled by appointment after examina- 
tion being held by lowans, whereas the quota for this State 
was only 8.88.^ 

A very obvious reason why the total number of diplomats 
appointed from Iowa is relatively small is because the 

2 Report on the Foreign Service, pp. 42, 272, 273. This report was made 
under the auspices of the National Civil Service Reform League and was pub- 
lished in 1919. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 327 



popnlation of this State, compared with that of New York 
and Pennsylvania, has been small. From the standpoint of 
numbers alone it is reasonable to expect that Iowa would 
furnish only about one-fourth or one-fifth as many candi- 
dates for diplomatic posts as New York or Pennsylvania, 
even though this State should have a full quota at all times. 

Diplomacy has not yet become a profession in the United 
States. One reason why men do not fit themselves for a 
career in the diplomatic service is because the tenure of 
office depends upon politics. Appointments are dependent 
not so much upon ability to execute properly the functions 
of a diplomat as they are upon the services of the person in 
the political party that is successful in a presidential cam- 
paign. Moreover, United States diplomats are expected to 
resign at the end of each administration, especially if there 
is a change of the party in power. 

Since diplomatic appointments are somewhat dependent 
upon politics, politics may explain to some extent the ap- 
pointments that have been made from Iowa. In the first 
place Iowa has seldom been a pivotal State in a presi- 
dential election. Consequently, lowans have not profited 
as extensively as party workers in some other States in the 
distribution of public offices by the national administration. 
The fact that distinguished political services have led di- 
rectly or indirectly to positions in the diplomatic service in 
some instances would seem to indicate that more appoint- 
ments of that character might have been made if there had 
been greater opportunity for notable party work in the 
State. 

Another political consideration is the fairly well estab- 
lished custom in Iowa of reelecting members of Congress 
who have shown conspicuous ability. John Hay once said 
that a quiet legation "is a stuffed mattress which the 
political acrobat wants always to see ready under him in 



328 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



case of a slip."^ Not many lowans of outstanding ability 
in public life have had need of a soft job in the foreign 
service in the event of losing a seat in Congress. The few 
exceptions seem to prove the rule. 

It sometimes occurs that a man in politics becomes 
persona non grata to his party, either because he does not 
agree with the policy of administration and stirs up dis- 
cord, or, if he happens to be in office, because an influential 
faction disagrees with his policies. It might occur, for 
example, that a Governor and the congressional delegation 
from his State could not work in harmony. In that case 
the members of Congress might connive to have the objec- 
tionable person removed from politics for the time by 
obtaining his appointment to the foreign service. William 
H. Seward while Secretary of State summarized such a 
situation admirably: "Some persons are sent abroad be- 
cause they are needed abroad, and some are sent because 
they are not wanted at home."* Almost continuously since 
the first lowans were appointed to the diplomatic service 
by a Democratic President, this State has been one of the 
Republican strongholds; and while there have been times 
of party discord, few if any appointments have been made 
on that account. 

There is probably considerable truth in the notion that 
the people in those parts of the United States which are 
remote from the seacoast or border are less interested in 
foreign affairs than those who by virtue of their location 
tend to come in contact with the people and problems of 
foreign countries. Residents of the great eastern sea ports 
are constantly and directly exposed to foreigTi influences. 
There immigrants are landing; there merchants are im- 

3 Hay's Franl'lin in France in The Century Magazine, Vol. LXXI, p. 448, 
January, 1906. 

* Foster's The Practice of Diplomacy, p. 13. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



329 



porting or exporting goods to Europe and South America ; 
there the greater part of the customs revenue is collected ; 
there the newspapers feature foreign news much more 
extensively than the papers published in interior cities be- 
cause most of their subscribers are more vitally interested 
in that sort of news ; there the well-to-do vacationists and 
business men take passage for Europe as commonly as an 
lowan visits Chicago; there only the vacant spaces of the 
sea lie between the old world and the new. England is next 
door to the residents of Boston, but between Iowa and Eng- 
land live millions of people and the contact is seldom direct. 
We see through the eyes of the Easterners. People in 
Florida usually appreciate West Indian conditions much 
better than lowans do, because the climate and products are 
similar and because events there come very close home. So 
with Americans who live near the Mexican border : to them 
a Mexican bandit raid is a very real thing but to lowans it 
is only a newspaper headline. Perhaps there was truth in 
the charge that residents of the Mississippi Valley were 
slow to appreciate the necessity of entering the World War, 
not because they were less intelligent or less patriotic but 
because remoteness dimmed the reality of the conflict. So 
it may be that though there are plenty of lowans who are 
properly qualified to occupy diplomatic posts there are few 
who have had sufficient direct contact with foreign affairs 
to be interested in such positions. 

But aside from the geographical position of Iowa there 
are probably other equally important causes for lack of 
interest in diplomacy as a field for public service. Not 
many decades have elapsed since pioneer conditions pre- 
vailed in parts of this State. The residents of Iowa have 
devoted their energy almost completely to internal develop- 
ment. Cultivation of the soil, fencing the fields, erection of 
houses and barns, reclamation of swamp lands, construction 



330 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of railroads, grading of highways, mining of coal, manu- 
facture of implements, and preparation of food have been 
the principal concerns of the people of Iowa. Until very 
recently Iowa has not been particularly interested in for- 
eign markets or the political affairs of foreign countries. 
Why should an lowan seek an ill-paying and exacting polit- 
ical position in a strange land when such splendid oppor- 
tunities for service and fortune were clamoring for his 
attention at home? 

A general desire to remain at home may in itself be a 
partial explanation of few diplomatic appointments. Per- 
haps lowans are preeminently a home folk, little inclined to 
globe-trotting. To the people of Iowa, content to respond 
to the throbbing Iowa Home Note", the lure of strange 
places and residence among people of a different race offers 
slight attraction. No native bom lowan has ever been 
appointed to a diplomatic office while a citizen of this State, 

The relatively small population of Iowa, unfavorable 
political conditions, and lack of interest in foreign affairs 
all serve to explain partially the small number of appoint- 
ments to the diplomatic service from this State. There is 
another group of reasons, however, that may be even more 
influential. The foreign service is of such a character that 
only a few are by nature and training fitted to succeed in 
such a career. There is no branch of the civil service which 
calls for so many positive qualities of character and per- 
sonality, which requires such a mass of practical knowledge 
and general information, and at the same time is so highly 
specialized and technical. Many of the requirements could 
be met by the residents of this State as well as any others, 
but there are some qualities that a good diplomat ought to 
possess which as a rule are lacking among lowans. 

In diplomacy as in any other field, experience and train- 
ing in the functions of the office are valuable assets, and 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 331 



while the United States has been notoriously negligent in 
keeping experienced men in diplomatic posts it can not be 
gainsaid that previous appointments have often led to re- 
appointments, although most of the diplomats from Iowa 
have been appointed to only one position. On the other 
hand there have been no experienced diplomats originally 
appointed from other States who have moved to Iowa and 
later continued their diplomatic career while maintaining a 
legal residence in this State. One or two who have re- 
ceived their first appointment from Iowa have later been 
appointed from other States, usually in the East. 

Another qualification which most lowans, especially in 
recent years, might find difficulty in fulfilling is intimate 
knowledge of the history, laws, and customs of foreign 
countries. In the earlier years there were of course large 
numbers of immigrants to this State from foreign countries 
who were thoroughly familiar with their native country, 
but most of them were not of the class of people from whom 
diplomats are selected. Few were wealthy and few were 
men of affairs in their native land. They came to this 
country seeking their fortune and usually had no desire to 
return except for a temporary visit. Some who became 
wealthy and returned have never come back to America 
and have lost their American citizenship — if indeed they 
were ever naturalized. In this connection it should be said 
that the United States appoints none but American citizens 
to the diplomatic service and usually only native born citi- 
zens — a practice which eliminates the immigrants almost 
entirely. Aside from the naturalized citizens in this State 
there are few lowans who have traveled or studied suffi- 
ciently to possess much knowledge of the history, laws, and 
customs of foreign countries. 

There is another field of information which is an essen- 
tial part of a diplomat's stock in trade. He can scarcely 



332 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



perform a single oflScial function that does not involve some 
principle or practice of international law or a treaty pro- 
vision. It is important therefore that the head of a mission 
be thoroughly familiar with the treaties of the United 
States and international law. Very few Iowa lawyers ever 
have occasion, in the course of their practice or because the 
interests of lowans are affected, to read a treaty; while 
cases in international or maritime law are practically un- 
known to the courts in this State. In maritime States and 
in sea ports on the contrary such cases are very common. 
It is a natural conclusion, therefore, that attorneys prac- 
ticing in such places are more familiar with the legal func- 
tions of a diplomatic officer than those from interior places. 

The language requirement would probably seriously 
handicap if not entirely exclude a great many lowans from 
the diplomatic service. It is certain that the percentage of 
lowans eligible for a diplomatic post who are conversant 
with French, the language of diplomacy, or some other for- 
eign language, has been comparatively low, though the 
number has no doubt increased materially since the World 
War. 

It was discovered in 1914 that twenty-five out of thirty- 
seven appointments to the British diplomatic service were 
given to men who have attended the very exclusive private 
school of Eton, The principal reason is that these men, 
reared in the wealthiest and most aristocratic families in 
England and educated in companionship with others of 
their class, are best versed in the fine art of being gentle- 
men.^ While American diplomats have been criticised 
abroad for their "shirt sleeve" manners, it is also true that 
the most successful of our representatives abroad have 
been the most refined and cultured. There have always 
been men in Iowa who would rank with the best of them in 

5Satow's A Guide to Diplomatic Practice, Vol. I, p. 183. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



333 



this respect, but the facilities for training in high society 
have not been generally available in this State. 

The final qualification which may have proved a stum- 
bling block to the ambition of many an lowan is that of 
compensation. The salary of American diplomats has 
never been sufficient to pay their expenses, especially in 
more recent years since the establishment of the rank of 
ambassador. Only those who have a large independent 
income can afford to accept an appointment as head of a 
diplomatic mission. While the per capita wealth of Iowa 
is very high it has always been fairly evenly distributed 
and the number of Iowa millionaires has been relatively 
small. Most of those who have been financially able to 
accept a diplomatic appointment have probably been reluc- 
tant to scatter their fortune in that manner. 

It is not the purpose of this article to discover or even 
suggest all of the possible circumstances which have af- 
fected the appointment of lowans to the diplomatic service. 
Neither is it the purpose of this article to demonstrate the 
relative importance or the bearing in particular instances 
of the reasons already mentioned. That may be left to 
those who write the biographies of Iowa diplomats, and it 
is hoped that the foregoing speculations may be suggestive. 
The principal purpose of this article is to sketch very 
briefly the diplomatic services of the men from this State 
as a phase of Iowa history. In this sense Iowa has played 
a part in some of the most important and unique events in 
American diplomacy. 

AUGUSTUS CAESAR DODGE 

To Augustus C. Dodge belongs the honor of being the first 
lowan to receive an appointment as head of a United States 
legation at a foreign court. One of the most conspicuous 



334 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



leaders of tlie Democratic party in Iowa, he held public 
office almost continuously from the organization of the 
Territory of Iowa until the Democrats lost control of the 
State. First he was Register of the Land Office at BurKng- 
ton from 1838 to 1840, then for six years he was Delegate 
to Congress from Iowa Territory, and from 1848 until 1855 
he served as United States Senator from Iowa. When Mr. 
Dodge failed to be reelected to the Senate he, like so many 
other Congressmen before and since, found it convenient to 
accept the appointment offered by President Franklin 
Pierce as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to Spain. The appointment was confirmed on Febru- 
ary 9, 1855, and he arrived with his family in Madrid on 
June 7th.« 

During four years of stormy Spanish history Mr. Dodge 
represented the United States at Madrid with credit to 
himself and the nation. He succeeded in reestablishing the 
pleasant relations between Spain and the United States 
that had been threatened by his predecessor, the rash and 
tactless Pierre Soule; he settled the Black Warrior" af- 
fair ; and he endeavored to negotiate the purchase of Cuba, 
but was not able to accomplish that result on account of 
the intermittent revolutions which convulsed the Spanish 
nation. On March 12, 1859, he took leave of Queen Isabella 
n and returned to Iowa, thus terminating his diplomatic 
career.' 

GEORGE WALLACE JONES 

As the decline of the Democratic party in Iowa had 
caused the defeat of Augustus C. Dodge for the United 

^ Icrwa Offlcial Begister, 1919-1920, pp. 41, 115; Pelzer's Augustus Caesar 
Bodge, pp. 51, 61, 196, 197, 201. 

' For a detailed account of the diplomatic work of A. C. Dodge, see Pelzer's 
Augustus Caesar Bodge, pp. 196-234, especially 199, 204, 233, 234; and 
Pelzer's The Biplomatic Correspondence of Augustus Caesar Bodge in the 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 335 



States Senate in 1854, so also Senator George W. Jones was 
replaced by a Eepublican in 1859 and another Democratic 
President, James Buchanan, proffered to him the office of 
Minister Eesident to New Granada. The appointment was 
confirmed on March 8, 1859, before Mr. Jones had been ad- 
vised that he was being considered. He immediately de- 
clined, but after returning to his home in Dubuque he 
reconsidered and accepted the mission. By the end of April 
he was on his way to Bogota. 

During the two years that Mr. Jones represented the 
United States in South America the country to which he 
was accredited was almost constantly in a state of revolu- 
tion. It was at this time that Tomas C. D. Mosquera over- 
threw the established government and set up a new federal 
system under the name of the United States of Colombia. 
Mr. Jones succeeded in maintaining friendship with all 
factions and when he was succeeded by Allen A. Burton 
and took his leave on November 4, 1861, he bore with him 
the good will of all with whom he had come in contact.^ 

SAMUEL JOEDAN KIRKWOOD 

,In December, 1862, the Iowa delegation in Congress be- 
gan to exert their influence to secure the appointment of an 
lowan to the post of Minister Resident to Denmark and 
Samuel J. Kirkwood was asked if he would accept the place. 
He declined on the ground that it would not be proper to 
resign his office as Governor at that time. The appointment 
was made, however, and confirmed by the Senate in the 
spring of 1863. About the middle of April, Governor 
Kirkwood wrote to Secretary William H. Seward that he 
would accept if he could first serve out his term as Gov- 

Proceedings of the Mississippi Valley Historical Association, Vol. I, 1907- 
1908, pp. 111-120. 

8 For a detailed account of the diplomatic career of George W. Jones, see 
Parish's George Wallace Jones, pp. 58-60, 216-234. 

VOL. XIX — 22 



336 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ernor and so the appointment was held under advisement 
until January, 1864, when he definitely declined to accept.* 

JOHN ADAM KASSON 

Of all Iowa diplomats the services of J ohn Adam Kasson 
are perhaps the most conspicuous. His work as minister 
was not the most difficult nor his tenure as head of legations 
the longest, but he was sent on many special missions, per- 
formed his duty with unusual ability, and his efforts were 
usually crowned with success. 

The public career of John A. Kasson extends over a 
period of more than forty years, nearly all of it as a resi- 
dent of Iowa. He came to Des Moines in 1857 at the age of 
thirty-five to continue the practice of law in which he had 
already achieved distinction in St. Louis. Much inclined 
toward politics he immediately became one of the leaders 
of the new Republican party, serving as chairman of the 
State central committee for two years. As one of the dele- 
gates at large from Iowa to the national Republican con- 
vention in 1860 John A. Kasson served with distinction on 
the sub-committee of the committee on resolutions that 
framed the platform, and while his first choice for Presi- 
dent was Edward Bates of Missouri he voted for Lincoln 
when he realized that hopes of Bates were futile. In 
recognition of his efficient services in the ensuing campaign 
President Lincoln appointed him to the office of First As- 
sistant Postmaster General which he held until 1863 when 
he was elected to Congress,^'' 

While in the Post Office Department he received his first 
experience in foreign service, being sent as Special Commis- 
sioner to Paris in 1863 to represent the United States in the 

Clark's Samuel Jordan Kirkwood, pp. 279-282. 

10 Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. VIII, p. 114; Stiles 's Recollections 
and STcetches of Notable Lawyers and Public Men of Early Iowa, p. 138. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 337 



International Postal Conference. (See the article by the 
writer on Kasson and the First International Postal Con- 
ference in this number of The Iowa Journal of History 
AND Politics). 

In 1862 after a lively campaign Mr. Kasson defeated his 
law partner, D. 0. Finch, for Congress and was reelected in 
1864 over M. J). McHenry, but in 1866 he lost the nomina- 
tion to Grenville M. Dodge in a bitter contest. "While he 
was temporarily out of office in 1867, the Federal adminis- 
tration availed itself of his services as a special commis- 
sioner to negotiate postal conventions with foreign 
countries based on the principles adopted at the Paris 
Conference in 1863. He succeeded in securing agreements 
with Great Britain, Belgium, the North German Union, 
The Netherlands, Switzerland, and Italy.^^ 

While Mr. Kasson was in Europe negotiating postal con- 
ventions, he was nominated as Representative in the Iowa 
legislature for the particular purpose of securing a new 
capitol, a result that was achieved chiefly through his ef- 
forts during three sessions of the General Assembly. In 

1872 he had hopes of being chosen United States Senator 
but failing in that he was elected to the House of Repre- 
sentatives and, in spite of bitter opposition, reelected in 
1874, thus serving another two terms in Congress — from 

1873 to 1877. In 1874 he had written that there was noth- 
ing in the condition of affairs in Washington that tempted 
him to continue in Congress, that the time had come when 
public office was more a burden than an honor, so in 1876 
he was not a candidate for reelection.^^ 

iiFairall's Manual of Iowa Politics, 1882, pp. 27, 29; Annals of Iowa 
(First Series), Vol. XI, p. 442; Eeport of the Postmaster General, p. 17, in 
House Executive Documents, 40th Congress, Srd Session, Vol. IV. 

i2Brigham'8 Iowa: Its History and Foremost Citizens, Vol. II, pp. 512, 
514^516; Fairall's Manual of Iowa Politics, 1882, pp. 38, 41; Iowa State 
Begister (Weekly), May 26, 1876. 



338 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



"Within a few weeks after tlie end of the Forty-fourth 
Congress Mr. Kasson was offered his choice of accepting 
the post of minister to Spain or to Austria-Hungary. He 
chose the latter and was appointed by President Hayes on 
June 11, 1877, arrived in Vienna on August 1st, and was 
presented on August 30th. The first correspondence pub- 
lished in the Foreign Relations of 1878 is his twenty-fourth 
communication, dated November 10, 1877. In view of the 
efforts of Congress to revise the United States tariff. Min- 
ister Kasson thought it would be helpful to report the effect 
of free trade provisions in the Austro-German commercial 
treaty of 1868 which led to the denunciation of that treaty 
by Austria. A number of other letters relating to the tariff 
problem reported that there was a decided trend in Austria 
toward a protective tariff policy and the establishment of 
reciprocity on a broad basis.^^ 

During the three years and seven months that Mr. 
Kasson represented the United States at Vienna his cor- 
respondence with the State Department covered a multi- 
tude of subjects. In the spring of 1881, on account of a 
widespread fear among the people of central Europe that 
American pork was diseased, the Austro-Hungarian gov- 
ernment prohibited the importation of swine, pork, bacon, 
and sausages from the United States. Mr. Kasson took 
early and vigorous steps to prevent the issuing of the order 
and to allay the popular alarm, but his efforts were futile 
and he became convinced that the exclusion was primarily 
for the purpose of obstructing American competition in the 
markets of Europe. Monetary affairs occupied a great 
deal of his attention, on account of the first International 

13 Jo/iTi A. Kasson, an Autobiography in the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. XII, p. 353; letter from John W. Foster, dated May 6, 1877, in the 
Correspondence of John A. Kasson (in manuscript), Vol. Ill; Foreign dela- 
tions of the United States, 1878, p. 19, 1879, pp. 40, 42, 44, 61. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 339 



Monetary Conference being held in Paris in 1878 at the 
instigation of the United States, and also because Austria 
maintained the silver standard and was afflicted with depre- 
ciated currency. He had debated the question of establish- 
ing a common international unit of money in the Postal 
Conference of 1863 and again in 1866 in connection with a 
report of the House Committee on Coinage, "Weights, and 
Measures, of which he was chairman,^* So now he took the 
opportunity of suggesting the consideration of that propo- 
sition at the International Monetary Conference.^^ 

One of the reasons why Mr. Kasson preferred to be min- 
ister to Austria-Hungary rather than to Spain was because 
that post seemed to possess greater diplomatic interest 
owing to the Russo-Turkish war then raging nearby and 
the prospective conference of the powers at Vienna. Al- 
though the treaty of peace was negotiated at San Stefano 
and later modified by the Congress of Berlin, Mr. Kasson 
was in close touch with the Balkan situation and reported 
each new war cloud that appeared above the horizon. In 
1879 he went to Belgrade as a special envoy of the United 
States to negotiate a commercial treaty with Servia. The 
following year he paid an unofficial visit to Montenegro and 
reported his impressions of that mountainous region then 
recently admitted to the family of nations.^^ 

Among the other subjects of his correspondence the 
status of naturalized United States citizens of Austrian or 
Hungarian nationality who returned to their native land, 

14 Kasson initiated the first bill ever passed hj Congress for the introduction 
of the decimal system of weights and measures into the United States, adopting 
the metric system of France. He also reported a bill which was passed, 
abolishing the smaller denominations of paper money. — John A. Kasson, an 
Autoiiography in the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. XII, p. 351. 

15 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1878, pp. 30, 31, 34, 35, 48, 49, 
1879, pp. 37, 39-42, 1881, pp. 37, 38, 42-45, 53, 54. 

18 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1879, pp. 79-86, 1880, pp. 54-57, 



/ 



340 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

the form and methods of the government of Austria- 
Hungary and Vienna, floods and epidemics, commercial 
conditions, emigration, and the entertainment of ex-Presi- 
dent Grant while in Vienna are worthy of notice. It is also 
interesting to record that, on account of his conviction that 
the United States should require that memhers of the for- 
eign service be highly trained, Mr. Kasson made a careful 
study of the Oriental Academy" established in 1753 for 
the training of Austrian diplomats and reported the cost, 
management, and course of study to the State Department 
with the hope that a school of languages and international 
law might be established in Washington, possibly in con- 
nection with the Smithsonian Institution. ^'^ 

In December, 1881, Mr. Kasson began his fifth term as 
United States Representative. He was unsuccessful in his 
candidacy for Speaker but was appointed chairman of the 
Committee on Reform of Civil Service, and second member 
on the Ways and Means Committee and on the Committee 
on Foreign Affairs. It was during his sixth term in Con- 
gress that President Arthur nominated him as Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Germany. 
He accepted the position and served in that capacity until 
after the inauguration of President Cleveland in 1885 when, 
in accordance with the American custom, he tendered his 
resignation to the new administration. 

At the time Mr. Kasson was appointed envoy to Ger- 
many in July, 1884, diplomatic relations were somewhat 
strained due to ditferences between Prince Bismarck and 
the former American envoy, but he succeeded in completely 
restoring cordial relations between the two countries and 

60-63; John A. Kasson, an Autobiography, in the Annals of Iowa (Third Se- 
ries), Vol. XII, p. 353. 

17 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1878, pp. 24-26, 52, 1879, pp. 
43, 44, 50, 52-54, 64-74, 81, 1880, pp. 53, 58, 1881, pp. 18-23, 26, 27, 30, 31, 
45-48. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 34I 



won the respect of Bismarck — the outstanding figure in 
European diplomacy. Indeed, the German government re- 
quested that Mr. Kasson be retained as the United States 
diplomat in Berlin. 

The principal diplomatic question between Germany and 
the United States during the nine months of Kasson 's 
ministership was the status of naturalized United States 
citizens of German nativity and the question of their lia- 
bility for German military service. His most conspicuous 
service occurred in connection with the Congo Conference 
held in Berlin during the winter of 1884-1885, to which he 
was accredited as the special representative of the United 
States. The object of the fourteen governments whose dele- 
gates assembled in the German Chancellor's palace on 
Wilhelmstrasse in November, 1884, was to establish equal- 
ity of international rights, preserve peace, protect mission- 
aries, scientists, and explorers, and to suppress the slave 
trade in the newly discovered region of the Congo Valley 
in central Africa. A German review of the Conference 
credited the American delegate, next after the German rep- 
resentatives — Bismarck was president — with having 
done the most to shape the final agreement. It was he who 
proposed arbitration instead of war for the settlement of 
all international disputes arising in connection with this 
territory. The proposition was accepted by twelve govern- 
ments but the refusal of the other two compelled the modi- 
fication of the proposition into an agreement to resort to 
mediation before having recourse to war, while reserving 
the optional resort to arbitration. Mr. Kasson himself 
asserted that this was the first general agreement recorded 
in history among powerful and independent nations looking 
to the adjustment of all future differences by the peaceful 
intervention of third parties.^^ 

i^John A. Kasson, an Autobiography, in the Annals of Iowa (Third Se- 
ries), Vol. XII, pp. 353-355. 



342 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Four years elapsed before Kasson's diplomatic experi- 
ence and ability were again called into service. In March, 
1889, he was appointed head of a commission of three to 
represent the United States in a conference with Great 
Britain and Germany to settle the dispute over the govern- 
ment of the Samoan Islands. The differences were settled 
for the time being and the chief point of contention on the 
part of the United States was gained by friendly private 
negotiations between Kasson and Bismarck.^^ 

Between 1889 and 1897 he devoted himself primarily to 
writing and lecturing. In 1890 he delivered ten lectures on 
the history and development of diplomacy before the Lowell 
Institute in Boston and the following year he gave a course 
on the same subject at Johns Hopkins University. The 
president of that university declared that the lectures 
"were written in such a delightful style that they gave not 
only instruction but pleasure to all who heard them". In 
these lectures, the manuscript of which is in possession of 
the State Historical Department in Des Moines, Iowa, Mr. 
Kasson defines diplomatic genius as the **fine perspective 
force of the human intellect applied to political relations, 
looking through the present to better national conditions, 
and devising the means of transition from a lower to a 
higher plane of development. It condemns passion, dis- 
avows prejudice, shuns the tremors of excitement, and 

1-9 John A. Kasson, an Autobiography, in the Annals of Iowa (Third Se- 
ries), Vol. XII, pp. 355, 356. 

A cordial friendship developed between Kasson and Bismarck. Kasson's 
impressions of the German Chancellor as a man and minister were expressed 
in an article published in the North American Beview, Vol. CXLIII, pp. 105- 
118, in 1886. He regarded Bismarck as the foremost statesman of the world. 
In volume one of the Correspondence of John A. Kasson, a manuscript collec- 
tion in the possession of the Historical Department at Dea Moines, Iowa, there 
is a letter from Bismarck giving assurance that Kasson 's friendly sentiments 
were fully reciprocated. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



343 



moves without the blare of trumpets." His views on the 
subject of international arbitration were clearly expressed 
in an address delivered at the second annual meeting of the 
Lake Mohonk Conference on June 4, 1896, and again before 
the United States Naval War College in September of the 
same year.^'^ 

During President McKinley's administration Mr. Kasson 
seems to have been in close touch with international affairs 
and on intimate terms with high officers in the national 
administration. His advice was sought on such questions 
as the Eussian sugar bounty, the establishment of naval 
coaling stations, and the organization of the Spanish- 
American War peace commission.^i 

Sections three and four of the Dingley Tariff Law which 
was approved on July 24, 1897, authorized the President to 
negotiate reciprocity treaties and to make commercial 
agreements with countries exporting specified articles 
whereby reciprocal and equivalent concessions might be 
secured in favor of products of the United States. For this 
purpose John A. Kasson was appointed Special Commis- 
sioner and Plenipotentiary on October 14, 1897. He was 
apparently unable to accomplish much that year and the 
work was further delayed by the Spanish-American War. 
A few days before war was declared he was ordered to 

20 John A. Kasson, an Autobiography, in the Annals of Iowa (Third Se- 
ries), Vol. XII, p. 356; letter from D. C. Gilman, dated May 15, 1891, in the 
Correspondence of John A. Kasson (in manuscript). Vol. I, p. 62, in the State 
Historical Department. The speech on International Arbitration was pub- 
lished in pamphlet form and also in the Beport of the Second Annual Meeting 
of the LaTce Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration, 1896, pp. 89-98. 
There are a few differences probably in deference to the character of his audi- 
ence on the two occasions. 

21 Letter from John Hay, dated December, 1900; letter from L. J. Gage, 
dated July 18, 1900; letter from J. D. Long, dated April 12, 1898; letters 
from W. R. Day, dated August 8, 13, September 16, 1898, in Correspondence 
of John A. Kasson (in manuscript). Vol. III. 



344 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



I 



ascertain if a lease of the harbor of St. Nicholas Mole, 
Haiti, and conti^ous territory to be used as a coaling 
station, would be feasible and under what circumstances, 
but this mission was also prevented by the war.^^ 

In May, 1898, a protocol was signed by John A. Kasson 
and John W. Foster, stipulating that a joint commission be 
appointed by the United States and Great Britain to con- 
sider twelve subjects of dispute between Canada and the 
United States. Kasson was appointed a member of the 
American Joint High Commission on July 16th to adjust 
the questions at issue. The commissioners met in Quebec 
and Washington at various times during the autumn and 
winter of 1898-1899, but none of the disputes were finally 
settled by the Joint Conmiission.^^ 

After serving on the British- American Joint High Com- 
mission, Mr. Kasson was reappointed Special Commis- 
sioner and Plenipotentiary on March 5, 1899, to continue 
his work of negotiating reciprocity treaties. Despite the 
resentment of other countries toward the high rates of the 
Dingley Tariff, at least twelve such treaties were obtained, 
probably the greatest number of commercial treaties ever 
negotiated by one officer on the part of the United States. 
But the Senate, controlled by special interests, failed to 
ratify them. '*What a lot of things we could do if it were 
not for the Senate ! ' ' wrote J ohn Hay to John A. Kasson 
in August, 1900. There has never been a period in our 
history so pregnant with opportunity. It is disheartening 
to think that a third of the Senate — ignorant, or malignant, 

22 United States Statutes at Large, Vol. XXX, pp. 203, 204; speech on 
Eeciprocity delivered before the Illinois Manufacturers' Association at Chi- 
cago, October 24, 1901 (printed) ; letter from J. D. Long, dated April 12, 
1898, in Correspondence of John A. Kasson (in manuscript), Vol. III. 

23 Foster's Diplomatic Memoirs, Vol. II, pp. 186-188. The other American 
Commissioners -were Charles W. Fairbanks (chairman), George Gray, Nelson 
Dingley, John W. Foster, and T. J. Coolidge. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



345 



or merely desirous of a sensation — stand ready to kill 
everything that is put before them," The action of the 
Senate was a great disappointment to Mr. Kasson. Feeling 
that his efforts were futile he refused in 1901 to accept any 
further salary, though President McKinley would not ac- 
cept his resignation. What had promised to be the crown- 
ing achievement of his diplomatic career turned out to be 
the most unprofitable.^* 

FITZ HENKY WABREN 

If Iowa diplomats are to be considered in the order of 
the date of their first appointment, the next on the list is 
Fitz Henry Warren. He was an ardent Republican and, 
like John A. Kasson, was mentioned for appointment to a 
Federal oflfice upon the election of Lincoln. Curiously 
enough it is reported that he was offered an Assistant 
Postmaster Generalship but declined, whereas Mr. Kasson 
accepted a similar position in the same Department, which 
proved to be a stepping stone to his diplomatic career. 

At the close of the Civil War, in which Mr. Warren 
served as a brigadier general, he was appointed Minister 
Resident to Guatemala on J uly 12, 1865. This was a recess 
appointment and was not confirmed by the Senate until 
February 6, 1866. Meanwhile he had been elected State 
Senator in October and served in that capacity in the Elev- 
enth General Assembly which met in the winter of 1866. 
He departed for his diplomatic post in May, 1866, and 
arrived at the capital, Guatemala, on J une 20th. He imme- 
diately reported his safe arrival and a week later his formal 
presentation to the President of Guatemala. Very few of 
his dispatches are printed in the Diplomatic Correspond- 

2-*Lataii4's America as a World Power, p. 121; John A. Kasson, an Auto- 
hiography, in the Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. XII, p. 358; letter from 
John Hay, dated August 11, 1900, and a letter to Charles Aldrich, dated March 
30, 1901, in the Correspondence of John A. Kasson (in manuscript), Vol. IIL 



346 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ence and the burden of them is the tranquility of affairs and 
the growing commerce and industry of the republic. His 
term of office ended on August 11, 1869.^^ 

SILAS A. HUDSON" 

The same day that Fitz Henry "Warren took leave of the 
Gruatemalian government another lowan, Silas A. Hudson, 
was presented as Minister Resident of the United States to 
that country. Mr. Hudson was an influential resident of 
Burlington, had occupied a few public offices, was an inti- 
mate friend of Lincoln and Greeley, and a cousin of U. S. 
Grant. It was President Grant who appointed him Minister 
to Guatemala on April 22, 1869. Although the peaceful 
conditions that prevailed during his predecessor's residence 
seem to have been somewhat disturbed by insurrections, 
only three of Hudson's dispatches were published by the 
State Department. The principal subject of correspond- 
ence was the question of the American legation furnishing 
asylum to foreigners and Guatemalian officers of opposing 
factions. He left his post in October, 1872.^^ 

CHRISTIAN" WULLWEBEE 

On July 12, 1875, Christian Wullweber of Dubuque, Iowa, 
was appointed Minister Eesident to Ecuador. He was a 
native of Germany, educated in Heidelberg and Berlin uni- 
versities, a master linguist, and a graduate of the Harvard 
law school. Although his appointment as minister was not 
confirmed until Congress met in December, he had arrived 
at Quito in November and was officially presented a month 
later. Only three of his dispatches were published and 

25 Stiles 's Recollections and Slcetches of Notable Lawyers and Public Men of 
Early Iowa, pp. 285, 290; Diplomatic Correspondence of the United States, 
1866-1867, Vol. II, pp. 484, 485, 1868-1869, Vol. II, pp. 338, 339. 

28 Gue 's History of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 138 ; Foreign Belations of the United 
States, 1870, pp. 443-448, 1871-1872, p. 542. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



347 



these relate to the election of Antonio Borrero as President, 
liis refusal to call a constitutional convention, and rumors 
of a revolution. He returned to the United States in the 
spring of 1877, having apparently resigned at the end of 
Grant 's administration. He died in September of the same 
year.^ 

ALEXANDEK CLARK 

Negroes have never played an important part in Iowa 
politics, yet there is at least one colored man from Iowa 
who has achieved some prominence in that field. At a con- 
vention of negroes in Des Moines in 1868, Alexander Clark 
seems to have been considered a leader in their efforts to 
secure equal political rights. In 1873, he was appointed 
Consul at Aux-Cayes, Haiti, but declined the position. 
When he was appointed Minister Resident and Consul Gen- 
eral to Liberia in 1890, however, he accepted and entered 
upon the duties of his office on November 25th of that year. 
In June, 1891, a telegram to the State Department reported 
that he was dead. None of his dispatches were published.^^ 

EDWIN HUED CONGER 

To Edwin H. Conger belongs the distinction of being the 
only lowan to head an American embassy. He is clearly 
one of the four most distinguished diplomats that this State 
has produced. He began his public career as treasurer of 
Dallas County and in 1880 he was elected State Treasurer 
and served in that capacity until the end of 1884. Mean- 
while he had been elected to Congress from the Seventh 
Iowa District and took his seat in December, 1885. He was 
reelected to Congress in 1886 and 1888, but in the summer 

21 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1876-1877, pp. 101-103; The His- 
tory of Dubuque County, 1880 (Western Historical Company), p. 903. 

^» Proceedings of the Iowa State Colored Convention, 1868. 



348 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of 1890, before his third term had expired, he accepted the 
position of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to Brazil.^* 

It was during the three years of Conger's residence in 
the Brazilian capital that the government of that newly 
established republic was in the formative stages of its 
development. The constitution submitted by the provi- 
sional government was accepted by the constitutional con- 
gress, the states completed their organization and the 
establishment of the United States of Brazil" became an 
accomplished fact. Despite these revolutionary domestic 
changes Conger's relations with the new Brazilian govern- 
ment seem to have been cordial, and probably the only un- 
pleasant incident occurred at the time of his departure 
when an insurgent fleet commanded the harbor and ordered 
all boats to keep out of the way of its guns. Major Conger 
ordered a launch and, standing in the bow with a United 
States flag, was conveyed to an American ship in the bay. 
In recognition of his courage and confidence in the flag he 
had helped to defend in the Civil War, Admiral Mello's 
ships dipped their colors to the Amercan flag he held above 
his bared head. With the beginning of Cleveland's second 
administration Conger was replaced by Thomas L. Thomp- 
son, but he was reappointed Envoy to Brazil by President 
McKinley in May, 1897.30 

The second legation of Mr. Conger to Brazil lasted less 
than a year. Then came an unexpected cablegram trans- 
ferring him from the beautiful gardens and delightful 
climate of Petropolis to the mysterious, walled capital of 

2»Gue's Eistory of Iowa, Vol. IV, pp. 57, 58; Iowa Official Begister, 1919- 
1920, pp. 91, 119, 120. 

^Foreign Belations of the United States, 1890, pp. 23-27, 1891, pp. 40-43, 
1892, pp. 16, 17, 1893, pp. 29-45; The Begister and Leader (Des Moines), 
May 19, 1907; Johnson's America's Foreign Belations, Vol. II, p. 389, 



V 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 349 



China. He arrived in Peking sometime in the early sum- 
mer of 1898. For a year or more various European nations 
had been using every pretext to gain concessions and Chi- 
nese territory and in September, 1899, Secretary John 
Hay, concerned lest the United States be deprived of its 
share of Chinese commerce, addressed his famous open 
door note to England, Germany, and Russia. Meanwhile, 
the anti-foreign feeling in China had become more and 
more bitter. As early as October, 1898, Minister Conger 
telegraphed to the State Department the news of a street 
mob attacking foreigners and asked that United States 
marines at Tientsin be placed at his disposal. The crisis 
came in June, 1900, when the "Boxers" besieged the for- 
eign legations in Peking. All protection from the Chinese 
government was withdrawn, the German minister was 
killed, the foreigners with a few native Christians and a 
small guard of troops barricaded themselves in the British 
legation, and from June 20th until August 14th when the 
relief expedition arrived they heroically defended them- 
selves against overwhelming odds.^^ 

Following the Boxer uprising, Minister Conger, with the 
assistance of a former secretary of the Chinese legation, 
W. W. Rockhill, as counsellor, conducted the negotiations 
on the part of the United States to a successful conclusion 
on all of the essential questions involved. It was he who 
proposed, contrary to the usual practice of the United 
States, that the demands of the powers upon the Chinese 
government be presented in the form of a joint note; be- 
cause the problem was world wide, the demands would be 
strengthened, and the final settlement hastened. On Febru- 
ary 24, 1901, he was granted a leave of absence to visit the 

31 Conger's Letters from China, pp. 1-3, 88-160; Latane's ATnerica as a 
World Power, pp. 100-109; Foreign Belations of the United States, 1898, pp. 
225, 226. 



350 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



United States and enjoy a well earned rest. He had con- 
ducted himself with great fortitude during the trying 
ordeal of the siege, and during the negotiations he had 
labored indefatigably to impress upon his colleagues the 
liberal attitude of his govemment.^^ 

The attention which the American minister received 
when he arrived in the United States indicated that his 
services were appreciated. Throngs of people greeted him 
at the stations as he passed through western Iowa and big 
receptions were held in Council Bluffs and Des Moines. 
Everywhere he was accorded marked respect. Before he 
left China he had been proposed as a candidate for Gov- 
ernor of Iowa. Embarrassed by being drawn into a fac- 
tional fight, yet unwilling to leave his friends in the lurch, 
he refused to canvass the State but promised to accept the 
nomination if it was tendered to him. When the convention 
met in August, A. B. Cummins was nominated on the first 
ballot.33 

Meanwhile, after spending only a few days in Iowa, Mr. 
Conger had gone on to Washington. Scarcely forty days of 
his three months leave of absence had elapsed when the 
President urged him to return to Peking. He sailed from 
San Francisco on July 18, 1901, and resumed his arduous 
duties. Exploitation schemes of foreign powers threat- 
ened the integrity of China and hindered the progress of 
American policies in the Far East. While he favored the 
development of American trade in the Orient, he did not 
consider it the function of a minister to secure concessions 
for his countrymen that they might exploit the Chinese. 
That attitude, among other qualities, made him the most 

32 Foster's American Diplomacy in the Orient, pp. 424, 427, 428; Conger's 
Letters from China, p. 198. 

33 The Eegister and Leader (Des Moines), May 19, 1907; Foster's American 
Diplomacy in the Orient, p. 428. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 351 



esteemed and influential member of the diplomatic corps in 
Peking. Mrs. Conger became a bosom friend of the 
Empress Dowager, and many of the progressive reforms 
which, were inaugurated are said to have been due to her 
influence.^^ In 1903 Mr. Conger aided in the negotiation of 
a new commercial treaty with China whereby two ports in 
Manchuria — Mukden and Antung — were opened to foreign 
trade and residence. Later, during the Russo-Japanese 
War which was fought for the most part on Chinese terri- 
tory, the prestige of his position was augmented by the 
express desire of the United States that the neutrality and 
administrative integrity of China be respected as far as 
possible.^^ 

Having been appointed Ambassador Extraordinary and 
Plenipotentiary to Mexico, Mr. Conger had his last audi- 
ence with the Empress Dowager on April 1, 1905. She 
decorated him with a special Order of the Double Dragon 
and assured him that at the court of China he was respected, 
trusted, and honored. Three days later when he left 
Peking early in the morning the station platform was 
crowded with friends both Aryan and Chinese, and the 
railway car was a bower of flowers. At every station on 
the way overland to Han Kow, Chinese officials boarded the 
train to pay their respects.^^ 

Mr. Conger bore the title of Ambassador to Mexico only 
a few months. At that time the United States was the only 
nation sending a representative with the rank of ambassa- 
dor to that country, a circumstance which complicated the 
administration of the office and added to the expense. 
Moreover, Conger's life during the past seven years had 

siThe Begister and Leader (Des Moines), September 22, 1905, May 19, 
1907; Conger's Letters from China, pp. 206, 218-222. 

ssLatane's America as a World Power, pp. 113-117. 

3« Conger's Letters from China, pp. 352, 354, 355. 

VOL. XIX — 23 



352 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



been extremely active, there being little cessation of the 
cares of pressing diplomatic problems, and he was anxious 
to retire. In August, 1905, he visited Washington, sug- 
gested a solution of the Chinese boycott problem, con- 
ferred with President Roosevelt at Oyster Bay, and made 
arrangements to quit the diplomatic service. His resigna- 
tion took effect on October 18, 1905. 

Throughout his diplomatic career, Edwin H. Conger dis- 
tinguished himself for the sagacity, courage, and tactful- 
ness that marks the highest type of diplomat. During the 
short time he remained in Mexico he won the good will of 
that country, and it was with regret that the Mexican gov- 
ernment learned of his resignation. **I desire to express 
to you my cordial appreciation of the work that you have 
performed in China as previously in Brazil", wrote Theo- 
dore Roosevelt on August 22, 1905. "In zeal, efficiency 
and single minded devotion to public duty you have been 
the kind of official of whom Americans have the right to 
feel proud, and I congratulate the country on having had 
your services."" 

WILLIAM INSCO BUCHANAN 

No lowan ever occupied more diplomatic positions than 
William I. Buchanan. Born in Ohio, he moved to Sioux 
City in 1882. There he engaged in the wholesale crockery 
business, was the first manager of the Peavey Grand Opera 
House, and managed the first four Sioux City Corn Palaces, 
Always a staunch Democrat he was appointed by Governor 
Boies as one of the representatives of Iowa on the World's 
Columbian Exposition Commission, where he served as 
chairman of the committee on agriculture. Later he was 
appointed chief of the department of agriculture of the 

37 The Begister and Leader (Des Moines) , September 22, 1905, May 19, 
1907. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 353 



exposition and was responsible for the organization of the 
departments of live stock and forestry.^® 

The first diplomatic post occupied by Mr. Buchanan was 
that of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary 
to Argentine Eepublic. He was appointed to this office by 
President Cleveland in January, 1894, and entered upon his 
duties on May 19th. For more than five years (until 
October 12, 1899) he looked after the political interests of 
the United States with that important South American na- 
tion. The tariff was the burden of much of his correspond- 
ence and it appears that Minister Buchanan obtained 
several important concessions. Another question was in 
regard to the issuance of "papeletas" to American citizens, 
protecting them from being impressed into military service. 
Other results of his service in Argentina were the negotia- 
tion of an extradition treaty and the settlement of vexatious 
government claims. 

During the latter part of his legation a boundary dispute 
brought Argentina and Chile to the brink of war. So thor- 
oughly had Mr. Buchanan commended himself to Latin 
Americans that he was chosen by the contending govern- 
ments as the deciding arbitrator in the special boundary 
commission. President Roca in his message to the Argen- 
tine National Congress on May 1, 1899, said that the Amer- 
ican minister was the chief contributor to the solution of 
that problem. "Nor will this ever be forgotten", he con- 
tinued, "by the two peoples whose destinies have been at 
stake on one or the other side of the mountains. "^^ 

In 1900 the United States proposed that a second Inter- 
national American Conference be held in the interest of 

38 History of the Counties of Woodbury and Plymouth, Iowa (Warner Com- 
pany), p. 746. 

^9 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1894, pp. 4-20, 1895, pp. 3-5, 
1897, pp. 1-4, 1898, pp. 1-9, 1899, pp. 1-5, 7; The Outlook, Vol. XCIII, p. 477. 



354 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



international arbitration and better understanding between 
American nations. In response to that suggestion dele- 
gates from nineteen countries met in Mexico City on Octo- 
ber 22, 1901, and continued to hold sessions until January 
31, 1902. The delegates from the United States were Henry 
G. Davis, William I. Buchanan, Charles M. Pepper, Volney 
W. Foster, and J ohn Barrett. At the first session all were 
present except Mr. Buchanan who was probably detained 
on account of his duties as Director General of the Pan- 
American Exposition at Buffalo. During the conference he 
served on the committees on arbitration, Pan-American 
court of equity or claims, general welfare, and future Pan- 
American conferences. He resigned from the latter com- 
mittee, however, before it reported. Mr. Buchanan made 
very few speeches before the Conference and his remarks 
were confined almost entirely to the protocols proposed by 
the committees of which he was a member. The principal 
exception was the subject of extradition. Upon the com- 
mittee which reported on that question there was no United 
States delegate. His most important work was in connec- 
tion with the subject of arbitration. The delegations agreed 
to a protocol looking to adhesion to the Hague arbitration 
convention, and the Conference adopted a treaty for the 
settlement of pecuniary claims by the permanent court at 
The Hague. A sub-committee, of which Buchanan was a 
member, considered the various arbitration projects pre- 
sented and really determined the character of the reports 
of the committee on arbitration. *° 

On December 12, 1903, following the negotiation of the 
treaty acquiring the Panama Canal Zone, William I. 
Buchanan was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary on a special mission to Panama. Five 

Second International American Conference (English Text), pp. 25, 80-82, 
188, 206, 210, 218, 227, 228, 335, 336, 355-357, 369. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 355 



days later lie was appointed the head of the first American 
legation in that new republic.*^ He presented his creden- 
tials on December 25th. Judging from the published cor- 
respondence the principal services of Mr. Buchanan were 
in regard to the improvement of sanitary conditions on the 
Isthmus. He resigned on February 12, 1904.*^ 

The Third International American Conference — in some 
respects the most notable of all — met in Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil, from July 21 to August 26, 1906. Mr. Buchanan 
was chairman of the American delegation and served on 
the committee on rules and credentials, the committee on 
arbitration, the committee on the arbitration of pecuniary 
claims, and the committee on the forcible collection of 
public debts.^^ There were fourteen sessions of the Con- 
ference, but the discussion of almost all of the topics of the 
prearranged program was confined to the committee rooms. 
Due to the emphasis upon committee work and the fact that 
Mr. Buchanan was a member of the more important com- 
mittees, it was inevitable that he should play an influential 
role in the Conference. The committee on arbitration 
handled the subject of adopting arbitration as a means of 
maintaining international peace. A resolution was adopted 
reconmiending that the governments endeavor to secure at 

•41 From the time that William I. Buchanan was Director General of the 
Pan-American Exposition in 1901, his legal residence was in Buffalo, New 
York. 

^■^ Foreign Belations of tTie United States, 1903, pp. 689-691, 1904, pp. 
552-559, 

43 The delegates of the United States were William I. Buchanan, L. S. 
Eowe, A. J. Montague, Tulio Larrinaga, Paul S. Eeinsch, and Van Leer Polk. 
— Senate Documents, 59th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. VI, Doc. No. 365, p. 51. 

There is a picture of Mr. Buchanan in The American Beview of Beviews, 
Vol. XXXIII, p. 691. 

The Conference met in the new Palacio das Exposi§oes which was built to 
perpetuate the building that won the architectural prize at the St. Louis Ex- 
position.— Tfte Outlook, Vol. LXXXIV, p. 176. 



I 



356 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the Hague Conference a general arbitration convention. 
The committee on the arbitration of pecuniary claims after 
much debate recommended the renewal of the treaty adopt- 
ed at the Second Conference for the arbitration of pecuni- 
ary claims. The most delicate question with which the 
Conference had to do was the Drago doctrine that public 
debts should not be collected by force. The debates in the 
committee on the forcible collection of public debts were 
particularly spirited, but due to the conciliatory words of 
the chairman, Mr. Buchanan, a unanimous report was sub- 
mitted to the Conference and a resolution adopted recom- 
mending that the various governments consider inviting 
the Hague Conference *'to consider the question of the com- 
pulsory collection of public debts, and, in general, means 
tending to diminish between nations conflicts having an 
exclusively pecuniary origin."*^ 

Having had experience in two important international 
conferences it was natural that William I. Buchanan should 
be selected as one of the representatives of the United 
States to the Second Hague Conference. On April 12, 1907, 
he was appointed one of the delegates plenipotentiary with 
the rank of Minister Plenipotentiary. The Conference as- 
sembled on J une 15th and lasted until October 18th. While 
Mr. Buchanan was not one of the most conspicuous dele- 
gates he did serve along with the other American delegates 
on all of the sub-commissions of the Conference. There is 
no record of his having made any remarks in the plenary 
sessions.*" 

No sooner had Mr. Buchanan returned from the Hague 
Conference than he was appointed Eepresentative of the 

** Senate Documents, o9th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. VI, Doc. No. 365, pp. 
3, 5, 9-14. 

*8Seott's The Proceedings of the Hague Peace Conferences, Vol. I, pp. 3, 
18-32. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 357 



United States to the Central American Peace Conference 
held in Washington from November 14, 1907, to December 
20th. The objects of the Conference were to adjust any 
differences existing between the five Central American Re- 
publics and to conclude a treaty defining their general 
relations. The first question was solved by a statement 
from each delegation that their country had no claims 
against any of the others, but over the second problem 
there was much difference of opinion. Honduras and 
Nicaragua wanted to form a union of the five republics, but 
Guatemala, Salvador, and Costa Rica were opposed to it. 
The situation became so tense that Mr. Buchanan suggested 
postponing the consideration of that project and proceeding 
with the preparation of several conventions, particularly 
one for an international court. This course was adopted 
and a general treaty of peace and amity was negotiated 
together with seven conventions and a protocol. Of these 
the treaty of peace and the convention creating the Central 
American International Court of Justice constitute the 
chief work of the Conference, the latter being a new and 
important advance in international obligations. On ac- 
count of his efforts to secure the establishment of the 
Central American Court of Justice it was most fitting that 
Mr. Buchanan should be appointed High Commissioner of 
the United States to attend the formal organization of the 
Court at Cartago, Costa Rica, on May 25, 1908.4« 

The final work of William I. Buchanan in the diplomatic 
service of the United States was in connection with the 
settlement of five claims of American citizens and com- 

<« Buchanan's ^Report of tlie Central American Peace Conference (1907), 
pp. 3-7, 11, 12; The American Journal of International Law, Vol. II, pp. 
835, 836. See also Scott's The Central American Peace Conference of 1907 in 
The American Journal of International Law, Vol. II, pp. 121-143, and Ander- 
son's The Peace Conference of Central America in the same periodical. Vol. 
II, pp. 144-1.51. 



358 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

panies against Venezuela. The relations between the two 
countries became so strained that diplomatic relations were 
severed in June, 1908. The action of the new Venezuelan 
government following the deposition of President Castro 
in December, 1908, improved foreign relations and the 
United States sent Mr, Buchanan to Caracas as High Com- 
missioner to effect a settlement of the pending questions. 
After protracted and difficult negotiation from December 
to February he succeeded in obtaining a settlement of two 
of the claims. In regard to the other three cases he secured 
a protocol for settlement by arbitration, with the reserva- 
tion that two of them might be adjusted out of court, which 
was eventually done. The case of the Orinoco Steamship 
Company was referred to the Permanent Court of Arbi- 
tration at The Hague, and decided in favor of the United 
States in October, 1910. It is not surprising that, having 
secured the settlement of all but one of the cases, Mr. 
Buchanan should have been selected as the Agent of the 
United States in the case to be arbitrated at The Hague. It 
was while performing the duties of this position that he 
died in London on October 16, 1909.*'^ 

Tactful, genial, businesslike, decisive, vigorous, and a 
master of the Spanish language "William I. Buchanan was a 
singularly efficient diplomat, especially in Latin American 
affairs. While not so widely known as many other Amer- 
ican diplomats he was for many years one of the most 
important members of the foreign service. While only the 
outstanding incidents in his diplomatic career have been 
mentioned in this article, he was almost continuously asso- 
ciated with the State Department from the time he entered 
the diplomatic service. "Am already on my way" — his 

47 The American Journal of International Law, Vol. Ill, pp. 437, 985-989; 
The American Beview of Beviews, Vol. XXXIX, p. 147; Scott '8 The Hagvs 
Court Beports, pp. 226-239. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 359 



response to the summons to proceed to Venezuela to settle 
the American claims — is characteristic.** 

JOHN N. IBWIN" 

The principal public services of John N. Irwin, a gradu- 
ate of Dartmouth and a Civil War veteran, were in the 
capacity of mayor of Keokuk, State Representative in 1876, 
Governor of Idaho Territory in 1883 and 1884, and Gov- 
ernor of Arizona Territory from 1890 to 1893. His only 
diplomatic position was as Envoy Extraordinary and Min- 
ister Plenipotentiary to Portugal. He was appointed to 
this post by President McKinley on April 12, 1899, and 
resigned in the United States on May 7, 1901. None of his 
correspondence to the State Department has been pub- 
lished.*» 

WILLIAM E. BAINBRIDGB 

Not long after Edwin H. Conger was appointed Minister 
to China, "William E. Bainbridge of Council Bluffs was 
made second secretary of that legation. There he served 
through the Boxer uprising and until the spring of 1903 
when he resigned. Within a month he was again appointed 
to a diplomatic position in the capacity of the American 
member of the Mixed Commission for the settlement of 
claims of the United States against Venezuela. The Com- 
mission met and organized at Caracas on June 1, 1903, and 
concluded its work in December of the same year. Fifty- 
five claims were submitted to the Commission, most of 
which were settled. Only ten cases were referred to the 
Umpire on account of the disagreement of the Commission- 
ers. Mr. Bainbridge wrote opinions in regard to twenty- 
's The Outlook, Vol. XCIII, pp. 476-478. 
«Gue's History of Iowa, Vol. IV, p. 143. 



360 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



nine of the cases. Following his diplomatic experience he 
resumed his law practice in Council Bluffs.^" 

THOMAS CLELAND DAWSON 

To Thomas C. Dawson belongs the distinction of having 
been in the diplomatic service continuously for a longer 
period than any other lowan — a total of nearly fifteen 
years. The diplomatic experiences of John A. Kasson 
were scattered through a span of nearly forty years; 
William I. Buchanan was in the diplomatic service about 
fifteen years but his work was also irregular; and Edwin 
H. Conger, while he may be credited with having been the 
head of United States legations longer than any other 
lowan, held no other diplomatic positions and his total ser- 
vice covers only about eleven years. Fifteen consecutive 
years in the American diplomatic service is a rare achieve- 
ment for any man. 

Mr. Dawson began his diplomatic career as secretary of 
the legation in Brazil, a position to which he was appointed 
in June, 1897. He remained at that post for nearly seven 
years and it was there, no doubt, that he received some of 
his most valuable diplomatic training — an experience 
which qualified him for the more important work that was 
to follow. It was while he was secretary of the United 
States legation — and later of the embassy — at Petropolis 
that he wrote his two volume history. The South American 
Republics, a contribution that was valuable on account of 
the author's extensive acquaintance among South Amer- 
ican statesmen. 

The Brazilian residence of Mr. Dawson came to an end 
in 1904 when he became Minister Resident and Consul Gen- 
eral to the Dominican Republic — the first American of 

so Senate Documents, 58th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. XXXV, Doc. No. 316, 
p. 5, Vol. XXXVI, Doc. No. 317, pp. 5-32, 550. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 



361 



that rank in that country. His appointment was dated 
April 29, 1904, and by the first of July he was at his new 
post. He entered upon his duties just at the time when the 
Dominican government was practically bankrupt and Euro- 
pean creditors were beginning to press for payment. 
President Eoosevelt, in his message to Congress on De- 
cember 6, 1904, hinted that intervention by the United 
States might be necessary to prevent other nations from 
resorting to measures of coercion for the collection of their 
debts. On December 30th Mr. Dawson was directed to 
suggest to the Dominican government that it request the 
United States to take charge of its customs. In compliance 
with this suggestion he negotiated a convention signed 
February 7, 1905, providing that the United States should 
guarantee the territorial integrity of the Dominican Ee- 
public, take charge of its customs houses, administer its 
finances, and settle its financial obligations. The Senate 
failed to ratify the convention, but under a modus vivendi 
the President of Santo Domingo appointed a receiver of 
customs, named unofficially by President Eoosevelt, who 
administered the affairs of the Eepublic under the protec- 
tion of the United States navy. Later, when the Senate 
decided to give a definite legal status to the collection of 
Dominican revenue under the auspices of the United States, 
Minister Dawson negotiated the convention which was 
signed on February 8, 1907, and later ratified by the 
Senate.-''^ 

During the entire time Mr. Dawson was in Santo Do- 
mingo the internal political conditions in that country were 
in a very turbulent state and foreign affairs were scarcely 
less strained. Moreover, there probably was never a period 

'--L Foreign Eelations of tlie United States, 1904, p. 289, 1905, pp. 298-391, 
1906, pp. 595-600, 1907, pp. 307-309; Latane's America as a World Power, 
pp. 278-281. 



362 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



when the relations between the United States and the Do- 
minican Eepublic were so intimate and complicated. All 
of these factors contributed to make the work of the Amer- 
ican diplomat very difficult. It appears, however, that Mr. 
Dawson administered the office with credit to himself and 
to his country. He was very careful to report all untoward 
events such as revolutionary disturbances and he was suc- 
cessful in protecting American interests in the Eepublic 
without creating bad feeling. In 1906 he prepared and 
reported to the Department a chronology of the important 
political events in Santo Domingo from 1844 to 1906, and 
on another occasion he wrote a history of the Dominican- 
Haitian boundary.^2 

The signing of the revenue collection convention was 
probably Mr. Dawson's last important act as Minister to 
the Dominican Republic. On January 10, 1907, his ap- 
pointment as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipo- 
tentiary to Colombia was confirmed and his successor took 
charge sometime in May, 1907. It appears that Mr. Dawson 
did not actually begin his work in the legation at Bogota 
until the fall of 1907. He remained chief of that mission 
until April, 1909, when he was transferred to Chile as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. His 
legation in that country was of brief duration, however, for 
with the establishment of divisions in the State Department 
he was, on August 31, 1909, appointed Chief of the Division 

of Latin American Affairs — the first to hold that posi- 
tion.53 

J udging from the printed correspondence his services as 

62 Foreign delations of the United States, 1906, pp. 536-559, 572-622. 
There is a photograph of Thomas C. Dawson as he appeared at this time in 
The American Eeview of Beviews, Vol. XXXI, p. 521. 

OS Foreign Belations of the United States, 1907, pp. 290, 293, 306, 1908, p. 
212, 1909, pp. 220, 221, 1910, pp. 159, 186. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 363 



Minister in Colombia and Chile were of a routine character, 
yet lie must have conducted affairs in a highly creditable 
manner to have merited selection as the head of the Divi- 
sion in the Department of State which is especially expert 
in Latin American affairs. The purpose of this new Divi- 
sion organized on a geographical basis was to promote 
better understanding, both political and commercial, be- 
tween the United States and other countries by placing in 
the State Department groups of close students and author- 
ities on conditions in particular parts of the world. Thus 
all correspondence, except that of administrative character, 
from and to South and Central America is handled by the 
Division of Latin American Affairs which is composed of 
men who are thoroughly familiar with the history, politics, 
customs, law, and commerce of those countries. It fell to 
the lot of Thomas C. Dawson to inaugurate and organize 
the work of this Division.^* 

Mr. Dawson had not been Chief of the Division of Latin 
American Affairs a year when he was appointed Envoy 
Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Panama on 
June 24, 1910. Meanwhile there had been a successful revo- 
lution in Nicaragua and the new President requested the 
United States to send a special commission to arrange a 
settlement of the differences between the two countries. 
Mr. Dawson had scarcely entered upon his duties in Pan- 
ama when, on October 11, 1910, he was instructed to proceed 
at his early convenience to Managua as Special Agent near 
the Provisional Government of Nicaragua, there to enter 
into relations with that government. He arrived on Octo- 
ber 18th and ten days later reported that the Provisional 
Government was willing to agree to organize a free, stable, 
democratic government, to rehabilitate finances and pay 
legitimate foreign claims, and to punish those responsible 

The American Beview of Beviews, Vol. XL, p. 400. 



364 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



for the death of two Americans and indemnify their fami- 
lies. The agreement was signed by November 6th.^^ 

Once more during his legation to Panama — which was 
characterized by the cordial relations that are the measure 
of successful diplomacy — Mr. Dawson was called upon a 
special mission. On June 13, 1911, he was appointed Am- 
bassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary on the part of 
the United States to attend the Venezuelan Centennial 
Celebration — the second lowan to bear that title. The 
celebration, centering in Caracas, began on June 24th and 
lasted a month. With the representatives of other foreign 
countries Mr. Dawson participated in the numerous formal 
ceremonies.^*' 

Meanwhile, on June 27, 1911, Ambassador Dawson was 
appointed Resident Diplomatic Officer in the Department of 
State, an office which he held until his death on May 1, 1912. 
By his contemporaries he came to be regarded as one of the 
most experienced and able members of the American diplo- 
matic service. His many missions ''gave him an experience 
and knowledge which were of greatest usefulness in pro- 
moting friendship, good understanding, and commerce 
among all the American nations." Throughout Latin 
America he was "respected for his ability, tact, and sym- 
pathy." "Since the late W. I. Buchanan died in Great 
Britain three years ago," wrote the editor of the Bulletin 
of the Pan-American Union, "Mr. Dawson could perhaps 
be described as the best living authority on the Latin Amer- 
ican countries and their relations with the United States." 
Thus it appears that Iowa has contributed two of the fore- 
most Latin American diplomats — men who have had a 
powerful influence in fostering Pan-Americanism and 

55 Foreign Belations of the United States, 1910, pp. 762-767, 820. 

60 The American Beview of Beviews, Vol. XLIV, pp. 618-620; Bulletin of 
the Pan American Union, Vol. XXXIII, p. 502. 



IOWA AND THE DIPLOMATIC SERVICE 365 



cementing the bonds of friendship and good will between 
the nations of the Western Hemisphere.^'^ 

John E. Briggs 

The State University of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 

Bulletin of the Pan American Union, Vol. XXXIV, pp. 720, 721. Oa 
page 579 of this publication there is a portrait of Mr. Dawson as he appeared 
during the later years of his life. 



KASSON AND THE FIRST INTERNATIONAL 
POSTAL CONFERENCE 

No public international union has been more important 
or successful than the Universal Postal Union. Having its 
origin in a conference of hopeful but hesitating delegates 
from fifteen governments meeting in Paris in 1863 where 
a tentative program was adopted but no permanent organ- 
ization established, the Postal Union has now become an 
absolutely essential institution of enormous proportions 
and unlimited possibilities for promoting international 
well-being. Practically all of the civilized nations of the 
world are members. About two billion pieces of mail are 
handled annually, representing a formidable exchange of 
ideas, impressions, and relations of all kinds among 
peoples separated by ethnic, linguistic, and other profound 
differences.^ 

When John A. Kasson of Iowa became First Assistant 
Postmaster General of the United States in 1861 he found 
a multitude of functions awaiting him.^ He was head of 
the appointment office, supervised the establishment and 
discontinuance of post offices, and looked after the distri- 
bution of blanks, paper, twine, and post office furniture. 
He was in charge of the pay of clerks and special agents, 
was responsible for the regulations affecting postmasters, 
and was in charge of foreign mail transportation and for- 
eign correspondence. At first the discharge and appoint- 

1 Sayre 's Experiments in International Administration, pp. 19, 20. 

2 Kasson was offered this position in accordance with the desire of Senator 
James W. Grimes. His nomination was the second sent to the Senate by 
President Lincoln for confirmation, the first being that of Lincoln's personal 
friend, Mr. Judd of Illinois, for Minister to Prussia. — John A. Kasson, An 
Autobiography in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), Vol. XII, pp. 349, 350. 

366 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 367 



ment of postmasters, sometimes as many as six hundred a 
day, occupied his whole attention. He devised an army 
postal system that was used during the Civil War, and 
later prepared a code of postal laws that had formerly 
been scattered through the Federal statutes.^ 

But probably the most far-reaching results of the work 
of Kasson as Assistant Postmaster General were in con- 
nection with the foreign mail service. At that time the 
international postal system was extremely defective — 
indeed, the word system can scarcely be properly applied. 
Postal communication was entirely dependent upon sepa- 
rate treaties with the various countries; and since each 
country was anxious to promote its own profits and quite 
unconcerned about international interests the foreign pos- 
tal rates were as high as the transmitting states dared to 
make them. Not only that, but there was no common 
standard of weight and no uniformity of rates. There 
were almost as many different rates for ocean transit as 
there were steamship companies carrying mail. In over- 
land transit, even within the United States, different rates 
prevailed in different parts of the country, while in transit 
to foreign countries there were more rates than there were 
countries. Postage included a payment to the country of 
dispatch, another to the country of destination, and others 
to all the countries through which the letter was carried. 
Moreover, mail sent from one country to another by differ- 
ent routes required different amounts of postage. For 
example, there were six routes from the United States to 
Australia and the postage on a letter was five cents, thirty- 
three cents, forty-five cents, fifty-five cents, sixty cents, or 
a dollar and two cents, depending upon the route by which 

sJohn A. Kasson, an Autobiography in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. XII, p. 350; Eeport of the Postmaster General, 1862, pp. 119, 120, in 
House Executive Documents, Slth Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1. 

VOL. xrx — 24 



368 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



it was sent. There were different rates also for open and 
closed mails by the same route. It is no wonder that post- 
masters made mistakes and unfortunate delays occurred. 
The marvel is that international business by postal cor- 
respondence was possible at all.^ 

It was necessary with this arrangement to keep an ex- 
ceedingly complicated system of accounts with each coun- 
try with which postal relations were maintained. Each 
foreign country had to be credited with its portion of the 
sum prepaid on each article (not the aggregate weights of 
the mails) and the minute details entered in a letter bill 
sent with each mail. The accounts were kept by the rate 
and according to the standard of weight of the creditor 
country — the English ounce, the French gram, the German 
* * loth ' ' — and the unit of rate was one sheet of paper or a 
fraction of some unit of weight. Think of the labor in- 
volved in determining the amount of postage on a letter 
according to the most advantageous route, in scrutinizing 
each article, and in entering in the letter bill the separate 
credits to be given to the various foreign offices that 
handled a particular piece of mail!^ 

The balances — which were usually in favor of the for- 
eign country — were payable annually in gold. Moreover, 
the exchange was also payable by the remitting country. 
During the Civil War gold in the United States was at a 
premium and consequently the usual burden of the foreign 
mail service in this country was increased to that extent. 

iJohn A. Kasson, an Autobiography in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. XII, p. 350; Sayre's Experiments in International Administration, p. 19; 
Beport of the Postmaster General, 1862, pp. 124, 157-159, in House Executive 
Documents, 37th Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1; Beport of the 
Postmaster General, 1895, p. 449, in House Executive Documents, 54th Con- 
gress, 1st Session, Vol. XIII, Doe. No. 4. 

B Beport of the Postmaster General, 1895, p. 449, in House Executive Docu- 
ments, 54th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. XIII, Doc. No. 4. 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFEEENCE 369 



Domestic revenues had to be used to defray the expense of 
the balances due to foreign postal departments.^ 

The only hope of remedying such conditions was by a 
conference of postal authorities of the various countries. 
Accordingly John A. Kasson proposed that Postmaster 
General Montgomery Blair invite postal departments of 
other countries to send representatives to such a confer- 
ence. Mr. Blair being heartily in sympathy with the 
suggestion, Mr. Kasson formulated a letter outlining the 
prevailing conditions, proposing a conference, and recom- 
mending a number of topics for consideration. The follow- 
ing communication was accordingly sent on August 4, 1862, 
by the Postmaster General through the State Department to 
the postal authorities in practically all the countries of 
Europe and America."^ 

Sir: Many embarrassments to foreign correspondents exist in 
this, and probably in other postal departments, which can be 
remedied only by international concert of action. The difference 
in postal principles, as well as postal details of arrangement, in 
the several countries of both continents contributes to the result. 
Great diversity of rates prevails between the same points, in some 
instances as many as six different rates, according to the route of 
transit. Mistakes are perpetually recurring, arising from the com- 
plexity of present arrangements, and operate to the serious delay 
and expense of correspondents. 

For want of such general concert of action as above mentioned, 
difficulties frequently present themselves which prevent separate 
postal arrangements desired by this and any other national post 
department, where the mail traverses an intermediate country or 
postal line of conveyance. 

^Beport of the Postmaster General, 1862, pp. 121, 159, in House Executive 
Documents, 37tli Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1. 

''John A. Kasson, an Autobiography in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. XII, p. 350 ; Beport of the Postmaster General, 1862, pp. 124, 165-168, iu 
House Executive Documents, 37th Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doe. No. 1. 



370 IOWA JOUENAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Without entering into details, it is evident that the international 
adjustment of a common basis for direct correspondence, and for 
intermediate land and ocean transit, and for an international reg- 
istry system, and for the exchange of printed mail matter, is 
clearly of the first importance to the commercial and social inter- 
course between this and other nations. 

It is believed that a conference between fit representatives dele- 
gated by the several post departments of the principal correspond- 
ing countries of Europe and America, and to meet at some 
convenient point in Europe, would greatly facilitate the postal ar- 
rangements in which they are respectively interested. The prac- 
tical knowledge of details necessary, and the special character of 
the interests involved, indicate the propriety of a conference be- 
tween postal representatives to arrange the propositions of improve- 
ments, rather than to submit them to the usual and more dilatory 
course of diplomacy between each two countries. The ramifications 
of the postal system, also, embracing so many countries, seem to 
require a general concurrence of action. 

To this end I respectfully request that you will invite the atten- 
tion of foreign administrations to this subject, requesting their co- 
operation in the proposed conference, and ascertaining the time 
and place which would be most acceptable for that purpose; there 
to take into consideration the following subjects, and any others 
which either department shall in writing propose. The powers of 
the postal representatives, it is presumed, will be limited to dis- 
cussion and recommendation of measures for the adoption of their 
respective administrations. 

Attention is especially called to the following topics of inter- 
national concern: 

1. An uniform standard weight for the single rate of written 
correspondence. 

2. An uniform standard for adjusting postal rates on printed 
correspondence exchanged. 

3. Uniformity of rates to destination, by whatever route of 
intermediate transit. 

4. Uniform conditions of prepayment, whether compulsory or 
optional; or, if optional, a double rate when not prepaid. 

5. An uniform scale for increase of rates. 

6. Whether each country may collect and retain the postages 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 371 



collected by it, whether compulsorily or optionally prepaid, or 
remaining unpaid, thus avoiding accounts, except for intermediate 
transit postal charges. 

7. Transit postal charges overland, by intermediate countries, 
to be established on an uniform basis, and accounted for by the 
ounce, by the despatching country, on matter transmitted in closed 
bags or otherwise. 

8. The same proposition for ocean transit in closed bags or 
otherwise. 

9. The disposition to be made of all letters not delivered in the 
country of destination. 

10. An uniform international system for the registration of 
letters and postal charges therefor. 

11. Classification of printed matter which may be transmitted 
by mail, and the rights reserved by each country in respect thereto. 

12. The rights reserved by each country in respect to the route 
of transit of correspondence despatched by it. 

13. The practicability of an international limited money order 
system. 

14. Such other topics of postal importance as may be offered 
to the consideration of the conference by either national post 
department. 

Although the idea of holding an official international 
conference on a subject not the result of a war was without 
numerous precedents,® at least fourteen postal administra- 

8 According to a list of international conferences of official representatives 
of governments, exclusive of those mainly concerned with the results of wars, 
only ten had been held prior to 1863. The first, for the purpose of abolishing 
privateering, met in 1826. Another in 1830-1831 established the perpetual 
neutrality of Belgium. In 1847-1848 the Congress of Lima attempted to form 
an alliance of American republics. The first International Sanitary Confer- 
ence met in Paris in 1851 and the second in 1859. On the initiative of the 
United States a conference was held in Brussels in 1853 to adopt a uniform 
system of meteorological observations at sea, and in the same year and place 
the first general conference on statistics was held. Three powers met in the 
Congress of Santiago in 1856 to frame a continental treaty of alliance. There 
was a conference in 1857 to capitalize the Sound Dues claimed by Denmark. 
In 1861 a conference commuted the right of Hanover to tax the navigation of 
the Elbe. Besides the International Postal Conference, four others were held 
in 1863 — one to guarantee the neutrality of the Ionian Islands, another to 



372 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tions responded favorably and early in 1863 it was agreed 
that the meeting should be held in Paris beginning on May 
11th. As a natural consequence of his official position and 
initiative in the matter of international postal reform, 
not to mention experience and naturally adapted tempera- 
ment, John A. Kasson was selected as the representative 
of the United States Post Office Department on April Ist.^ 
He arrived in Paris in the latter part of April, where 
William L. Dayton, the American Minister to France, re- 
ceived him cordially and did everything in his power to 
make the mission useful and agreeable. Mr. Kasson had 
been elected to Congress the previous fall and although he 
had not yet taken his seat he is listed among the delegates as 
"M. Kasson, Membre du Congres des Etats-Unis, Com- 
missaire."^" 

secure the free navigation of the Scheldt, another to form a federal German 
state, another relating to sugar duties. — The American Journal of Interna- 
tional Law, Vol. I, pp. 808, 809. 

s At one time in his life Kasson had practiced law in the whaling port of 
New Bedford, Massachusetts. Much of his practice had been in the Courts of 
Admiralty at Boston and it was at that time that he gained his first practical 
knowledge of international law. Furthermore, his functions as head of the 
foreign mail service included the negotiation of postal conventions with other 
powers. — John A. Kasson, an Autobiography in Annals of Iowa (Third Se- 
ries), Vol. XII, p. 347; Beport of the Postmaster General, 1862, p. 165, in 
House Executive Documents, 37th Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1. 

The order of the Postmaster General for Kasson 's appointment, dated 
April 1, 1863, is as follows: "Ordered, Appoint John A. Kasson, Special 
Agent, to a«t as Commissioner of this Department at the Postal Conference 
in Europe, and to adjust and settle postal details with foreign governments, 
and allow him twelve dollars per day for his traveling and current expenses 
from 30 March 1863, and advance to him the sum of $500 dollars to be ac- 
counted for in final settlement." — Journal of Daily Orders of the Postmaster 
General, Vol. LII, p. 249, in the Post OflSce Department Building, Washington, 
D. C. 

10 House Executive Documents, 38th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. II, Doc. No. 
1, Pt. 2, p. 734; Commission Internationale des Postes, 1863. This volume is 
the oflicial written report (proces-verbal) of the proceedings of the Conference. 
With a few exceptions the exact remarks are not reproduced, only a summary 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 373 



On the appointed day the representatives of Austria, 
Belgium, Costa Rica, Denmark, Spain, France, Great 
Britain, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Prussia, Sand- 
wich Islands (Hawaii), Switzerland, the Hanseatic Cities, 
and the United States gathered at the headquarters of the 
Administration des Postes Francais. Apparently Russia 
had been expected to send a delegate but as none was pres- 
ent, Kasson feared that the letter from the United States 
advising the Russian authorities of the time and place of 
meeting had not arrived and he suggested that a telegram 
be sent to St. Petersburg. Some of the other delegates felt 
that that would be exceeding their authority, however, and 
Russia did not participate in the Conference. The govern- 
ment of Ecuador requested that the delegate from the 
United States represent her interests and agreed by letter 
to the action of the Conference.^ ^ 

The first session of the Conference on May 11th was 
devoted to organization. M. Vandal, the Director General 
of the French Postal Administration, made the opening 
speech. It was not to argue or settle practical details that 
the Conference was held, he said, but rather to discuss and 
proclaim certain general principles and speculative doc- 
trines pertaining to international postal affairs that should 
prevail in the interest of the public and the treasuries of 
the respective governments. While the decisions agreed 
upon would have no obligatory character, if an interna- 
tional postal code could be framed it would at least be 
difficult to set aside what the postal authorities in so many 

or paraphrase of what was said being recorded by the secretary. It was 
printed by the French government in the French language, only the final 
agreement being printed in English as well as in French. A personal copy is 
in the Kasson collection in the Historical Department, Des Moines, Iowa. So 
far as the writer knows, no official translation into English has ever been pub- 
lished in the United States. 

11 Commission Internationale des Postes, 1863, pp. 3, 10, 27. 



374 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



countries were unanimous in declaring to be good, equitable, 
and honorable. If they should succeed in agreeing upon 
postal reciprocity and uniform weights and rates they 
would confei upon their successors a lasting benefit and 
further the good feeling initiated by this friendly Confer- 
ence.^^ 

At the close of this address Kasson proposed that Vandal 
be selected president of the Conference, which was accord- 
ingly done. M. Desenne was made secretary. The problem 
then arose as to the questions to be discussed and the 
method of procedure. Some of the delegates were in doubt 
as to their authority to consider any propositions that had 
not been suggested before the Conference met. They 
thought that any new questions ought first to be submitted 
to their governments for approval. To this Kasson replied 
that the idea of his government in proposing the Conference 
was not that the results of their deliberations would be 
binding upon the governments participating, but that it was 
simply for the purpose of examining various questions with 
a view to facilitating the negotiation of postal conventions 
with the several nations.^^ 

Inasmuch as the British and French desired to consider 
other questions than those originally proposed by the 
United States it was decided that a committee should be 
appointed to report at the second session on May 13th a 
working program. To this program of some thirty propo- 
sitions Kasson proposed two in addition: first, was it pos- 
sible to form the islands of the sea into postal tariff divi- 
sions and assign a single rate to each of these divisions; 
and second, was it possible to allow each postal administra- 
tion free conveyance of official communications with other 

12 Commission Internationale des Pastes, 1863, p. 8. 

13 Commission Internationale des Posies, 1863, pp. 8, 9. 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 375 



postal administrations? Both of these questions were in- 
corporated in the official program for consideration." 

It became very apparent during the second session of the 
Conference that definite regulations could not be agreed 
upon in the whole Conference without endless debate and a 
great deal of aimless talk. In spite of the efforts of the 
president to keep the discussion on the various questions 
in the order of their appearance on the program ever and 
anon some delegate more interested in a proposition 
farther down the list would turn the discussion to the sub- 
ject of his special concern. Or perchance several closely 
related questions invited consideration simultaneously, 
with the result that none of them were solved. Moreover, 
the fact that the various topics were in the form of ques- 
tions instead of positively stated and specific regulations 
kept the discussion in the suppositional stage. Early in 
the third session on May 16th, therefore, the delegate from 
Great Britain suggested that a sub-commission be ap- 
pointed to prepare answers to the various questions which 
would serve as a basis of debate for the whole Conference. 
The proposal meeting general approval, President Vandal 
appointed for that purpose a committee of five delegates 
headed by John A. Kasson, and no more sessions were held 
until this committee was ready to report.^^ 

The fourth session of the Conference was held on May 
23rd, when the sub-commission began to report the regula- 
tions it had agreed upon as solutions of the various ques- 
tions of international postal relations. The propositions 
were reported singly, debated, and voted upon without de- 
lay. Most of the conclusions of the sub-commission were 
ratified by the Conference with very little debate. There 
seemed to be slight difference of opinion on fundamentals, 

14 Commission Internationale des Pastes, 1863, pp. 13-15, 18-23, 28, 29. 

15 Commission Internationale des Pastes, 1863, pp. 43, 44. 



376 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



most of the discussion being confined to details. Consider- 
able time was used by members of the sub-commission in 
explaining the regulations they had adopted. Amendments 
to these regulations were rarely proposed and still more 
rarely adopted by the Conference. 

The Conference was composed of remarkably able men. 
The debates exhibit not only distinguished ability and 
thorough knowledge of postal relations, but also a most 
gratifying spirit of liberality toward the interests of the 
public involved in international intercourse. Surprisingly 
little difficulty was experienced in agreeing upon a series of 
general principles which should form the basis of future 
postal conventions between the various countries. In addi- 
tion to the resolutions adopted by the Conference the dele- 
gates exchanged much information respecting their several 
postal systems which gave a new impulse to postal reform.^® 

No attempt whatever was made to establish any inter- 
national postal administrative organization. Indeed, the 
resolutions that were finally adopted unanimously by the 
Conference had no more binding effect upon the govern- 
ments that had sent delegates than upon those which were 
not represented. It was clearly understood in the begin- 
ning that any principles or common rules that the Confer- 
ence might deem advantageous as a basis for postal 
conventions between the several countries would simply be 
advisory. It can not be gainsaid, however, that this Con- 
ference was the initial step toward the formation of the 
General Postal Union at the Postal Congress in Berne in 
1874. Four years later this permanent organization be- 
came the Universal Postal Union which has continued to 
the present time. 

The First International Postal Conference in 1863 adopt- 

16 Report of the Postmaster General, 1863, p. 7, in House Executive Docu- 
ments, 38th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. V, Doc. No. 1. 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 377 



ed tlie following rules, many of which are contained in sub- 
stance in the provisions of the General Postal Convention 
of to-day 

Section 1. The articles which must or may be forwarded by the 
post from one country to another are divided into six classes: 
]st, ordinary letters; 2d, registered letters, without declaration of 
value; 3d, registered letters, containing declared value; 4th, cor- 
rected proof-sheets, business papers, and other written documents 
not of the nature of letters; 5th, samples of merchandise (including 
grains and seeds) of limited weight and without mercantile value; 
6th, printed matter of all kinds in sheets, (stitched or bound,) 
sheets of music, engravings, lithographs, photographs, drawings, 
maps, and plans. 

Sec. 2. Wherever it is possible, the prepayment of postage upon 
ordinary letters should be at the option of the sender ; but, in case 
of such optional prepayment, unpaid letters must bear a moderate 
additional charge. 

Sec. 3. Letters insufficiently prepaid by the postal stamps of 
the despatching country must be rated as unpaid, deducting, how- 
ever, the value of the stamps affixed. 

See. 4. Registered letters, whether with or without declaration 
of value, must in all cases be prepaid to destination. 

Sec. 5. All articles under bands, in order to take the benefit of a 
rate of postage less than that applicable to letters, must be prepaid. 

Sec. 6. International correspondence of all kinds, duly prepaid 
to destination, shall not be charged with any additional rate what- 
ever on delivery. 

Sec. 7. The rates upon international correspondence shall be 
established according to the same scale of weight in all countries. 

See. 8. The metrical decimal system, being that which best satis- 
fies the demands of the postal service, shall be adopted for interna- 
tional postal relations, to the exclusion of every other system. 

Sec. 9. The single rate upon international letters shall be ap- 
plied to each standard weight of fifteen grammes, or fractional 
part of it. 

Sec. 10. The single rate upon corrected proof-sheets, upon writ- 

i^JBeport of the Fostmaster General, 1863, pp. 7-9, in House Executive Doc- 
uments, S8th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. V, Doc. No. 1. 



378 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ten documents not of the nature of letters, and upon samples of 
merchandise, (including seeds,) shall be applied to each standard 
weight of forty grammes, or fractional part thereof, to one address. 

Sec. 11. The standard weight for the single rate upon articles 
under band, embraced in the sixth class of the first resolution 
aforesaid, must be established by special convention between the 
contracting parties. 

Sec. 12. The rate upon letters must be fixed according to the 
weight stated by the despatching office, except in case of manifest 
error. 

Sec. 13. Registered letters, without declaration of value, shall 
be rated with a moderate fixed charge in addition to the rate appli- 
cable to ordinary letters of the same weight. 

Sec. 14. Registered letters, containing declared value, shall be 
rated with a charge in proportion to the amount of the declared 
value, in addition to the postage and to the fixed charge applicable 
to the other class of registered letters. 

Sec. 15. In case of loss of a registered letter without declared 
value, and in case of loss or spoliation of a registered letter with 
declared value, each office shall be held responsible for acts upon 
its own territory, and in the service for which it has received a 
premium of insurance. Fifty francs should be allowed to the 
sender of an unvalued registered letter lost, and for a valued regis- 
tered letter so much of the declared value as shall have been lost 
or abstracted. 

Sec. 16. Wherever intermediate transit charges render it prac- 
ticable, the rates upon international correspondence should be the . 
same, by whatever routes the mails may be conveyed. 

Sec. 17. Where there are different mail routes, correspondence 
shall be despatched by the route indicated by the sender upon the 
address, or by the rate of postage prepaid, if different rates exist. 
In the absence of such indications the despatching office will deter- 
mine the route which it considers most advantageous to the public 
interest. 

Sec. 18. Unpaid letters, delivered by one administration to an- 
other for a country to which prepayment is compulsory, shall be 
returned to the despatching office as wrongly sent. 

Sec. 19. Articles under band and subject to a lower rate of post- 
age, with compulsory prepayment, shall, in case of insufficient pre- 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 379 



payment, be despatclied to their destination, charged with a suitable 
extra rate. If such articles are wholly unpaid, they shall not be 
despatched. 

Sec. 20. International postal accounts cannot be suppressed by 
a rule of general application ; but they should be simplified as far 
as possible. For that purpose offices of exchange should not be 
required to return acknowledgments of receipt of mails, except for 
the correction of errors of the despatching office. 

See, 21. International post offices, accounting with each other 
for the rates and charges upon correspondence exchanged between 
them, whether in open or closed mails, shall account, as far as 
possible, by the piece for the correspondence in the open mails, and 
by the net weight for the correspondence in closed mails. 

Sec. 22. Correspondence re-forwarded by reason of a change of 
residence of the person addressed shall not, on that account, be 
liable to a supplementary charge in favor of offices interested in 
the postage previously accrued. 

Sec. 25. Registered letters addressed to persons who have de- 
parted for a foreign country not interested in the postage prepaid 
shall be forwarded to the new residence of the persons addressed, 
charged with additional postage and with a supplementary regis- 
tration fee, to be paid on delivery. 

Sec. 24. International correspondence which shall have become 
dead shall be returned, without cost, to the despatching office. 

Sec. 25. As high transit charges upon correspondence present an 
insurmountable obstacle to the establishment of an international 
system of correspondence upon conditions advantageous to the pub- 
lic, the transit charge for each country shall never be higher than 
one-half of the interior rate of the transit country, and for coun- 
tries of small territorial extent this transit charge shall be even 
less. 

Sec. 26. The cost of sea conveyance claimed by one country from 
another shall in no case be higher than the rate charged upon its 
own correspondence by the country by whose vessels the conveyance 
shall be effected. 

See. 27. It is desirable that postal administrations having ac- 
counts with each other should serve as intermediaries for the trans- 
mission of sums of money from one country to another by means of 
international money-orders, whenever this can be effected without 
complications disproportioned to the advantages resulting from it. 



380 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Sec. 28. In case of the non-payment at the stipulated time of 
the balance due upon an adjustment of an international postal 
account, the amount of the balance shall bear interest from the 
expiration of the stipulated period at the rate agreed upon by 
convention. 

Sec. 29, In the adjustment of uniform postal rates the greatest 
possible number of countries should be included in the same zone 
<and subject to the same rate. 

Sec. 30. Free conveyance of its oflScial communications with 
other postal administrations should be granted to each postal 
administration. 

Sec. 31. There should be a class of letters denominated "urgent" 
for delivery by express messengers, for which a special supplemen- 
tary charge shall be paid. 

In all there were nine sessions of the Conference, The 
fifth session occurred on May 27th, the sixth on May 30th, 
the seventh on June 2nd, the eighth on June 5th, and the 
last on June 8th, During the entire time, and particularly 
after the sub-commission was appointed, Mr, Kasson ap- 
pears, from a study of the proces-verbal, to have been the 
dominant figure in the Conference, Though there were 
delegates who were older and more experienced in postal 
administration than he, no one was more interested in re- 
forming the international postal service. Moreover, the 
fact that he represented the government that had taken 
the initiative in calling the Conference, and that he himself 
indeed was responsible for that action contributed greatly 
to his prestige. His remarks invariably commanded seri- 
ous attention and his suggestions were usually followed. 
No doubt as chairman of the sub-commission he was equally 
influential in its deliberations. The deference shown by the 
Conference to his desires may perhaps be illustrated by 
the following incident. When one of the propositions was 
reported from the sub-commission he remarked that he was 
not entirely satisfied with the response of the sub-commis- 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 381 



sion to that particular question and expressed a wish that 
discussion could be temporarily postponed. The Confer- 
ence immediately proceeded to the consideration of the next 
question.^^ 

The final session on June 8, 1863, was devoted largely to 
speeches extolling the success and importance of the First 
International Postal Conference. In behalf of the govern- 
ment of the United States, Kasson expressed appreciation 
of the interest shown by the delegates from other countries. 
All had realized, he said, that they would be confronted 
with many difficulties but had discovered fewer than they 
had anticipated. He pointed out that the delegates to the 
Conference represented four hundred million people living 
in the most civilized and industrious parts of the world, 
who contributed nineteen-twentieths of the world's cor- 
respondence. The future industrial development of nations, 
he was convinced, depended very largely on international 
correspondence. Furthermore, the maintenance of inter- 
national amity on which the welfare of the human race is 
so dependent, and the dispersion of the elements of civiliza- 
tion and intelligence which break down the barriers of 
ignorance and prejudice are promoted by correspondence. 
Indeed, he was sure that the improvement of postal facil- 
ities was the inevitable precursor of peace and prosperity. 
To establish for international correspondence simple uni- 
form regulations and moderate postage was the end toward 
which the Conference had worked, an attainment well worth 
the serious efforts and perseverance of the greatest minds 
of all nations.^^ 

At the close of Kasson 's speech the Swiss delegate "in 
moving to insert in the official proceedings the discourse 
just delivered by M. Kasson, representing the Postal Ad- 

18 Commission Internationale des Postes, 1863, p. 69. 

19 Commission Internationale des Postes, 1S63, p. 129. 



382 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ministration of the United States of North A in erica," 
thought he voiced the sentiments of the entire Conference 
in declaring that "if the deliberations of the international 
postal Conference have produced resolutions from which 
a favorable influence upon future postal Conventions can 
be hoped, this result will have been due in a large part to 
the enlightened and at the same time conciliatory spirit 
which the Delegate of the Government that has taken the 
initiative in the conference has constantly brought to the 
deliberations. These ideas were unanimously approved 
and inserted in the proces-verbal. 

Postmaster General Blair, in reporting the results of the 
International Postal Conference, took occasion **to make 
known the fact that the public owes the suggestion to invite 
this international conference to the Hon. John A. Kasson, 
who represented our government in it with such zeal and 
ability as to command the thanks and warm approval of 
his associates. I do not doubt that important and lasting 
advantages are to flow from this conference, due in a great 
degree to his assiduity, practical ability, and earnestness in 
the cause of progress. "^^ 

The Postmaster General was so gratified at Kasson 's 
success **in obtaining favorable action on most of the pos- 
tal reform desired" by the Post Office Department that he 
requested him to remain in Europe for the purpose of 
personally negotiating postal conventions. "My desire 
is", he wrote to Kasson on July 1, 1863, "that you avail 
yourself of the present auspicious opportunity to visit the 
respective Post Departments of Europe, and endeavor to 
arrange the details of Postal Conventions with each coun- 
try, embodying as far as practicable, the general principles 

20 Commission Internationale des Pastes, 186S, p. 130. 

21 Eeport of the Postmaster General^ 1863, pp. 9, 10, in House Executive 
Documents, 38tli Congress, 1st Session, Vol. V, Doc. No. 1. 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 383 



recommended by the conference as the basis for Interna- 
tional Conventions ; being satisfied that you can accomplish 
much more in the interest of our international postal ser- 
vice, by negotiating in person the details of new postal 
arrangements, than can possibly be effected in years by the 
slow process of departmental correspondence."^^ 

In compliance with this request Mr. Kasson remained in 
Europe during the summer and autumn of 1863, returning 
in November to take his seat in Congress to which he had 
been elected for the first time. Besides the United States, 
it was reported early in the fall that Switzerland, Belgium, 
and Italy had adopted the recommendations of the Paris 
Conference as the basis for future postal conventions, and 
that other European nations were about to do the same. 
However that may have been, it appears that, although he 
transmitted to the Post Office Department much valuable 
information touching foreign administrations, Kasson suc- 
ceeded in concluding only one postal convention that ever 
went into effect. On July 8, 1863, a convention between 
Italy and the United States was signed at Turin by Gr. B. 
Barbavara and John A. Kasson. It was ratified by King 
Emmanuel in December of that year but the President of 
the United States did not give his approval until May 4, 
1866.23 

22 Letter from Montgomery Blair, dated July 1, 1863, in the Correspondence 
of John A. Kasson (in manuscript), Vol. II, in the possession of the Historical 
Department, Des Moines, Iowa. 

23 John A. Kasson, an Autobiography, in Annals of Iowa (Third Series), 
Vol. XII, p. 351; Beport of the Postmaster General, 1863, pp. 7, 9, in House 
Executive Bocuments, 38th Congress, 1st Session, Vol. V, Doe. No. 1; Beport 
of the Postmaster General, 1866, pp. 57-61, in House Executive Bocmnents, 
39th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. IV, Doe. No. 2. 

Whether or not postal conventions were negotiated -with other countries but 
failed to be ratified the writer was unable to ascertain. No reference to any 
such is made in the reports of the Postmaster General and of course no con- 
ventions which were not approved by the governments of the participating 

VOL. XIX — 25 



384 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



No further progress was made toward incorporating the 
resolutions of the Paris International Postal Conference in 
postal conventions until 1867. Great Britain gave notice 
on July 25, 1866, that the existing postal convention with 
the United States would be terminated January 1, 1868, for 
the purpose of concluding a new convention on a more lib- 
eral basis. The discussion and adjustment of the details of 
the new compact presented an opportunity to establish 
better mail, facilities with the continent of Europe. 
Furthermore, the postal convention with France was anti- 
quated and entirely unsatisfactory. The French authori- 
ties, having been notified of the necessity of revising the 
compact, responded favorably in February, 1867, and re- 
quested that a special delegate be sent to Paris with com- 
plete instructions to confer with the Director General of 
the French Postes upon the conditions of agreement. This 
invitation was promptly accepted, and on April 5, 1867, 
one month after the expiration of his second term in Con- 
gress, John A. Kasson was appointed special commissioner 
to negotiate more liberal postal conventions with some of 
the European countries, in conformity with the general 
basis of international postal intercourse recommended by 
the Paris Conference of 1863.^* 

countries are published either in the reports of the Post Office Department or 
in the Statutes at Large. 

nBeport of the Postmaster General, 1866, p. 6, in House Executive Docu- 
ments, 39th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 2; Beport of the Post- 
master General, 1867, pp. 15, 16, in House Executive Documents, 40th Con- 
gress, 2nd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1; Beport of the Postmaster General, 
1869, pp. 14, 15, in House Executive Documents, 41st Congress, 2nd Session, 
Vol. I, Doc. No. 1. 

The order for Kasson 's appointment is contained in the following order: 
"Ordered, That the Hon. John A. Kasson be and he hereby is appointed Spe- 
cial Commissioner on behalf of the Post Office Department of the United 
States, to proceed to Europe and there to negotiate and settle the details of 
new Postal Conventions with the Governments of France, Great Britain, Prus- 
sia and Belgium respectively, and also to negotiate Postal Conventions with 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 385 



Mr. Kasson was selected for this mission, according to 
Postmaster General Alex. W. Randall, "because of his 
knowledge of postal details obtained during his connection 
with the department as first assistant postmaster general, 
and particularly on account of his familiarity with the 
postal questions to be dealt with, which were fully discussed 
at the Paris conference, in which he took a prominent 
part". He departed immediately for Paris, where he re- 
mained several months "laboring faithfully and perse- 
veringly to accomplish the object of his mission ".^^ 

Apparently the French postal administration was indis- 

such other European Governments, as the United States may desire, subject to 
approval by the Postmaster General of the United States. And that he be 
allo-vved compensation at the rate of eight dollars per day and for his expenses 
at the rate of eight dollars per day: and that the same be paid out of the 
appropriation 'for mail depredations and Special Agents and expenses of 
negotiating postal conventions' with exchange of London. This appointment 
to expire on the first of October 1867: unless otherwise ordered by the Post- 
master General." 

The period of the appointment was extended to January 8, 1868. All but 
three of the postal conventions and regulations were, as a matter of fact, 
signed after October 1, 1867, when the original appointment was supposed to 
expire. 

Like so many American diplomats, it seems that Mr. Kasson found his com- 
pensation inadequate. At any rate a letter from the Postmaster General, dated 
more than a year after the end of Kasson 's services as special commissioner 
to negotiate postal conventions, explains that he is unable to allow more than 
$1600 per year compensation — the amount fixed by law for special agents of 
the Post Office Department. Later the Auditor of the Post Office Department 
was requested by the Postmaster General to "state on account and report for 
$2000 in favor of Hon. John A. Kasson being per diem and Compensation as 
Special Commissioner for negotiating Postal Conventions under Act Feb. 18, 
1867." — Journal of Daily Orders of the Postmaster General, Vol. LXI, p. 
697; letter from Alex. W. Eandall to John A. Kasson, dated February 13, 
1869; letter from Alex. W. Eandall to H. J. Anderson, dated February 24, 
1869. These letters are in the Letter Books of the Postmaster General, No. 
Vni, pp. 256, 264. 

25 Eeport of the Postmaster General, 1867, p. 16, in House Executive Doat- 
ments, 40th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. FV, Doc. No. 1; Beport of the Post- 
master General, 1869, p. 15, in House Executive Documents, 4l3t Congress, 
2nd Session, Vol. I, Doc. No. 1. 



386 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



posed to conclude a new convention in conformity with the 
improved arrangements concluded between the United 
States and other European countries. At all events 
Kasson was unable to secure any satisfactory terms with 
that country.2^ 

While his prime mission failed to produce results, his 
negotiations with other countries were very successful. He 
negotiated new conventions with various European powers 
— with Great Britain in London on June 18, 1867, with 
Belgium at Brussels on August 21, 1867, with The Nether- 
lands at The Hague on September 26, 1867, with the Swiss 
Confederation at Berne on October 11, 1867, with the North 
German Union at Berlin on October 21, 1867, and with 
Italy at Florence on November 8, 1867, this last agreement 
modifying the provisions of the Italian convention negoti- 
ated in 1863. All of these conventions were substantially 
uniform both in principles and details, only slight modifica- 
tions being necessary to meet the peculiarities of the postal 
system of each country. The international letter rate to 

26 The early attitude of Prance in respect to liberal postal intercourse with 
the United States is peculiar. Though the French postal administration was 
the host of the First International Postal Conference and the French delegates 
had at that time exhibited a willingness to cooperate cordially in the movement 
for postal reform, all attempts by Kasson to incorporate the recommendations 
unanimously adopted by the Conference into a new postal convention failed. 
Not only was he unsuccessful in 1863, but later, in 1867, after the French 
authorities had invited a representative of the United States post office to 
Paris for that specific purpose, no agreement could be reached. The United 
States therefore terminated the existing convention on February 1, 1869. 
Later the date of termination was extended to April 1, 1869, and again to 
January 1, 1870, with the hope of negotiating a new convention in the mean- 
time. Senator Alexander Ramsey was sent to Paris in the summer of 1869 
but no progress toward more liberal relations was possible on account of the 
insistence by the French postal department on conditions so unreasonable and 
unjust towards the United States that they could not be considered. After 
three months of patient effort negotiations were terminated. On January 1, 
1870, direct postal communication between the United States and France 
terminated and on the same date international letter postage between the 
United States and Great Britain was reduced to six cents — two cents for sea 



KASSON AND THE POSTAL CONFERENCE 387 



England was reduced from twenty-four to twelve cents and 
to the other countries through England it was reduced from 
varying amounts to the uniform rate of fifteen cents, while a 
rate of ten cents was established with Belgium and the 
North German Union for letters transmitted by regular 
lines of mail steamships plying directly between any port of 
the United States and any port of the north of Europe. The 
principle of free transit for correspondence transmitted in 
closed mails was adopted in the conventions with The Neth- 
erlands and Italy, while with each of the other countries 
very low transit charges were established — in England, for 
example, one-half of the interior rate. The conventions with 
Great Britain, Belgium, The Netherlands, and the North 
German Union took effect on January 1, 1868, and those 
with Switzerland and Italy went into operation on April 1, 
1868.27 

Not only did Kasson negotiate new postal conventions 
but he also arranged for the detailed regulations between 
the United States post office and the offices of the European 
countries for the execution of several of these conventions. 
He signed the detailed regulations with Belgium and The 
Netherlands at Paris on November 26, 1867, and with 
Switzerland at the same place two days later. The regu- 
lations based on the convention with Italy, however, he did 
not sign until May 2, 1868, after he had returned to 
Washington.2^ 

postage and two cents for inland postage in each, country. — Beport of the 
Postmaster General, 1869, pp. 15-17, in House Executive Documents, 41st 
C!ongress, 2nd Session, Vol. I, Doc. No. 1. 

2t Beport of the Postmaster General, 1867, pp. 16, 17, 97-100, 111-128, in 
House Executive Documents, 40th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1; 
Beport of the Postmaster General, 1868, pp. 16, 17, in Hoitse Executive Docu- 
ments, 40th Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, Doc. No. 1. 

2S Beport of the Postmaster General, 1868, pp. 98-101, 129-131, 161-164, 
189-191, in House Executive Documents, 40th Congress, 3rd Session, Vol. IV, 
Doc. No. 1. 



388 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Thus ended the first epoch in the diplomatic career of 
J ohn A. Kasson, He was destined in later years to repre- 
sent the United States in larger and better known inter- 
national conferences — though they were scarcely more 
important measured in ultimate results — and to act again 
as special commissioner to negotiate international cove- 
nants on other subjects. The experience of these early 
contacts with international affairs afforded an excellent 
foundation for the more arduous diplomacy that was to 
come and accounts to a large extent no doubt for his success 
in later negotiations with Bismarck, Sir Edward B. Malet, 
and others of their ilk. 

It would be interesting to record the name of John A. 
Kasson in some connection with the Fifth Universal Postal 
Congress that was held in Washington in May and June, 
1897, just thirty-four years after the First International 
Postal Conference which had been called upon his sugges- 
tion and inspired by his leadership. But the fates did not 
so will it. Circumstances directed the course of Kasson 's 
career along other paths leading to different fields of en- 
deavor. The United States post office, moreover, experi- 
enced an enormous expansion meanwhile, bringing new 
problems and developing a new personnel, so that an expert 
in postal affairs in 1870 would have been nonplussed if 
suddenly confronted with the situation in 1897. Progress 
in international postal facilities probably far exceeded 
Kasson 's greatest expectations, and the movement to which 
the young man had imparted the initial impetus the old 
man after a third of a century no longer recognized, nor 
were his services remembered by the younger generation. 

John E. Briggs 

The State Uniteesitt of Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



Recent movements in education have tended to empha- 
size vocational and industrial training — to correlate the 
practical with the so-called cultural subjects. In this con- 
nection it may be worth while to recall the efforts made a 
century ago to graft scientific and cultural studies upon 
mechanical training. The mechanics' institutions which 
attained considerable influence during the first half of the 
nineteenth century were the result of the growth of 
democracy and education among the workers, who began to 
realize that training of the mind would make the hand more 
efficient. 

OEIGIN OF MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 

The growth of organizations initiated by men who sought 
to better the situation of mechanics or artisans constitutes 
one of the most interesting chapters in the educational and 
social history of Great Britain. As early as 1760 Dr. John 
Anderson, at Glasgow, began to illustrate his lectures in 
natural philosophy by the results of observation in the 
shops of the city. In order to carry out his design he 
began the instruction of what he described as his anti-toga 
class, which was composed of workingmen who were per- 
mitted to attend in their working clothes. At his death the 
property of Professor Anderson was devoted to the estab- 
lishment of Anderson University at Glasgow — an institu- 
tion for the instruction of artisans. And thus the course he 
began was perpetuated. In 1796 a course of lectures was 
given to over 1000 persons of both sexes. 

It was in Glasgow, also, that Dr. George Birkbeck, in 

389 



390 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



1799, lectured to 500 practical mechanics and, apparently 
as a result of these lectures, was called to the chair for- 
merly held by Dr. Anderson. It has generally been con- 
ceded that these lectures were the origin of mechanics' 
institutions under whatever name they were organized. 
Both Dr. Birkbeck and Lord Brougham cited these lectures 
to show the value of such instruction for the working 
classes. Professor Anderson, it has been said, ''opened 
the temple of science to the hard laboring mechanic and 
artisan. ' 

The city of Birmingham became a center for organiza- 
tions to better the life of the working man under such 
names as the Eeformation Society in 1787, the Sunday 
Society in 1789, the Cast Iron Philosophers in 1791, the 
first Artisans ' Library in 1795, and the Birmingham Broth- 
erly Society in 1796. The Sunday Society grew out of an 
association for mutual improvement, wherein members ad- 
dressed their associates upon the subjects connected with 
their occupations. Many of these speakers were connected 
with the technical trades of the community and they con- 
structed apparatus to illustrate "the principles of mechan- 
ics, hydrostatics, pneumatics, optics, electricity, and 
astronomy." Admission to such lectures was not confined 
to members, inasmuch as they were free to young persons 
employed in the factories of the city. In some of the organ- 
izations already mentioned there were classes in drawing, 
in geography, and in the study of those sciences in the 
application of which many members were interested. From 
the Artisans' Library which was established especially for 
the use of the working people useful reading could be had 
for a penny a week. Dr. Andrew Ure, a Scottish chemist, 
has been credited with the addition of the library feature 
to the original design of these several associations. And 

1 Barnard's The American Journal of Education, Vol. XXII, p. 31. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



391 



tlie movement to provide literary and scientific societies for 
the middle and lower classes was advocated about the same 
time 'bj J'he Monthly Magazine (in 1814), one of the most 
popular periodicals of the time. 

In 1823 the Glasgow Mechanics Institute, the Liverpool 
Mechanics ' and Apprentice 's Library, and the London Me- 
chanics ' Institute were established, and for many years it 
was believed that the latter was the first of its kind in Lon- 
don. In 1831, however, the London Mechanics' Magazine 
pointed out the fact that an organization called ''The Me- 
chanical Institution" had been active in 1817. That insti- 
tution purposed to disseminate useful knowledge among its 
members and their friends by lectures and discussions on 
various branches of science. It is noteworthy that the initi- 
ative in that instance was taken by the mechanics them- 
selves, whereas the London institution of 1823 resulted 
from a call sent out by the Mechanics' Magazine. 

After 1823, under the leadership of Dr. Birkbeck and 
Lord Brougham, such institutions spread throughout the 
kingdom until in 1850 there were 700 societies scattered 
through the towns and villages. In first class towns these 
agencies of instruction included the following features: 
(1) a reference library, a circulating library, and a reading 
room; (2) a museum of machines, models, minerals, and 
natural history; (3) lectures on natural and experimental 
philosophy, practical mechanics, chemistry, astronomy, lit- 
erature, and the arts; (4) an experimental workshop and 
laboratory; and (5) elementary classes for teaching arith- 
metic, algebra, geometry, and their different applications, 
particularly to perspective, architecture, mensuration, and 
navigation. The reading rooms of the London Mechanics' 
Institute were open from 9 A. M. to 10 P. M. A public 
lecture was given on each Wednesday and Friday evening 
commencing at 8:30 o'clock. The lecturers were paid 3£ 



392 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



13s 6d. ''when they did not find any of the apparatus" and 
it is assumed, therefore, that a larger fee was allowed when 
apparatus was furnished. 

In the classes connected with the London Mechanics' In- 
stitute the instruction included the subjects already men- 
tioned and in addition the French and Latin languages and 
sometimes shorthand. Drawing was very popular and 100 
of the 300 enrolled were pursuing it. Modelling, also, was 
among the subjects offered. There was a class of 120 mem- 
bers which received instruction on the mutual plan — a 
popular method about that time (1840). Chemistry, ex- 
perimental philosophy, geography, natural history, and 
phrenology were the subjects of most prominence in this 
class. Ninety at least were studying music under paid 
instructors. In 1849 there were 120,000 members in these 
various institutes ; there were more than 400 reading rooms 
with libraries possessing an aggregate of 815,000 volumes. 
Moreover, to meet an apparent demand, a ' ' Society for the 
Diffusion of Useful Knowledge ' ' began the publication of a 
series of cheap and useful publications on a large variety 
of subjects. 

An institution at Manchester (about 1835) was designed 
to enable mechanics and artisans of any trade to obtain a 
knowledge of the science connected with that trade. Since 
there was no art that did not depend upon scientific prin- 
ciples, the object in view was to teach such principles. 
Lectures, classes, a library, a reading room, and a prepara- 
tory school were the means to be employed. The plan was 
practically the same as that pursued in London, with some 
additional features. For example, a gymnasium was open 
to members for a small fee. The German language as well 
as French and Latin was taught. A subordinate organiza- 
tion of probably one hundred members, to which any one 
over the age of eighteen was admitted, had in view not only 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



393 



the acquisition of knowledge, but also the promotion of 
social relations. The meetings were held fortnightly when 
some member read a paper on a subject to which his atten- 
tion had been drawn, and this reading was followed by a 
conversation upon the same subject. It seems that the day 
school was among the most important interests of these 
organizations, since parents were taking the education of 
their children into their own hands. The school for boys at 
Manchester was opened in 1834 ; and that for girls in 1835. 
They were intended first for the sons and daughters, broth- 
ers and sisters of the subscribers to the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute who paid four shillings a quarter; while non-sub- 
scribers paid five shillings. It is observed that in addition 
to the common literary subjects the girls were instructed 
in sewing and knitting.^ 

MOVEMENTS IN NEW ENGLAND 

In 1823, Mr. Timothy Claxton, who had been identified 
with the "Mechanical Institute" in London in 1817, came 
to New England and engaged to work in the vicinity of 
Methuen, Essex County, Massachusetts, where there was a 
factory for the manufacture of cotton goods and also a 
machine shop. Because of his previous experiences in 
London he took the first opportunity to promote the estab- 
lishment of a similar society in New England. It was then 
that he learned of a lyceum — probably the first in this 
country — which had been organized about 1819 in the vil- 
lage of Methuen. The organization was called the * ' Meth- 
uen Social Society for Reading and General Inquiry". 
Its membership was composed of both men and women who 
sought useful knowledge through a course of reading. 

Before this society, which seems to have lost some of its 
early enthusiasm, Timothy Claxton in 1824 gave a lecture 

2 Barnard's The American Journal of Education, Vol. VIII, pp. 250, 253; 
Connecticut Common School Journal, Vol. II, pp. 271-273. 



394 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



in which he used a crude air pump constructed by himself 
to illustrate his subject. As a result of this and succeeding 
lectures the lyceum was revived, the constitution was 
changed, and a library and apparatus were provided. De- 
bating was introduced and the women were permitted to 
hand in compositions which were publicly read at the meet- 
ings. Members were requested to deliver lectures upon 
their own occupations, but considerable persuasion on the 
part of active members seems to have been necessary in 
order to secure a response on the part of the diffident ones. 
The society met at the houses of members until it became 
too large to be thus accommodated. Then it tried the school 
house and thereafter the town hall. Neither of these having 
proved satisfactory a building for the special use of the 
organization was provided at an expense of $1200. The 
exercises during the month were as follows: at the first 
weekly meeting there was reading by all the members ; at 
the second, reading by one member ; at the third, an original 
lecture ; at the fourth, a general discussion. 

In 1826 Mr. Claxton removed to Boston and there aided 
in establishing the Boston Mechanics' Institute. This was 
the first organization to introduce popular lectures in vari- 
ous branches of science with a view to arousing a greater 
interest therein. It was not a long-lived institution, but it 
furnished an incentive to the formation of others. The 
early decline of the Boston Institute was caused, it appears, 
by its unsocial character. During the winter a course of 
lectures designed to present in a plain manner information 
relative to new discoveries, was all that was undertaken; 
there was no library, no reading room, and no regular 
classes. Although a class in "mechanical science" was 
formed on the initiative of certain members, with the ex- 
pectation that the management would encourage it and 
adopt it as a branch of the Institute, it was not so recog- 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



395 



nized. Indeed, a committee which had been authorized to 
provide a room for the class decided that it was not expedi- 
ent to do so. 

Such institutions seem to have been more or less influ- 
ential in the encouragement of the manufacture of appa- 
ratus to illustrate the teaching of science in the schools. 
Timothy Claxton engaged in the manufacture of such 
apparatus in Boston in 1829, and in 1836, having visited 
England, he entered into an arrangement to supervise the 
making of school apparatus similar to that which he had 
been making in Boston. It may be observed that this 
period marks the general movement for popular education 
in the United States.^ 

It is quite evident that the activity in England and Scot- 
land about 1827 had impressed the General Court or legis- 
lature of Massachusetts; for during January of that year 
two bills were introduced subsequent to a resolution re- 
lating to the establishment of a practical seminary. The 
subject was referred to a commission which supported the 
measure and presented reasons therefor. The commission 
suggested for example, that England and Scotland, through 
mechanics ' societies, were giving to the great body of arti- 

3 Barnard's The Americcm Journal of Education, Vol. VIII, pp. 253-256; 
American Journal of Education (1827), Vol. II, p. 58. 

The Franklin Junta, a sort of lyceum under the leadership of Benj. Frank- 
lin, was a conspicuous organization in Philadelphia in 1727. This was formed 
for mutual improvement under rules which required that each member should 
present one or more queries on any point in morals, politics, or natural 
philosophy. The questions raised were to be discussed by the members or 
company and once in three months each one was to produce an essay of his 
own composition — an inflexible rule it is assumed — on any subject he pleased 
to select. Franklin asserted that this organization was the best school of 
"philosophy, morality, and politics" in the province. It should be said that 
the membership was not limited to any one class. On the contrary, it in- 
cluded mechanics along with a copyist of deeds, a self-taught mathematician, 
a surveyor, a young gentleman of fortune, and a merchant's clerk who later 
became a provincial judge. — Barnard's The American Journal of Education, 
Vol. Vm, p. 251. 



396 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sans a scientific education, and that the bounty of the State 
of Massachusetts ought to be devoted to the same purpose. 
An appropriation to begin such instruction was asked for, 
but it was the opinion that the popularity of the institution 
would insure future support. 

It is noteworthy that within the same year in which the 
organizations of the Liverpool and the London mechanics' 
institutions were completed (1823) a similar institution — 
The Gardiner Lyceum at Gardiner, Maine — was estab- 
lished. It sought ' ' to give to mechanics and farmers such a 
scientific education, as would enable them to become skilful 
in their occupations". The need of such instruction was 
evidenced by the actual observation of the difficulties con- 
fronting mechanics because of the lack of information in 
the elements of science. Instruction was begun in January, 
1823, and the courses of three years were adapted to all 
classes of persons who were engaged in productive labor in 
that community. Mathematics, drawing, chemistry, includ- 
ing agricultural chemistry, natural philosophy, political 
economy, mineralogy, natural history, natural theology, 
and history constituted the subject matter for the three 
years. 

Besides the regular classes, however, there were also 
short-session classes. For example, a class in surveying 
was admitted in September; one in civil architecture and 
one in agriculture were admitted in November; another in 
chemistry was organized in J anuary ; and still another, in 
navigation, began work in May. The class in agriculture 
which entered in November was instructed in agricultural 
chemistry, in anatomy and diseases of domestic animals, 
and those portions of natural history which were of peculiar 
interest to the agriculturist. These short-session classes 
pursued courses covering four months. This institution, 
therefore, was a lyceum, wherein recitations were regularly 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



397 



conducted; and the practical application of the lesson is 
shown in the fact that surveying and leveKng were taught 
in the field as well as in class rooms. Classes in chemistry 
performed experiments in a laboratory ; classes in mechan- 
ics calculated problems in the practice of the machinist and 
engineer; and all, it seems, acquired more than the abstract 
principles of science.* 

Eeferring to the prospect after the opening of the Boston 
Mechanics' Institution (1826) the editor of the American 
J ournal of Education declared that ' ' their benefits are per- 
haps more direct and substantial, and their sphere of use- 
fulness is necessarily much wider," than that "connected 
with any other department of scientific instruction. A 
fresh interest and variety will at the same time be com- 
municated to the general subject of education, by the intelli- 
gence drawn from this wide field of popular and general 
improvement. ' ' 

At the opening of the Boston Institute, George B. Emer- 
son delivered a long address in which he set forth the ad- 
vantages to be derived from the uniting of study with the 
daily occupation. A summary from that address may be 
suggestive. No one, he said, could for a moment doubt that 
if a mechanic were informed relative to the principles of 
mechanical power, and the laws which explained the gen- 
eral nature of the great powers and bodies of the universe 
as revealed in natural philosophy, or the properties of all 
substances with which the art and science of man are con- 
nected, as shown in chemistry, he would be greatly helped 
by the acquisition. There were persons, it appears, who 
believed that the possession of knowledge and the exercise 
of the understanding operated to defeat the best use of the 
physical powers. That is to say, that "vigor of mind and 
mechanical skill are inconsistent with each other." The 

* American Journal of Eohication (1827), Vol. II, pp. 148, 216. 



398 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



lecturer went on to show the great inventions which had 
come from the fact that there were thinking mechanics. 
Great inventors were named to demonstrate the possibili- 
ties which might be created in the organization of such 
institutions as the mechanics of Boston were then dedi- 
cating. It was shown, also, that the people of England and 
Scotland produced more than three times as much as an 
equal number of workmen on the continent, the difference 
being due to intelligent operation. 

The Mechanics' Institution did not purpose to educate 
philosophers but intelligent and skilful mechanics; and 
there was much information that could be acquired, how- 
ever advanced in life one might be, without any preparatory- 
knowledge of any other science. There were few who would 
not be benefited by the lectures to be provided, for they 
would not be wholly confined to subjects of interest to me- 
chanics. It was obvious that the entire community would be 
the gainer through the uplift of the individuals. In a mate- 
rial sense walls would be better constructed because of the 
experiments to test their strength; and lumber would be 
more durable, because trees would be felled at the right 
time. By making such knowledge familiar to working 
masons, carpenters, and joiners some of the annoying 
things of life would be removed. At that time, the speaker 
asserted, such information was "buried in books, or in the 
memories of studious men, who have no means of bringing 
it to its right destination." Indeed, "by an absurdity of 
misapplication" it had been theretofore given to those who 
least needed it. It was designed to open such sources to the 
mechanic. Up to that time, it seems, the principles of sci- 
ence had been accessible only to such as were preparing for 
the so-called liberal professions. The poor and the em- 
ployed had been almost, if not wholly, deprived of such 
advantages. The mechanics' institutions offered to all the 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



399 



uninformed who chose to accept the opportunity to become 
familiar with the facts connected with their daily lives and 
occupations.^ 

In 1839 Horace Mann called attention to the fact that a 
class of institutions known as lyceums or mechanics' in- 
stitutes had recently come into prominence in Massachu- 
setts. Before some of these organizations annual courses 
of popular lectures on literary or scientific subjects were 
given, Others maintained libraries or reading rooms, and 
in some instances the two were combined. Although the 
purpose which controlled public libraries, namely, the dif- 
fusion of knowledge and instruction, governed them as well, 
they were, nevertheless, greatly inferior to the general 
library in point of efficiency. The patronage of young peo- 
ple, however, led Mr. Mann to conclude that these popular 
movements constituted an important agency in interesting 
the youth of the State in instruction. Furthermore, such 
agencies could not in any instance be omitted in enmner- 
ating the opportunities for intellectual advancement. At 
that time — in 1839 — there were eight mechanics' insti- 
tutes and more than 130 lyceums in Massachusetts, and 
about 35,000 persons were in regular attendance. To be 
sure, there were, besides, numerous private clubs or associ- 
ations for literary purposes. 

The lecturer in the institutions mentioned sought, it was 
observed, to instruct or amuse persons of maturity, and 
seldom treated of the elementary phases of his subject. He 
assumed that his audiences were fully acquainted with the 
essentials of the subject, and the details, therefore, were 
usually the content of the discourse. Occasionally, how- 
ever, lectures were serious, didactic presentations of im- 
portant outlines in philosophy or morals. Some people 
attended these courses **in the true spirit of philosophical 

American Journal of Education (1827), Vol. 11, pp. 273-278, 
VOL. xrx — 26 



400 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



inquiry ; others resort to tliem as places of amusement for a 
leisure hour ; some attend them in order to dignify a life of 
idleness with a seeming mental occupation, and others again 
attend them as they would attend a theatre, or other assem- 
bly, where the supposed refinements of the company, and 
not the instructiveness of the occasion, constitutes the at- 
traction. ' ' 

These institutions were not designed, therefore, for the 
improvement of the juvenile portion of the community. 
Such lectures could not be substituted for books even for 
youth, much less for children. Moreover, the honest seeker 
after knowledge would be forced to do much collateral read- 
ing in order to make any progress. Indeed, intelligent men 
had often considered the popular lecture as a superficial 
method of obtaining information, inasmuch as a few ideas 
might be construed as a ''system of truth". Horace Mann, 
however, believed that this attitude was somewhat extreme, 
because outside of one's daily occupation a person must be 
content with general notions. A passing acquaintance only 
with many subjects and an intimate knowledge of a few was 
the only reasonable view to be accepted. Only when knowl- 
edge was associated with one's vocation were superficial 
notions dangerous. It would be a mistake to refuse enlight- 
enment to the great body of citizens because they could not 
become proficient in all science. Among the greatest advan- 
tages of such movements Horace Mann mentioned the social 
side. People of different opinions were brought together; 
better topics of conversation were provided, and thereby a 
great variety of gossip or almost slanderous fault-finding 
in the community was shut out. Well-informed persons 
asserted* that "in the city of Boston, the general topics of 

8 The Connecticut Common School Journal, Vol. II, pp. 175, 177. 
In 1827 the "controllers of the Public School" of Philadelphia said that 
the new modes of employment might materially affect the character and condi- 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 401 

conversation, and the mode of treating tliem, have been 
decidedly improved since what may be called the reign of 
Popular Lectures." 

MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS IN IOWA 

The first of such institutions to be organized and incor- 
porated in Iowa was the Mechanics ' Mutual Aid Association 
at Iowa City, which was formed in 1841 and chartered dur- 
ing the legislative session of 1841-1842. At its inception it 
seems to have had but one purpose, the relief or mutual 
assistance of those who had allied themselves together for 

tion of the individuals who engage in them. Children engaged in manufac- 
tories should not only be protected but they should also be instructed in 
morals and in those literary subjects of which they were deprived when with- 
drawn from the public schools. Legislation should provide for this protection. 
At a period (1827) when public attention appeared to be drawn to the subject 
of "national economy" and efforts were being made to "accomplish great 
purposes in regard to national policy and industry" it was deemed proper to 
submit such a question for consideration. The suggestions seemed especially 
applicable to that community (Philadelphia). At the same time editorial 
comment on the general situation declared that there were probably many 
manufactories even in New England (in 1827) "at which no express arrange- 
ment is made either for the education of the juvenile part of those who are 
employed in them, or for the improvement of adults. ' ' Legislation might not 
be effective but nevertheless "some measures should be speedily adopted to 
secure the instruction of children placed at such establishments ' '. 

Within the same year (1827) the first steps were taken to establish an agri- 
cultural institute in Pennsylvania. It was designed after the institute of 
FeUenberg, near Berne, Switzerland, which had been visited by Anthony Morris 
for the purpose of adapting its principles to the institution in view. Although 
the various branches of a classical and scientific education would not be ex- 
eluded, particular attention by practical teachers would be given to those 
from the laboring and mechanical classes, in the country where, it was as- 
serted, no provision had yet been made to extend "all the facilities of educa- 
tion attainable in the city". Indeed, the object in view was the instruction in 
such subjects as were "peculiarly appropriate to rural life." — American 
Journal of Education (1827), Vol. II, pp. 622, 623, 699. 

In 1836 a law "for the better instruction of youth, employed in manufac- 
turing establishments" was passed in Massachusetts. In complying with this 
law the Boston Manufacturing Company, in 1839, erected at Waltham three 
well equipped buildings in which schools were maintained at an annual ex- 
pense of $7000, this sum being in addition to the regular taxes contributed for 
the public schools. 



402 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



that one end. But members of the organization "feeling a 
deep interest for the prosperity of this young and growing 
Commonwealth; and knowing also that a lack of the facil- 
ities for educating youth here, would materially retard the 
growth of the settlement; conceived the design of establish- 
ing an institution of Learning at the Capitol of the Terri- 
tory." The charter further declared its purposes and 
powers to be " to promote such measures as may tend to the 
advancement of the mechanical arts ; and also whatever may 
tend to the promotion of education, and the advancement of 
the arts and the sciences." 

In order to render substantial aid to the Association the 
Territorial legislature granted a site of one-fourth of a 
block out of the land reserved for school purposes in Iowa 
City on condition that within two years a building worth 
not less than one thousand dollars should be erected there- 
on. But the stipulated amount Avas easily raised for the 
subscriptions for the building and the ultimate outlay was 
about $4000. In April, 1842, subscriptions at twenty-five 
dollars a share for stock in the building were opened; and 
in so far as that part of the equipment was concerned it 
was a stock company.^ 

According to the provisions of the by-laws of the Associ- 
ation, in order to become a member one must possess a 
sound mind, be free from infirmity of body, of a good moral 
character, industrious in his habits, by occupation a me- 
chanic, and not under 21 nor over 50 years of age. To 

7 Miscellaneous manuscript records of the Mechanics ' Mutual Aid Associ- 
ation; Laws of Iowa, 1841-1842, pp. 4-6; prospectus (manuscript), among 
the records of the Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association, 1843; H. W. Lathrop 
in Iowa City Republican, March 31, 1897. See also the subscription list 
among the records of the Mechanics ' Mutual Aid Association. 

By the provisions of the act granting the lot to the Mechanics' Association 
a bond for the execution of the requirements was necessary. Three members 
— George T. Andrews, A. G. Adams, and Thomas Ricord — signed the bond of 
11000. A copy of the bond is preserved. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



403 



ascertain these facts an investigating committee was usually 
appointed and its findings were submitted in writing to the 
Association. But whether the report showed a favorable 
or unfavorable opinion of the committee, balloting for 
membership took place and if two-thirds of the members 
were favorable to the candidate he was declared elected.® 

At the laying of the corner stone of the academy building 
in June, 1842, Rev. John Libby, the orator of the day, set 
forth in an extended address the position of the mechanic 
among men, and described the independent life, and the 
peace of mind produced by honest labor. He showed that 
the opportunities of the mechanic depended on the improve- 
ment in his occupation which could be made by application 
to study or reading during a definite portion of the day. 
Besides he called attention to the remarkable discoveries 
and the great inventions which were due to thinking me- 
chanics; and one may believe that he had access to the 
address of George B. Emerson quoted earlier in this article. 
There was great promise, also, in supporting a school for 
the families of men engaged in such occupations. And 
lastly, the mutual protection of families in distress was 
among the most valuable features of the organization. 
Such was the character of the address that the Association 
later requested it entire for publication.* 

The records of the organization show an expense account of $13.88 from 
March, 1841, to October, 1842. The items were mainly for room rent at fifty 
cents a session. 

8 Constitution of the Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association, Art. VIII; by- 
laws of the Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association, Sees. 3, 4. 

9 Address of Rev. John Libby at the laying of the corner stone of the 
Mechanics' Academy. See also a letter of Rev. John Libby, dated December 
1, 1842. 

Although it has been shown that the comer stone contained nothing at the 
time of its removal, it was at one time decided by the trustees to enclose 
therein the names of the President of the United States, John Tyler; of the 
Secretary of State, Daniel Webster; of the Territorial officers of Iowa; the 



404 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



It is apparent that the ways and means to support a 
school of the type in view was causing some anxiety. This 
is evidenced by a petition to Congress through the Terri- 
torial delegate, Augustus C. Dodge, for thirty-six sec- 
tions of land to endow the institution. In his letter in reply 
to this petition Mr. Dodge said that while he doubted his 
ability to secure favorable action on the part of Congress, 
because the members from the older States considered the 
public lands as so much cash in the treasury, he would 
gladly present the petition and urge its consideration for 
so worthy a cause. In his communication, however, he 
called attention to the fact that two townships of land for a 
"Seminary of Learning" (the State University) had al- 
ready been given to this Territory.^" 

The opinions or wishes of the management are revealed 
also in other ways. Indeed, a stray scrap of paper shows 
that a resolution to authorize the trustees to dispose of the 
academy to any society they might think proper to direct it 
was offered at about the time it was finished, or ready for 
occupancy in June, 1843. Furthermore, in August of the 
same year the trustees appointed a committee to wait on a 
Mr. Gardner (probably S. B. Gardner), to learn what his 
terms would be for going east to raise money and books for 
the benefit of the academy; and likewise to learn when he 
would be ready to go. To be sure, there se^ems to be no 
available proof that this plan was carried out.^^ 

Sometime in the early history of the organization, prob- 

offieers of the Association; and the names of all members with their ages, 
occupations, and nativity. 

10 See petition for grant of land in aid of the Mechanics' Academy; also a 
letter of Augustus C. Dodge in reply to the petitioners, dated January 11, 
1843. 

11 See fragment of resolution among records of Mechanics' Mutual Aid 
Association; also minutes of the Board of Trustees of the Mechanics' Acad- 
emy, August 8, 1843. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



405 



ably in 1843, the following scheme for the care of orphans 
was proposed : a fund was to be created from one and one- 
half per cent of the tuition fees in the literary department, 
and from all donations which had been or which might be 
received for the benefit of the Association. For this accu- 
mulating orphan fund certificates of shares should be issued 
and these would be entitled to the same dividends (pro- 
vided there were any, of course), as shares held by mem- 
bers. Thereafter this dividend t,ogether with the one and 
one-half per cent of the tuition already mentioned should 
be put in charge of the trustees who would be held respon- 
sible for its safe investment. When the interest on this 
investment amounted to enough to pay the tuition of a 
pupil it should be used to put some orphan in the academy. 
If it should happen that there were no orphans among the 
members, then the most needy orphan in the community 
should have the benefit of the fund. The aid should not 
extend beyond the giving of a good English education if 
there were not enough funds to give the elementary subjects 
to all orphans of the members. If, however, the funds were 
sufficient to educate all orphans then the orphans of non- 
members should have the advantage of all the higher 
branches taught in the academy.^^ 

By May, 1843, the girls' department of the school was 
announced to begin operations in June. The cost of in- 
struction was to be laid upon the patrons at rates which 
varied according to the branches taught. For the common 
branches the charge under the by-laws first adopted was 
three dollars for a term of three months. English gram- 
mar and geography in addition to the common group 
increased the cost to four dollars a session; while mathe- 
matics, natural science, rhetoric, and logic raised it to five 

12 Manuscript resolution among the records of the Mechanics' Mutual Aid 
Association. 



406 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



dollars. Latin and French, with drawing and painting re- 
quired another dollar, and the customary fees for music 
were required of those who were so ambitious as to under- 
take the study of the piano. Such was the announcement 
which, as will be seen, probably covered a larger outlook 
than this institution was ever able to control. 

Among the documents relating to this institution there 
are two copies of by-laws. It is quite certain that the first 
draft was approved on May 13, 1843, while the second is 
described as "By-Laws for the first term" which suggests 
a revision before the opening of the school. The reduction 
in the original tuition rates is a noticeable feature ; and the 
curriculum was materially modified. For example, among 
the charges for instruction for each session the patron 
would pay fourteen dollars for the higher English 
branches usually taught in high schools including Natural 
Science, Geometry, Algebra, Plane and Spherical Trigo- 
nometry, Surveying and other branches usually in the same 
class." Greek was mentioned along with Latin and French 
among the subjects for which extra fees would be collected. 
As finally advertised, however, the advanced or "high 
school" group was not described, for the promoters seem 
to have been wise enough to let "classical school" cover all 
that might be taught above the common English branches. 

In order to insure sufficient support the trustees were 
required not only to advertise the school at least one month 
previous to the opening, but they were likewise instructed 
to procure subscriptions during each vacation for the next 
session. The Association seems to have hoped for some 
profit which would possibly come from the difference be- 
tween the cost of instruction and other expenses and the 
total amount of tuition collected. Nevertheless, the history 
of this institution like that of many others does not reveal 
any such income. On the contrary, there was always an 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



407 



uncertainty as to the kind of contract which might be made 
with persons competent to manage the instruction. 

According to the rules governing the school there were 
two sessions annually, the summer session commencing in 
April and ending on the last Saturday in August ; while the 
winter session began about the first of October and ended 
the last Saturday in February — March and September 
only being vacation months. Teachers were required to 
conduct classes five and a half days a week since Saturday 
afternoon was the only weekly intermission. The daily 
sessions were from nine until twelve, and from one until 
four o'clock in the winter, and from nine until twelve and 
from two until five o 'clock in the summer. 

It appears that considerable care was given to the em- 
ployment of teachers, and disappointment was expressed 
at the non-arrival of a teacher from Oberlin. A substitute, 
Mrs. George S. Hampton, the wife of a well-known citizen, 
was engaged to take the place in the girls ' department at a 
salary of one hundred dollars for five months, the greater 
part of the payment to be made in mechanical labor of the 
members of the Association. The money payment depend- 
ed entirely on the amount of tuition which could be col- 
lected. For the boys' department, Hugh Hamilton and 
William Hamilton were employed in 1843, and they pro- 
posed to teach the first session of 1844 for $300 and board 
themselves; or for $200 and board, the service being for 
five months. In this instance they would accept half cash 
and half in trade. On the same occasion Dr. William Eey- 
nolds proposed to take charge of the boys' department and 
to use therein the apparatus which he owned, for the net 
income from tuition. Again, the most of his compensation 
could be paid in the labor of the Association inasmuch as 
he wished to build an addition to his home. 

The supervision of instruction was to be maintained by 



408 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



the trustees through a visiting committee of three who were 
required to visit the school regularly during the last week 
of each month. According to their report in August, 1843, 
the school was in very good condition although some things 
were not conducted in a manner to please all the committee. 
It was observed, however, that "we cannot expect to get 
teachers that will be perfect in everything". At that time 
there were 42 boys and 63 girls in attendance ; the total in- 
come from tuition for the five months was estimated at 
$319.52 ; the salaries of teachers amounted to $247, leaving 
a balance of $72.52 to the credit of the Association. The 
trustees in October, 1843, urged each member to secure 
pupils for the academy. About that time, also, orders were 
issued to assess an extra charge of thirty-one cents a pupil 
for fuel during the winter session.^^ 

In the spring of 1844 the bids from teachers indicate a 
situation involving some competition. For example, one 
agreed to take charge of the girls' department and to pay 
the Association eighteen and three-fourths per cent of all 
collectible bills for tuition, for the use of the rooms in the 
academy. Again, two women teachers proposed to conduct 
the girls ' department for twenty-five per cent of the income 
provided the trustees advertised the school and collected 
the bills. At the same time Dr. Eeynolds renewed his offer 
to handle one room and to pay $60 a year for its use. Be- 
sides, the two Hamiltons, already mentioned, offered to 
take one room and to keep up the classical department for 
one year for all the income except ten per cent on collectible 
bills. The two women teachers and the two Hamiltons were 
employed on their own terms. 

In July, 1844, the academy rooms were leased, it appears, 
to W. K. Talbot for a period not to exceed two years. The 

13 By-laws of the Mechanics' Academy; report of the Trustees of the Me- 
chanics' Academy, August 23, September 13, and October, 1843. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



409 



trustees provided, however, that he should agree to main- 
tain a school to instruct in the common English branches 

together with the branches that are taught preparatory 
to a Collegiate course." A further provision that "notjti- 
ing like sectarianism to be taught and that the society 
receive at the rate of 10 per cent on the tuition reserving 
the right of holding the meetings of the society in some 
room suitable for that purpose" was made a part of the 
record. Whether the association wanted a collegiate prep- 
aration for the children of the families constituting its 
membership, or whether this feature was made prominent 
to attract patronage is a matter of some interest, although- 
it may not be determinable. 

There were some very definite rules which the associa- 
tion adopted for the government of the school. For exam- 
ple, any pupil in the higher department who showed any 
disrespect for his or her teacher, or who might be guilty of 
any improper conduct *' shall be reprimanded before the 
whole school by the principal". Persistence in insubordi- 
nation would lead to a reprimand and possibly to expulsion 
by the trustees who would forthwith inform the parent of 
the reasons for such action. Again, each pupil on entering 
should be required to select and retain a seat with * ' refer- 
ence to class and studies" and under no conditions except 
a change of classification should the seat be permanently 
changed. There were other regulations governing teachers 
whereby they were required to keep a classified record 
showing names, residence, time of instruction, and subjects 
pursued by each pupil. They were especially cautioned to 
see that each pupil of the proper age studied "composi- 
tion, to produce one semi-monthly at farthest, and if prac- 
ticable weekly"; and boys were to be exercised in 
declamation" in addition to the composition. 

Thoroughness was not only desired but it was also em- 



410 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



phasized in the regulation that teachers should require 
scholars "to thoroughly understand the progress to every 
result obtained and to completely master the ground passed 
over." A merit roll should show a weekly record of each 
pupil as to demeanor and scholarship" and this should 
always be **open for the inspection of visitors" and be 
exhibited to the friends and patrons at examinations. 

Signs of disruption appear in reports submitted in Janu- 
ary, 1845. According to the opinion of the building com- 
mittee the Association was nearly out of debt, and the 
completed structure belonging to the organization was 
valued at about $3700. But while this investment was be- 
ing cared for other expenses were incurred through the 
benevolent features of the Association. The attendance 
upon sick members and the expenditures of benefits to 
which they were entitled were the functions of committees 
which seem to have acted judiciously. Nevertheless, an 
extended disaffection of the membership showed a breaking 
up of the Association and neglect, of its obligations. Some 
were dissatisfied, some refused to attend meetings, and 
dues in very many instances were unpaid. The Association 
considered itself solvent, however, if those in arrears would 
pay their dues. It may be assumed that all these dues were 
never collected for among the last items is that of the 
auditing committee, early in 1846, which showed 871/2 cents 
collected during the year and expenses for the quarter end- 
ing J anuary 7, 1845, as follows : candles 37l^ cents, paper 
121/^ cents, and matches 6i/4 cents, a total 56i4 cents." 

For some years after the project was given up by the 
Mechanics ' Association the Academy building was used by 
private teachers. In 1853, however, when the city was in- 
corporated, the public school was housed in this building. 

1* Minutes of Trustees, March 12 and 13, 1844; reports, 1845 and 1846; 
by-laws of the Mechanics' Academy for the first term. 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



411 



In 1854 the Trustees of the State University leased the 
Academy and the State school retained it under a lease 
until 1866, when by exchange of properties with the owner 
of the Academy it came into possession of the State. The 
first session of a University class was held in the building- 
erected by the mechanics of Iowa City ; and later it served 
as a dormitory when, owing to the pranks played there, it 
was nicknamed the "Old Sin Trap". It was the first hos- 
pital building in connection with the medical college and it 
gave way only for the first wing of the ]3resent University 
hospital, the corner stone of which is the same as that laid 
fifty-five years before for the Mechanics' Academy. More- 
over, a tablet bearing the inscription: "Mechanics' Acad- 
emy, founded June 14, 1842" is set into the walls of the 
hospital building.^ ^ 

Besides the Mechanics' Mutual Aid Association at Iowa 
City there were several other institutions of similar char- 
acter in the State. The Mechanics' Institute at Dubuque 
was incorporated for the purpose of erecting a building 
and providing a library for members, each one being held 
responsible for the performance of contracts which might 
be made. The Davenport Institute, likewise, was granted 
the power usually given to institutions for "literary and 
scientific purposes". The object of the Muscatine Lyceum 
was the "establishment of a library and scientific appa- 
ratus, the cultivation of the arts and sciences and the 
diffusion of useful knowledge". This lyceum had been in 
existence for some time prior to its incorporation. The 
Mount Pleasant Lyceum, incorporated in 1844, had prac- 
tically the same powers as that at Muscatine, a library and 
scientific apparatus being the conspicuous features in the 
proposed equipment. Again, there was the Washington 

isAurner's Leading Events in Johnson County Iov:a History, Vol. I, pp. 
1.52, 249-251. 



412 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Lyceum in Jackson County established for the encourage- 
ment of "science and literature, the promotion of educa- 
tion, the advancement of knowledge, and the development 
of worth in the sciences".^*' 

Perhaps the institution in Iowa corresponding in pur- 
poses most nearly to the original mechanics' organizations 
was the Burlington Mechanics' Institute which was incor- 
porated in 1844. Its objects as set forth in the law were as 
follows: "to improve the members thereof in literature, 
the sciences, arts and morals; for the establishment of a 
library, reading room, cabinets of geological, mineralogical, 
botanical, and other specimens; to endow and support a 
school for the education of the children of indigent mechan- 
ics and others, and to advance the social, intellectual and 
moral condition, of its members generally." 

Another institution, the Grandview Literary and Philo- 
sophical Society of Louisa County, was distinguished by 
the powers given the executive committee. Unlike the law 
relating to any other similar institution, the act in this case 
authorized an assessment of not to exceed five dollars upon 
each member, for the purchase of "books, maps, charts and 
philosophical apparatus, for the use of the society". 
Furthermore, an assessment for support might be included. 
There were other incorporated lyceums and institutes in 
Iowa, but only the eight just described seem to have had 
purposes corresponding to the organizations in New Eng- 
land, and in Old England and Scotland.^' 

REASONS FOR DECLINE 

The transmitting of information through conversation, 
address, or lecture was a natural method which had its 

Inlaws of Iowa, 1841-1842, pp. 9, 106, 1842-1843, pp. 89-91, 1843-1844, 
pp. 127, 128, 130, 131. 

17 Laws of Iowa, 1843-1S44, pp. 72, 95, 96. 



1 



MECHANICS' INSTITUTIONS 



413 



origin in remote times. It was adopted by the first organ- 
izations which were inaugurated for the mutual benefit of 
their members. Manuscripts were rare and expensive and 
the masses were ready to listen to such leaders as were 
qualified to speak fluently and with some authority. In 
time, however, printing, a cheap press, and a knowledge of 
reading altered this situation. People were soon enabled 
to obtain the sources from which most of the lecturers and 
instructors derived their information. If the lecturer, 
therefore, distributed second-hand discoveries he must be 
very able indeed to make it worth while to listen to him, 
for it is said that "Ejecting a certain quantity of known 
matter in the face of an audience is not education". 

To be sure, this conclusion did not imply that lectures 
had no longer a place in the general plan of distributing 
information; but they were not nearly so effective as a 
well-organized school system, which was rapidly becoming 
a recognized necessity. The artisans, it seems, who were 
identified with the mechanics' institutions soon discovered 
that they were gaining but little from the lectures offered. 
Members began to abandon the courses and a mixed con- 
stituency of artisans, shop-keepers, and clerks remained 
to support the lecturers. This mixture produced a variety 
in the demand, and the continuity of the work was de- 
stroyed. Indeed, the lecturers themselves have been de- 
scribed as an ''assemblage of professors, conjurers, ven- 
triloquists, and musicians ' ' — a description which seems to 
correspond very closely to a modern chautauqua. 

Clabence Ray Aubnee 

The State Historical Society op Iowa 
Iowa City Iowa 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE OF THE UNITED 
STATES 1860-18901 



II 

The principal transportation routes connecting the sur- 
plus grain States of the North Central region with the 
consuming States of the East and South before the Civil 
War were the two interior waterways of the country: the 
Mississippi River with its navigable tributaries to New 
Orleans; and the Great Lakes with their eastern connec- 
tions, the Erie Canal and the Hudson River to New York 
City and the Welland Canal and the St. Lawrence River to 
Montreal. These two great waterways were the most im- 
portant highways of inland commerce for the transporta- 
tion of western grain and flour to the Atlantic and Gulf 
seaboards; although the extension of railroads into the 
Middle West during the decade of the fifties introduced a 
new agency which was destined after 1860 to revolutionize 
the whole course and conditions of the internal grain trade 
of the United States. It is, therefore, this aspect of the 
problem that will next be considered.^ 

1 The first article on the internal grain trade of the United States during 
the period from 1860 to 1890 appeared in The Iowa Joubnal of History and 
Politics, Vol. XIX, pp. 196-245. It was originally planned to complete the 
study in two installments but it has been found advisable to divide the series 
into three parts, this being the second. The third and concluding article of 
this series will appear in a subsequent number of the Journal. For a brief 
study of the internal grain trade of the United States before the Civil War, 
see Schmidt's The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1850-1860, in 
The Iowa Journal op History and Politics, Vol. XVIII, pp. 94-124. 

2 For a brief historical survey of internal trade and transportation in the 
United States during the period from 1860 to the end of the century, see 
Ripley's Eailroads: Bates and Begulation, Ch. I; Johnson's History of Do- 



414 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 415 



PEmcrPAL TEANSPOETATION EOUTES CONNECTING THE MIDDLE 
WEST WITH THE ATLANTIC AND GULP SEABOAEDS 

The Mississippi Eiver traffic constitutes an interesting 
and picturesque chapter in western commercial history. 
Before the Civil War, steamboats laden with grain formed a 
steady procession down the river. The profits of one trip 
often paid half the cost of a new boat and enormous for- 
tunes were amassed in a single season. The blockade of 
the river by the Confederacy during the early period of the 
war suddenly interrupted this traffic. '*The river became 
the center of war, not of commerce, and the boats that 
sailed upon it were men-of-war and gun-boats, instead of 
peaceful steamers and barges".^ After the war the river 
traffic was rapidly revived by the introduction of more eco- 
nomical carriers — the grain barges. These barges were 
huge wooden vessels, towed along by the steamboats, and 
although the weight of the vessels necessarily slackened the 
speed of the packets, they saved considerable time in the 
loading and unloading of grain. Soon many barges were 
attached to one steamboat, so that a string of barges would 
carry as much as 60,000 bushels of grain. During the seven- 
ties small but powerful craft were substituted for the ex- 
pensive steamboats, and it became customary for one fleet 
of barges to transport 100,000 bushels of grain at a time. 

mestic and Foreign Commerce of the United States, Vol. I, Ch. XVI; and 
Sparks's National Development {The American Nation Series, Vol. XXIII), 
Ch. XVII. See also Tunell's Lalce Commerce in House Miscellaneous Docu- 
ments, 55th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. LI, Doc. No. 277, and Tunell's The 
Diversion of the Flour and Grain Traffic from the Great Lakes to the Railroads 
in The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. V, June, 1897, pp. 340-375. The 
attention of the reader is also called to The Grain Trade of the United States 
in the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States 
(Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 1957-2075. 
This is a statistical study of the grain trade of the United States including 
tables on the world's wheat supply and trade. 

3 Annu^ Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1887, 
p. 223. 

VOL. xrx — 27 



416 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The introduction of the barge tow-boat system revolution- 
ized the river traffic which for a time gave promise of turn- 
ing the tide of western trade — hitherto diverted in ever 
increasing volume to the eastward — back towards the Grulf 
of Mexico. This statement is supported by contemporary 
discussions of the advantages of the barge system in the 
transportation of western grain and of the probable effect 
of this system on the movement of grain from the surplus 
cereal producing regions to the seaboard.* 

The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review for 
September, 1868, in an editorial on The Barge System on 
the Western Rivers presented the following typical review 
of the period : 

The inadequacy of the present means of outlet for Western 
produce to the seaboard, other than the channel of the Mississippi, 
is universally acknowledged. For the sake of cheapness, vast quan- 
tities of produce must take the river and gulf route, or not go to 
market at all. Notwithstanding the objections which exist, and are 
universally entertained, to that route, its trade is rapidly increasing 
from the very necessity of the case. Within the last three years it 
has received so great an impetus, that improvements in the facilities 
for transferring produce from vessel to vessel, and for towing it 
upon the water, have become indispensable. The barge system has 
accordingly been substituted for the old one of placing the produce 
on large steamboats. Steam tugs of immense strength are em- 
ployed. They carry no freight. They are simply the motive power. 
They save delay by taking fuel for the round trip. Landing only 
at the large cities, they stop barely long enough to attach a loaded 
barge. By this economy of time and steady movement, they equal 
the speed of steamboats. The Mohawk made its first trip from St. 
Louis to New Orleans in six days, with ten barges in tow. The 
management of the barges is precisely like that of freight cars. The 
barges are loaded in the absence of the steam tug. The tug arrives, 
leaves a train of barges, takes another and proceeds. The tug itself 

*Merk's Economic History of Wisconsin during the Civil War Decade, p. 
351. This is Volume I of the Studies published by the State Historical Soci- 
ety of Wisconsin. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 417 



is always at work. It does not lie at the levees while the barges are 
unloading. Its largest stoppage is made for fuel. The power of 
these boats is enormous. The tugs plying on the Minnesota River 
sometimes tow 30,000 bushels of wheat apiece. The freight of a 
single trip would fill 85 railroad ears. Steamboats are obliged to 
remain in port two or three days for the shipment of freight. The 
heavy expense which this delay and the necessity of large crews 
involve, is a grave objection to the old system of transportation. 
The service of the steam tug requires but few men, and the cost of 
running is relatively low. . . . 

The Mississippi Valley Transportation Company has 5 tow-boats 
and 37 barges. They are crowded with business. They handle as 
much as 11,000 tons of freight in a week. The business is rapidly 
and largely developing. The barge system will soon supersede all 
other methods of transportation on western waters. An indispen- 
sable adjunct of it is the steam elevator for transferring grain from 
vessel to vessel in bulk. The St. Louis elevator cost $450,000 and 
has a capacity of 1,250,000 bushels. It is able to handle 100,000 
bushels a day. It began to receive grain in October 1865. Before 
the 1st of January, 1866, its receipts amounted to 600,000 bushels, 
200,000 of which were brought directly from Chicago. The local 
receipts at the elevator in 1866 were 1,376,700 bushels. Grain can 
now be shipped by way of St. Louis and New Orleans to New York 
and Europe 20 cents a bushel cheaper than it can be carried to the 
Atlantic by the other existing routes.^ 

The Annual Report of the New York Produce Exchange 
for 1872-1873 further recognized and emphasized the possi- 
bilities of the barge system in the transportation of western 
grain in the following terms : 

It is claimed by the city of New Orleans that the Mississippi river 
is the great natural water highway for the products of the West and 
Northwest to seaboard and foreign markets. This claim is also 
sustained by St. Louis and other cities on that river. To regain the 
trade of the Northwest lost to that route during the war, New 
Orleans is cooperating with St. Louis to turn the tide of "Western 

^ The Merchants' Magazine and Commercial Review, Vol. LIX, September, 
1868, pp. 172-174. 



418 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



trade back again towards the Gulf of Mexico. In the furtherance 
of this object, grain elevators have been erected at St. Louis and 
New Orleans for handling grain in bulk, which has for a long 
period heretofore been altogether in sacks, and is in part handled in 
sacks at the present time. The system of barge transportation has 
also come into practical use on that river. . . . 

These barges have unmistakable advantages over steamboats. In 
ease of fire they can be cut adrift from each other, and the fire con- 
fined to the narrowest limits. Their greater safety secures a lower 
rate of insurance. The barges are strong and staunchily built, and 
have water-tight compartments for the carriage of bulk grain. The 
transportation of grain from St. Paul to New Orleans by the barges, 
two thousand miles, costs no more than the freightage by rail from 
that place to Chicago or Milwaukee. Grain at St. Paul placed on 
board of barges, is not handled again till it reaches New Orleans, 
when it will be transferred by steam to the vessel which is to con- 
vey it to New York or Europe. 

This .... new method of transportation, bids fair to 
revolutionize the carrying trade on the Western rivers. It will 
greatly diminish the cost, and will have a tendency to largely 
augment the commerce of the Mississippi river, by its probable re- 
duction in the cost of transportation. It is claimed that this im- 
provement will turn the tide of the trade of the North Western 
States to New Orleans and the Gulf of Mexico. A part of the plan 
includes the construction of iron barges, which will give greater 
carrying capacity, and in fresh water, if kept well painted, will 
last for a century.'^ 

Companies were formed to carry on an organized compe- 
tition with the railroads, the ultimate outcome of which, 
however, was the triumph of the railroads. The packets 
soon carried the grain only to the railway terminals instead 
of the entire distance to New Orleans — a practice which 
had been inaugurated by the blockade of the Mississippi 
during the war. Finally, in the seventies, even the local 
trade of the boats was won by their rivals ; while the barges 

« Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1872-1873, pp. 250- 
252. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 419 



and their service to the grain trade declined. Although the 
river continued to exert an indirect influence on this trade 
by acting as a threatening regulator of rates, its disadvan- 
tages, among which may be mentioned the uncertainty of 
river navigation during the summer months, the speedy and 
safe transportation afforded by the eastern railroads, and 
the superiority of New York as an exporting and importing 
center, were too fundamental to enable it to withstand the 
comparative advantages of the railroadsJ 

The Great Lakes constituted a natural inland water 
route for the transportation of western grain and flour from 
the upper to the lower lake ports. The lake marine con- 
sisted of sailing and steam-driven vessels. The sailing ves- 
sels included schooners and other common types classified 
according to their rigging, as barks, brigs, or sloops. They 
were used in the transportation of exceptionally bulky 
freight such as lumber, corn, wheat, ore, and salt. By the 
close of the century, these vessels had disappeared almost 
entirely from the lakes, being superseded by steam-driven 
vessels which meanwhile had made their rapid entry and 
soon dominated the lake traffic. The steam-driven vessels 
included three distinct types: tugs, side-wheel steamers, 
and propellers. Tugs were employed, as they are at the 
present time, chiefly for canal and harbor traffic. The side- 
wheel steamers were the passenger carriers of the Great 
Lakes, though like the Mississippi Eiver steamboats, they 
also carried freight, particularly wheat, flour, and mer- 
chandise. Propellers gradually took the place of the side- 
wheel steamers in the development of the lake marine. They 
were built primarily for the transportation of freight. A 
specialized form of propeller was the steam barge which 

^ For a review of the Mississippi Eiver trade and shipping during this 
period, see the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 
18S7, pp. 223-300, 1891, pp. xlv-lxi, and Appendix No. 2. , . i 



420 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



was used exclusively for freight traffic. Significant also in 
the growth of the lake marine was the rapid increase in the 
number and carrying capacity of these vessels. In 1856, 
the largest vessel afloat on the G-reat Lakes had a grain 
capacity of not to exceed 33,000 bushels. In 1873, steam 
barges frequently left Chicago and Milwaukee with from 
55,000 to 60,000 bushels of wheat in their holds and like 
amounts in the holds of one or two tows.® The introduction 
of the iron steam vessel on the lakes in the sixties and sev- 
enties and the rapid increase in the number of these vessels 
in the eighties to supplement the earlier or wooden type was 
accompanied by an increase in carrying capacity, some idea 
of which may be gained from the fact that the iron steam 
propeller, the E. C. Pope, in 1891 transported from Chicago 
to Buffalo 125,990 bushels of corn — the largest cargo of 
grain that had been carried on the lakes up to this time.' 
The movement of grain on the lakes, as shown by the re- 
ceipts of the various lake ports, amounted in 1890 to 
26,930,000 bushels of wheat, 922,000 barrels of flour, 59,- 
858,000 bushels of corn, 18,873,000 bushels of oats, and 
5,775,000 bushels of barley." Finally, it should be men- 
tioned that many of the leading lines of steamers which 
composed a considerable portion of the Great Lakes fleet 
were operated in connection with leading railroad lines. 
These railroads had extensive wharves and warehouses at 
many of the prominent lake ports. In this manner were 

8 Merk 's Economic History of Wisconsin during the Civil War Decade, pp. 
374-378. This is VoL I of the Studies published by the State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin. 

^Annual Beport of the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1891, 
p. xviii. 

Annual Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United States), 1891, 
p. xsvi. 

11 For a review of the commerce and shipping of the Great Lakes during 
this period, see Tunell's Lalce Commerce in House Miscellaneous Documents, 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 421 



combined the advantages of cheap transportation, rapid 
transit, and ready movement of large volumes of freight. 

Buffalo was the leading terminus for the western grain 
and flour shipped eastward via the lake route for the east- 
ern markets. At this point there was the choice of three 
routes to the seaboard: (1) the Erie Canal and the Hudson 
Eiver to New York City; (2) the Welland Canal and the 
St. Lawrence to Montreal; and (3) the New York Central 
Railroad to New York and Boston and the Erie Railroad to 
New York. The average lake and canal rates were always 
from three to five cents a bushel cheaper than the average 
lake and rail rates.^^ 

Other canals tributary to the Great Lakes commercial 
highway which should be mentioned were the Ohio and Erie 
Canal from Portsmouth on the Ohio River to Cleveland on 
Lake Erie; the Wabash and Erie Canal connecting the 
Wabash River with Toledo on Lake Erie; the Miami and 
Erie Canal from Cincinnati to the Wabash and Erie Canal ; 
the Illinois and Michigan Canal from the Illinois River to 
Chicago on Lake Michigan; and the Wisconsin and Fox 
Rivers Improvement from the Mississippi River to Green 
Bay, Wisconsin, on Lake Michigan.^* 

In 1860 there were 30,635 miles of railroads in the United 
States. This mileage was distributed about equally among 
the three great sections of the Union : the East, the South, 

55th Congress, 2nd Session, Vol. LI, Doc. No. 277. See also Annual Report 
on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1891, pp. v-xlv and Appendix 
No. 1. See also map showing freight traffic on the Great Lakes for the year 
1890. 

12 See the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 
1891, p. xxvi. 

^3 Annual Beport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, p. 72. 

1* For map showing canals and canalized rivers in the United States, see 
Meyer's History of Transportation in the United States before 1860, Plate 2, 
opposite page 654. 



422 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and the Middle West. The rate of construction progressed 
slowly during the war period, declining from 1837 miles in 
1860 to 651 miles in 1861, then fluctuating until 1865 when 
railroad expansion was well under way again. The Burling- 
ton Bailroad expanded from 168 miles in 1861 to over 400 
miles in 1865. The Chicago and Northwestern bridged the 
Mississippi River in 1865. In 1869 the first transcontinental 
railroad, the Union Pacific, was completed. This was fol- 
lowed by the Southern Pacific in 1881, the Northern Pacific 
in 1884, and the Great Northern in 1893. Railway construc- 
tion throughout the country was hastened at such a rapid 
rate that it was practically doubled every ten years, amount- 
ing in 1870 to 52,914 miles and in 1880 to 93,671 miles, and 
in 1890 to 166,706.^^ During this period the great trunk 
line railroads of to-day were formed, and the fast-freight" 
lines were organized to handle the through freight business. 
They carried grain over the trunk line railroads in their 
own cars, marked by a distinctive color or emblem to desig- 
nate the owning company. Sometimes one company would 
also own ships, docks, and elevators.^ ^ 

The principal trunk line railroads connecting the North 
Central States with the Atlantic seaboard were: (1) the 
Canadian Grand Trunk; (2) the New York Central; (3) the 
Erie; (4) the Pennsylvania; (5) the Baltimore and Ohio; 

16 statistical Abstract of the United States, 1893, pp. 272, 273; Eiplej's 
Bailroads: Bates and Regulation-, pp. 16, 28; Fite's Social and Industrial 
Conditions in the North during the Civil War, p. 68, note 2. 

18 The Empire Transportation Company in 1876 owned 4500 cars and had 
contracts with 5793 miles of railroad for furnishing cars and engaging in the 
transportation of freight. Arrangements were also made by which the cars 
of this company were allowed to run over 18,575 miles of roads with which 
they had no special contract. This company also owned and operated 18 
large steamers and sailing vessels on the lakes, plying between Erie, Pennsyl- 
vania, and western ports. In Erie it had two large grain elevators and exten- 
sive docks. In New York and Philadelphia it had ample accommodations for 
receiving and distributing freight. — See Aniiiutl Report on the Internal Cofti* 
merce of the United States, 1876, pp. 15-19, 




423 



424 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



and (6) the Chesapeake and Ohio. These roads with their 
connections formed the through lines between the primary 
markets of the Middle West and the Atlantic ports. By 
1876 the through lines which had been established from 
Chicago to the five leading Atlantic seaboard cities of Mon- 
treal, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Baltimore may 
be grouped as follows : (1) the All Rail Lines from Chicago 
to Atlantic Ports; and (2) the Water and Rail and the All 
Water Lines from Chicago to Atlantic Ports.^' 

The All Rail Lines from Chicago to Atlantic Ports. — 
The Michigan Central Railroad ran from Chicago to De- 
troit Junction near Detroit, Michigan, connected at that 
point with the Grand Trunk Railway of Canada, crossed the 
Detroit River by ferry at Port Huron, thence to Montreal 
and Portland by an unbroken line. This line also connected 
at Prescott, Canada, and Ogdensburg, New York, with the 
Vermont Central Railroad for all points in New England 
west of Maine. It had an independent connection to Buf- 
falo, New York, connecting there with the New York Cen- 
tral, the Erie and Buffalo, and the New York and Phila- 
delphia lines. The Grand Trunk line, although running its 
cars from Chicago over the Michigan Central Railroad, 
managed its business largely as an independent line, and to 
some extent made its own rates to all Canadian and New 
England points. It did not make much effort to secure 
New York or Philadelphia business; but it did some New 
York business via the New England roads and Ogdensburg. 

The Michigan Central Railroad crossed the river at De- 
troit and connected there with the Great Western Railway 
of Canada for Suspension Bridge, connecting there with 

1^ See the aeeompanying map showing the principal transportation routes 
east of the Mississippi Eiver in 1886. This is a reproduction of the map 
accompanying the Anntuil Eeport on the Internal Commerce of the United 
States for the year 1886. The steamship lines have been omitted. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 425 



the New York Central for New England points and New 
York and with the Erie Eailroad for New York and Phila- 
delphia via the Lehigh Valley Railroad from Waverly. 
This line carried a large amount of western traffic to Boston 
and New England, and a considerable amount also for New 
York and Philadelphia. 

The Michigan Central Railroad extended to Detroit, 
thence via Amherstburg to the Canada Southern Railway 
and by this line to Buffalo, connecting there mainly with 
the New York Central, but incidentally also with the other 
lines centering at Buffalo. 

The Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railroad fur- 
nished transportation from Chicago to Buffalo and thence 
via the New York Central and its connections. This line 
was operated largely in the interest of the New York Cen- 
tral ; but it made through connections and through rates via 
other roads connecting with this line as follows : at Detroit, 
with the Grand Trunk line; at Cleveland, with the Cleve- 
land and Pittsburgh and other roads; at Erie, with the 
Philadelphia and Erie; and at Dunkirk and Buffalo with 
the Erie Railway. A special freight line was also operated 
between Chicago and New England points via the Hoosae 
Tunnel and the Fitchburgh Railroad, leaving the New York 
Central at Troy, New York. 

The Pittsburgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago Railroad ex- 
tended from Chicago to Pittsburgh and thence by way of 
the Pennsylvania Central to Philadelphia, New York, Balti- 
more, or Washington. 

The Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and St. Louis Railway con- 
nected Chicago with Columbus, Ohio, via Logansport, Indi- 
ana, and was continued thence to Pittsburgh, connecting 
there with the Pennsylvania Central Railroad. This line 
was a part of the Pennsylvania system to which the Pitts- 
burgh, Fort Wayne, and Chicago belonged; although the 



426 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



business of these two lines was handled separately. It car- 
ried a considerable amount of traffic to New York by way 
of the Erie and Pacific Dispatch fast-freight line over the 
Atlantic and Great Western and the Erie railroads. 

The Baltimore and Ohio Kailroad from Chicago to Balti- 
more and Washington connected at Baltimore with the 
Philadelphia, Wilmington, and Baltimore Eailroad for 
Philadelphia and thence to New York by the Pennsylvania 
Railroad. This road was the only line having a continuous 
and unbroken management between Chicago and the sea- 
board. It also had a more direct route to New York, oper- 
ated on the Erie and Chicago line, connecting at Shelby 
Junction, Ohio, with the Cleveland, Columbus, Cincinnati, 
and Indianapolis Railway, and thence via Cleveland and 
the Atlantic and Great Western Railway to Salamanca, 
connecting there with the Erie Railway for New York. 

The Water and Rail and the All Water Lines from Chi- 
cago to Atlantic Ports. — The Northern Transportation 
Company operated a steam propeller from Chicago to 
Ogdensburg, thence by the Vermont Railroad to all New 
England points, making through rates usually a little lower 
than the rates by all rail transportation to the same points. 

The Chicago, Sarnia, and Grand Trunk Line furnished 
steam propellers from Chicago to Port Sarnia, Canada, 
thence by the Grand Trunk Railway to all points in Canada 
and New England, and also via Buffalo to New York. This 
line also connected at Prescott and Ogdensburg with the 
Vermont Central and other New England roads and by the 
main line reached Portland direct. 

The Western Transportation Company operated steam 
propellers from Chicago to Buffalo, thence by the New 
York Central Railroad to New England via Albany, and to 
New York direct. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 



427 



The Union Steamboat Company ran steam propellers 
from Chicago to Buffalo, thence by the Erie Railway to New 
York, and via Waverly and the Lehigh Valley Eailroad to 
Philadelphia. 

The Anchor Line furnished steam propellers to Erie, 
Pennsylvania, thence by the Philadelphia and Erie and the 
Pennsylvania Central to Philadelphia, and to Baltimore via 
Harrisburg with some traffic for New York via Philadelphia. 

Sailing vessels and steam propellers frequently towed 
from one to three large barges from Chicago to all points on 
the lakes and to Montreal via the Welland Canal and the 
St. Lawrence Eiver. Connections were made at CoUing- 
wood, Goderich, and Port Sarnia, Canada, and at Erie, 
Pennsylvania, Buffalo and Ogdensburg, New York, with 
railway lines for all eastern points. In some cases through 
rates were made, but as a general rule freight rates were 
made only to the eastern terminus of the lake route. Ves- 
sels also connected at Buffalo and Oswego, New York, with 
the Erie Canal, and at Kingston, Canada, with lines of 
barges via the St. Lawrence River for Montreal, and thence 
by steamers and sailing vessels for Europe.^® 

The principal railroads from St. Louis to the East were : 
(1) the Chicago and Alton main line from St. Louis to 
Chicago; (2) the eastern division of the Wabash, St. Louis, 
and Pacific from St. Louis to Toledo; (3) the Indianapolis 
and St. Louis from St. Louis to Indianapolis; (4) the St. 
Louis, Vandalia, Terre Haute, and Indianapolis from St. 
Louis to Terre Haute; and (5) the Ohio and Mississippi 
from St. Louis to Cincinnati. These lines made connections 

18 This description of the principal transportation routes between Chicago 
and the five leading Atlantic ports is taken from the Annual Beport on the 
Internal Commerce of the United States, 1876, Appendix No. 4, pp. 83-85. 
See also maps 1 to 7 inclusive, showing the trunk line railroads and connec- 
tions between the Middle West and the Atlantic Coast. 



428 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



with all the great eastern roads to Boston, New York, Phila- 
delphia, and Baltimore.^^ 

The principal trunk line railroads connecting the North 
Central States with the Gulf ports were: (1) the St. Louis, 
Iron Mountain, and Southern Eailroad, with its connecting 
lines from St. Louis to Houston and Galveston; (2) the 
Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railroad, with its connecting 
lines from Hannibal and St. Louis to Dallas, Houston, and 
Galveston; (3) the Chicago, St. Louis, and New Orleans 
Eailroad from Cairo, Illinois, to New Orleans; (4) the Mo- 
bile and Ohio Railroad from Columbus, Kentucky, to Mo- 
bile; (5) the Louisville and Nashville Railroad from 
Louisville to Nashville, with its various branches and con- 
necting roads to Southern Atlantic and Gulf ports; and 
(6) the Cincinnati and Southern Railroad from Cincinnati 
to Chattanooga, making connections at that point by way of 
Atlanta with Charleston and Savannah and by way of Bir- 
mingham with New Orleans and Mobile.^*^ 

The rapid development of the trunk line railroads with 
their connecting lines which characterized the period from 
1860 to 1890 was accompanied by great improvements in 
rail transportation among which may be mentioned: (1) 
the reduction of grades and curves; (2) improved drainage 
and ballasting; (3) better bridges; (4) the introduction of 
steel rails; (5) the improvement of rolling stock; (6) the 
adoption of uniform gauges; (7) the consolidation of con- 
necting roads into through lines; (8) the construction of 
terminal facilities, including tracks, elevators, and ware- 
is Annual Seport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1876, 
Appendix No. 13, pp. 149, 152, 153. 

20 Anmial Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1876, p. 
13. See also maps 8 to 13 inclusive. The Cincinnati and Southern Railroad 
was completed in 1880. For a brief discussion of the construction and advan- 
tages of this road, see the Annwl Beport on the Internal Commerce of the 
United States, 1876, Appendix, pp. 123-126, 1880, pp. 91-96. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 429 



houses; and (9) scientific rate-making. These improve- 
ments, in addition to the advantages afforded by rapid 
transit and reduced risks, tended to accentuate the impor- 
tance of the railroads as the chief agencies for the transpor- 
tation of the surplus grain and flour from the primary- 
markets of the Middle West to the Atlantic and Grulf sea- 
ports.^^ With these fundamental considerations in mind, 
attention will now be given to the development of the pri- 
mary grain markets of the Middle West. 

THE PRIMARY GRAIN MARKETS OF THE MIDDLE WEST 

The history of the internal grain trade of the United 
States is centered largely in the great primary grain mar- 
kets of the Middle West. * ' The primary grain markets are 
those railway centers into which the grain of the surplus 
State is concentrated in the first stage of its movement 
after leaving the producer. "^^ In 1860 the principal pri- 
mary grain markets were Chicago, Milwaukee, Toledo, St. 
Louis, and Cincinnati. The westward movement of the 
center of cereal production and the rapid increase in the 
volume of production brought other cities into prominence 
as market centers for the distribution of western grain. 
Foremost among these cities were Minneapolis, Duluth- 
Superior, Kansas City, Peoria, and Detroit. By 1890 there 
were ten great primary grain markets which served as the 
concentrating and distributing centers for the great bulk of 
the surplus western grain and flour which were shipped to 
domestic markets in the East and South for home consump- 

zi Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Agriculture, pp. clxiv-clxix. 
This gives a summary of the influence of the railroads on the agricultural 
development of the Middle West. 

M Distribution of Farm Products, p. 45, in Beport of the Industrial Com- 
mission, Vol. VI. 

23 In 1880, the total eastern and southern shipments of grain and flour 
amounted to 400,000,000 bushels. Of this amount 320,000,000 or eighty per 



430 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tion and to the seaports for exportation to foreign coun- 
tries. 

Several factors of fundamental significance should be 
emphasized in a study of the development of the primary 
grain markets. These are: (1) the geographic location of 
these markets; (2) the relation of the railway system to 
the area of surplus production; and (3) the trunk-line rail- 
roads and water routes with their connections between the 
primary markets and the Atlantic and Gulf cities. 

Chicago, Milwaukee, Duluth-Superior, Toledo, and De- 
troit are located on the western heads of the Great Lakes. 
Cincinnati, St. Louis, Minneapolis, and Kansas City are lo- 
cated on the Ohio-Mississippi-Missouri River system. 
Peoria is the only city in the list not situated on one of the 
great interior waterways. The ten leading primary grain 
markets taken together are located on the circumference of 
an irregular circle enclosing the greatest cereal kingdom in 
the world. Inside this circle there are thousands of ship- 
ping points from which the grain is gathered into those 
centers of concentration and distribution. 

From each of these great centers into which the crop is 
first collected there radiates a fan-shaped network of rail- 
roads with the primary market at the apex or hinge of the 
fan. These railroads all reach out into three general direc- 
tions — westward, southward, and northward. The whole 
movement of grain from the farm to the primary market 
follows these general lines of concentration from the West, 
the North, and the South, within the area of the twelve 
surplus grain States which constitute the North Central 
region. 

cent was marketed at the seven primary grain centers of Chicago, Milwaukee, 
Duluth, St. Louis, Toledo, Detroit, and Peoria; while only 80,000,000 bushels 
or twenty per cent was shipped direct from the surplus grain States to the 
Atlantic and Gulf seaboards. — Annual Eeport on the Internal Commerce of 
the United States, 1880, p. 41. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 431 



These primary markets are the strategic points through 
which the distributive interests on the Atlantic Coast, on 
the Gulf of Mexico, on the Great Lakes, and on the St. 
Lawrence Eiver, compete for the grain traffic which for 
many years has amounted to hundreds of millions of bush- 
els a year. The struggle for the control of the grain trade 
by the eastern roads has been all the more active within the 
circle of the primary markets because of the fact that the 
control of this traffic by one road or the other determines 
the direction by which the grain reaches the seaboard and 
thence the markets of Europe.^* 

These factors all combined to make Chicago the foremost 
primary grain market in the United States — a distinction 
which this city had already achieved by 1860 and which it 
has since continued to hold. Chicago occupied a position of 
strategic commercial importance on the lower end of Lake 
Michigan and it enjoyed the advantage of being the great- 
est railway center in the world. It was the converging point 
of the great network of railroads which was spread so rap- 
idly over the Middle "West during this period. These rail- 
roads radiated out from Chicago in all directions — east- 
ward, southward, westward, and northward. The principal 
lines extending to the westward, northwestward, and south- 
westward into the great surplus grain areas were: (1) the 
Chicago, Milwaukee, and St. Paul Railroad, extending into 
Wisconsin, Northern Michigan, Minnesota, Iowa, and into 
the Territory of Dakota; (2) the Chicago and Northwestern 
Railroad, with its various connections, extending into Wis- 
consin, Northern Michigan, Minnesota, and Iowa, and into 
the Territory of Dakota; (3) the Chicago, Rock Island, and 
Pacific Railroad, with its lines extending through the States 
of Illinois and Iowa and into the State of Missouri; (4) the 

^* Distrilution of Farm Products, pp. 45, 46, in Eeport of the Industrial 
Commission, Vol. VI. 

VOL. XIX — 28 



1 



432 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Chicago, Burlington, and Quincy Eailroad, with its lines 
extending through the States of Illinois and Iowa and into 
the States of Missouri and Nebraska; (5) the Chicago and 
Alton Eailroad, with its lines extending across the States of 
Illinois and Missouri; and (6) the Wabash, St. Louis, and 
Pacific Railroad, with its lines extending through the States 
of Illinois and Missouri and into the States of Iowa and 
Nebraska.^^ 

The geographical range of Chicago as a primary grain 
market included the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Northern 
Michigan, Iowa, Northern Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Colorado, the Territory of Dakota, and the other Terri- 
tories as far west as the States of California and Oregon. 
Within this territory, however, Chicago came into compe- 
tition with other primary grain markets. Milwaukee was a 
competing rival for the grain trade of Minnesota, Wiscon- 
sin, and Northern Michigan; while St. Louis was a com- 
petitor for the grain trade of Southern Iowa, Northern 
Missouri, Southern Nebraska, Kansas, Indian Territory, 
Colorado, and New Mexico. New York and other Atlantic 

25 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1880, p. 
104. Some of these roads also formed connections with the Union and Central 
Pacific railroads and with the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad. The 
latter road established connections with the Southern Pacific Eailroad, thus 
forming another transcontinental line to the Pacific Coast and passing 
through the rich but undeveloped grazing, arable, and mining regions of 
Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and Southern California. With the comple- 
tion of the Northern Pacific Eailroad, the more northerly lines tributary to 
Chicago formed direct connections over that road with the Territories of 
Montana, Idaho, and Washington, and the State of Oregon, as well as with 
the provinces of Manitoba and British Columbia. — Annual Beport on the In- 
ternal Commerce of the United States, 1880, pp. 104, 105. In order to develop 
the trade with the trans-Mississippi Middle West and the region beyond, 
thirteen railroad bridges had been constructed over the Mississippi Eiver be- 
tween St. Paul and St. Louis over each one of which there was carried a traffic 
which was many times greater both in value and volume than that which was 
floated on the river below them. — Annv^il Beport on the Internal Commerce of 
the United States. 1887, pp. 19-29. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 433 



ports, New Orleans, and San Francisco were also direct 
competitors of Chicago for the surplus grain of the Middle 
West.^^ But Chicago nevertheless possessed the natural 
and acquired advantages''^ which enabled it to secure and 
maintain the ascendency over rival commercial centers as 
the leading primary market for the grain and flour which 
was shipped in from an immensely extended tributary terri- 
tory. 

The Chicago primary grain market was developed with 
marvellous rapidity. This is shown by a review of the flour 
and grain receipts of this city by ten-year periods from 
1860 to 1890 as shown in Tables I to IV. In 1860 the total 
grain and flour receipts amounted to 37,235,000 bushels, con- 
sisting of 713,000 barrels of flour, 14,927,000 bushels of 
wheat, 15,862,000 bushels of corn, 2,199,000 bushels of oats, 
618,000 bushels of barley, and 319,000 bushels of rye. In 
1870, the total grain and flour receipts were increased to 
61,316,000 bushels, consisting of 1,766,000 barrels of flour, 
17,394,000 bushels of wheat, 20,190,000 bushels of corn. 
10,472,000 bushels of oats, 3,336,000 bushels of barley, and 
1,093,000 bushels of rye. In 1880, the total grain and flour 

2e Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1880, p. 
105. See also map showing territorial competition among primary markets 
for the surplus grain of the North Central States west of Chicago in the late 
nineties in Distribution of Agricultural Products, opposite page 47, in Beport 
of the Industrial Commission, Vol. VI. Explanations of the map are given on 
page 47 of this report. 

27 Among the natural and acquired advantages which determine the relative 
importance of the leading commercial centers of the country may be mentioned 
"geographical position, accessibility to the products of the soil, the forest, 
and of the mine, the facilities for transportation afforded both on natural 
and on artificial highways of commerce, climatic influence, the amount of 
capital available in commercial enterprises, the habits and tastes of the people 
who sustain to its commercial activities the relationship of customers, the 
combined energy, tact, and enterprise of its merchants and other business men, 
and the extent to which they are able to unite their efforts in enterprises con- 
ducive to the general prosperity. ' ' — Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce 
of the United States, 1880, p. 70. 



434 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



receipts were further increased to 165,855,000 bushels, con- 
sisting of 3,215,000 barrels of flour, 23,542,000 bushels of 
wheat, 97,273,000 bushels of corn, 23,491,000 bushels of oats, 
5,212,000 bushels of barley, and 1,869,000 bushels of rye. 
In 1890 the total grain and flour receipts amounted to 
223,320,000 bushels, or nearly six times the receipts of 1860. 
The flour receipts amounted to 4,358,000 barrels, or more 
than six times the receipts of 1860. The wheat receipts 
amounted to 14,249,000 bushels, or a little less than the re- 
ceipts of 1860 ; although the receipts for some of the inter- 
vening five-year periods had risen to nearly double the 
receipts of 1860. The decline in wheat receipts after 1880 
was due to the northwestward movement of the surplus 
production area and the rising importance of Minneapolis 
and Duluth-Superior as primary wheat and flour markets. 
The corn receipts amounted to 91,388,000 bushels, or nearly 
six times the receipts of 1860. The oat receipts amounted 
to 75,150,000 bushels, which represented thirty-five times 
the receipts of 1860 and double the receipts of 1885. The 
barley receipts amounted to 19,401,000 bushels, or over 
thirty times the receipts of 1860. The rye receipts amount- 
ed to 3,521,000 bushels, which represented eleven times the 
receipts for 1860.^® 

The pouring of such a great volume of grain into Chicago 
made necessary the building of adequate terminal facilities : 

Annual Beport of the Trade and Commerce of Chicago, 1910, pp. 18, 19; 
Annual Beport of the New YorTc Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, pp. 21-23. 
A barrel of flour made by the "old process" was estimated to be equivalent 
to five bushels of wheat; while a barrel of flour manufactured by the "new" 
or "roller process" which was introduced in the late seventies and early 
eighties was estimated to be equivalent to four and one-half bushels of wheat. 
The New York Produce Exchange adopted the change in its annual report for 
1879. Other commercial bodies adopted the change soon after. — See the 
Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1882, Ap- 
pendix No. 13, p. 210. Also the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finaiice 
of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 
1900, p. 2006, note. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 435 



tracks, bridges, docks, elevators, and warehouses, which 
the commercial interests of this city were ready to provide. 
The rise of the modern grain elevator system is one of the 
characteristic features of the internal grain trade of this 
period. 

The following interesting description of this system for 
handling and storing grain in Chicago and other primary 
market centers is given by a contemporary: 

Elevators, as now constructed, belong to two classes : those which 
are simply for transferring and weighing grain ("elevating"), 
and may be fixed upon land or are more often floating, and ele- 
vators which store as well as transfer grain. . . . The trans- 
fer elevators, as their name signifies, are for the mere transfer- of 
grain from vessel to vessel, from ears to vessel, or from vessel to 
cars, weighing the grain as weU as moving it. Many of these are 
floating elevators, which is the only kind used at New Orleans, 
■where, from the methods of shipment, the fluctuations in the river 
level, and other causes, they are most convenient; but at most 
places of shipment, where large quantities of grain are often stored 
for considerable periods, as at Chicago, Detroit, Buffalo, and the 
seaports, they are usually situated on the shore, and do their work 
with marvelous rapidity and eflS^ciency. The grain is automatically 
taken from the hold of the vessel, or from the car, as the case may 
be, is weighed automatically with such precision that when weigh- 
ing 100 bushels at a time the scales readily turn to a single pound 
and in practice weigh to within two pounds, and is then transferred 
by spouts to other vessels or cars. By a system of steam shovels, 
worked by an ingenious arrangement of ropes and pulleys, the 
grain in the hold of the vessel or car being unloaded is hauled to 
the mouth of the elevator by steam-power. 

The more common form of elevator is calculated to store as well 
as transfer grain. They frequently have a storage capacity of over 
a half a million bushels, some over a million, and a few have a 
reported capacity of two millions or over. The larger are enormous 
buildings, a hundred or more feet wide, three hundred or more 
feet long, and one hundred and fifty or more feet high, and are the 
most striking structures which greet the traveler's eye in approach- 



436 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ing the greater grain marts of the country. The building is divided 
into bins, ten to twenty feet square, and fifty feet or more deep, of 
various capacities, made of stout lumber, and strengthened with 
transverse iron rods. All the larger elevators are each built to ac- 
commodate a train of cars at a time, or several vessels, if they have 
to do with vessels. At the larger establishments, such as are seen 
at Chicago, New York, and Baltimore, large steam-engines are used, 
sometimes as high as six or seven hundred horse-power, which, by 
means of suitable machinery, "elevate" the grain to the upper 
stories, where it is weighed, and is then distributed to the bins. 
Huge steam shovels, worked by ropes and pulleys and manipulated 
by a man in the car (if they are unloading cars), are so effective 
that in the more complete establishments a train of cars is run in 
and the grain removed and elevated at the rate of a car-load per 
minute for the actual unloading. Such great rapidity, however, is 
exceptional, but two hundred and fifty to three hundred cars, carry- 
ing 100,000 to 120,000 bushels of grain, are sometimes unloaded in 
a single day, and steamers, with convenient hatches, will reach the 
elevator, receive on board a freight of 80,000 to 90,000 bushels, and 
leave the same day. A suitable vessel on the lakes is loaded with 
60,000 or 80,000 bushels in eight hours, and canal-boats at Buffalo 
of 8,000 bushels' capacity are sometimes loaded in an hour or less 
time. It is only by means of such appliances that such enormous 
shipments of grain take place in short periods as sometimes happens 
under particular conditions of the market, as, for instance, when 
13,600,000 bushels of grain were shipped from a single port for 
Europe in the month of August, 1880. 

The cost of this handling or transfer varies with the season of 
the year and with the condition of the markets. It may be half a 
cent per bushel, or even less, including ten days ' storage ; it gener- 
ally is less than one cent per bushel, but it may run up to two cents, 
or even more, under special conditions of the market. 

At various points, particularly at Buffalo and Chicago, some of 
the elevators are provided with arrangements for rapidly drying 
grain that arrives in too moist a condition, and this frequently is 
the means of saving from injury large amounts that have been 
shipped in an unsuitable condition.^^ 

29 Brewer's Report on the Cereal Froduction of the United States, pp. 154, 
155, in the Tenth Census of the United States, 1880, Vol. IIL See also Annual 
Eeport of tlie New York Produce Exchange, 1873-1874, p. 508. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 437 



Two advantages were afforded by the trade interests of 
Chicago to the farmers of the Middle West in the marketing 
of grain — capital and storage facilities, and price uni- 
formity. 

A large part of the grain crop of the Middle West was 
marketed soon after it was harvested. This was due in 
part to the necessity of realizing the proceeds of such crops 
as soon as possible, and in part to the fact that, during the 
autumn months, farmers had the leisure for hauling their 
surplus products to the railroad depots, the wagon roads at 
that season of the year being usually in a good condition. 
The movement of the crop from the points of production 
towards the points of concentration and distribution was 
therefore quite irregular; hence there arose the necessity 
for the offices of capital and for the great trade reservoirs 
at which grain might be held in order to meet the demands 
for consumption throughout the year. The capital, the 
granaries, and the warehouses of Chicago supplied these 
needs. 

In the competitive struggle between operators, prices 
were determined by the possible future relations between 
supply and demand, rather than by the supply in the market 
at any given time. Thus the legitimate speculative ele- 
ments of a great trade center tended toward securing uni- 
formity in prices, while at the same time serving the 
interests of those engaged in agricultural production. 
Chicago further afforded this advantage to the farmer.^*> 

St, Louis also occupied a strategic position in the com- 
petitive struggle for the western grain traffic. Situated in 
the midst of the greatest agricultural empire in the world 
and at the junction of the two great river systems — the 
Mississippi and the Missouri — this city was destined to 

30 Anmuil Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1879, 
p. 42. 



438 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



become a great primary flour and grain market. Before 
the introduction of railway transportation, St. Louis grain 
and flour receipts were brought in chiefly by way of the 
Mississippi, Missouri, and Illinois rivers; while the ship- 
ments of these commodities were sent out largely by way of 
the Mississippi Eiver to local river points for consumption 
in the southern States and to New Orleans for trans-ship- 
ment to the Atlantic seaboard for consumption in the east- 
ern States or for export to the western countries of Europe. 
In 1856 St. Louis was connected by rail with the Atlantic 
seaboard and a new era in the commercial history of this 
city was opened. The St. Louis trade in grain and flour 
was still for a time carried on largely by way of the Missis- 
sippi Eiver; while the railroads were regarded merely as 
tributaries to the rivers. The rapid extension of the rail- 
roads into the Central West and the construction of ade- 
quate terminal facilities for the handling of grain effected 
a revolution in the commercial development of St. Louis 
which now became a railroad center surpassed only by Chi- 
cago and Toledo among the commercial centers of the Mid- 
dle West. By 1882, nineteen railroads entered St. Louis: 
eight lines entering the city from the territory west of the 
Mississippi and eleven lines from the territory east of the 
river. ' The geographical range of St. Louis became widely 
extended, as shown by the fact that in 1882 the grain re- 
ceipts were reported as coming from Texas, Arkansas, In- 
dian Territory, Tennessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana, 
Illinois, Minnesota, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Missouri. 
The grain receipts came chiefly, however, from the States of 
Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa, and Illinois.^^ 

The rapid growth of the St. Louis primary grain and 
flour market is shown by a review of the flour and grain 

31 Annual Bcport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1882, pp. 
32, 42, and Appendix No. 1. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 439 



receipts of this city by ten-year periods from 1860 to 1890. 
In 1860 the total flour and grain receipts of St. Louis 
amounted to 12,221,000 bushels consisting of 443,000 barrels 
of flour, 3,556,000 bushels of wheat, 4,210,000 bushels of 
corn, 1,789,000 bushels of oats, 291,000 bushels of barley, 
and 159,000 bushels of rye. In 1870 the total grain and 
flour receipts amounted to 24,314,000 bushels, consisting of 
1,492,000 barrels of flour, 6,618,000 bushels of wheat, 
4,709,000 bushels of com, 4,520,000 bushels of oats, 799,000 
bushels of barley, and 211,000 bushels of rye. In 1880, the 
total grain and flour receipts amounted to 59,626,000 bush- 
els, consisting of 1,704,000 barrels of flour, 21,022,000 bush- 
els of wheat, 22,298,000 bushels of com, 5,607,000 bushels of 
oats, 2,562,000 bushels of barley, and 469,000 bushels of rye. 
In 1890, the total grain and flour receipts had been increased 
to 77,795,000 bushels, or more than six times the total re- 
ceipts of 1860. The flour receipts amounted to 1,230,000 
barrels or nearly three times the receipts of 1860. The 
wheat receipts amounted to 11,731,000 bushels, which repre- 
sented more than three times the receipts of 1860. The 
corn receipts amounted to 45,004,000 bushels, or nearly 
eleven times the receipts of 1860. The oat receipts amount- 
ed to 12,230,000 bushels or seven times the receipts of 1860. 
The barley receipts amounted to 2,795,000 bushels or nearly 
ten times the receipts of 1860. The rye receipts amounted 
to 501,000 bushels or more than three times the receipts of 
1860.32 

It was not until 1865 that St. Louis adopted the two 
agencies essential to her success as a primary grain market 

32 These statistics are taken from tables in the Eighth Census of the United 
States, 1860, Agriculture, p. clvi; Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of 
the United States, 1882, Appendix, p. 253; and the Monthly Summary of 
Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bureau of Statistics, Treasury 
Department), January, 1900, pp. 2006, 2007; Annual Beport of the New York 
Produce Exchange, 1873-1874, pp. 346-352, 1881, pp. 400-403. 



440 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



— the elevator warehouses for the receipt, storage, and 
shipment of grain in bulk and the transportation of grain in 
bulk from St. Louis to New Orleans by the barge tow-boat 
system, which latter agency was accompanied by the estab- 
lishment at New Orleans of a floating elevator for the trans- 
fer of grain from barges to sea-going vessels and the 
establishment of an elevator warehouse in 1868. St. Louis 
developed her elevator facilities rapidly in order to accom- 
modate the growing volume of grain which was brought 
into the city. In 1882 St. Louis had eleven elevators with a 
storage capacity of 9,650,000 bushels of grain.^^ 

The rise of Minneapolis as a great primary grain market 
constitutes one of the most significant features of this pe- 
riod. The northwestward movement of the spring wheat 
area brought this city into direct line as the gate city be- 
tween the Minnesota and Dakota wheat fields and the mar- 
kets of the Atlantic Coast and of Western Europe. This 
position gave Minneapolis a strategic advantage as a grain 
market which was further strengthened by its immense 
milling facilities, due originally to the possession of cheap 
water power. By 1880, Minneapolis had achieved sufficient 
importance to be listed among the leading primary grain 
markets of the Middle West. In that year, the total grain 
and flour receipts amounted to 10,879,000 bushels, consisting 
of 103,000 barrels of flour and 10,264,000 bushels of wheat. 
In 1885, the grain and flour receipts were increased to 34,- 
168,000 bushels, consisting of 21,000 barrels of flour, 
32,901,000 bushels of wheat, 389,000 bushels of corn, and 
782,000 bushels of oats. Barley and rye receipts were too 
small to be reported. By 1890, the grain and flour receipts 
had been increased to 53,192,000 bushels, consisting of 
70,000 barrels of flour, 45,272,000 bushels of wheat, 3,482,000 

S3 jinnual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1882, p. 
38, Appendix No. 1, p. 16. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 441 



bushels of corn, 3,569,000 bushels of oats, 477,000 bushels of 
barley, and 76,000 bushels of rye.^* 

Minneapolis had now achieved the distinction of being 
the foremost primary wheat market in the world. As a 
corn market, however, this city was of minor importance 
for the reason that while the surplus spring wheat area had 
moved northwestward into Minnesota and the Dakotas the 
surplus corn area had moved directly westward and in- 
cluded the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, 
Kansas, and Nebraska. The surplus corn was therefore 
more advantageously marketed at the primary grain cen- 
ters located in this section of the Middle West. 

Of fundamental importance in the development of Minne- 
apolis as a primary grain market was the building of the 
Minneapolis, St. Paul, and Sault Ste. Marie Railway, com- 
monly known as the ' ' Soo ' ' route. The advantages of this 
route were several. In the first place, it shortened the 
water route to the Atlantic ports by the whole length of 
Lake Michigan. Moreover, it avoided the frequent delays 
due to a congestion of the flour traffic at Chicago. Finally, 
it made favorable connections with the Canadian Pacific 
and other lines. These advantages were determining fac- 
tors in favor of the adoption of the new route. In 1888, the 
year in which this railroad was completed, it transported 
932,000 barrels of flour. In 1890, the flour shipments over 
the Soo route amounted to 1,157,000 barrels.^^ 

Chicago, St. Louis, and Minneapolis have been selected 
as representative primary grain markets of three great 
sections of the Middle West. The limits of this study will 
permit but a brief consideration of the other seven grain 

3* Annual Report of the New York Produce Exchange, 1881, p. 406, 1890- 
1891, p. 21. 

31 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, p. 2010. 



442 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



markets of Milwaukee, Toledo, Cincinnati, Kansas City, 
Duluth-Superior, Peoria, and Detroit. 

Milwaukee was the chief competitor of Chicago for the 
grain trade of Wisconsin, Northern Iowa, and Minnesota. 
Situated about eighty-five miles north of Chicago on the 
western shore of Lake Michigan, this commercial center 
occupied a strategic position as a wheat market. Five rail- 
roads entered the city from the surplus grain territory 
west of Lake Michigan. These roads brought in a large 
and growing volume of wheat and flour which was shipped 
to the Atlantic seaboard by three routes: (1) an all-rail 
route eastward around the lower end of Lake Michigan via 
Chicago; (2) transit-lines across the lake to Grand Haven 
and thence eastward or southembound by rail; and (3) the 
lake route which had the advantage of being nearer to the 
Atlantic seaboard than Chicago. The advantages of local- 
ity and transportation facilities, in short, enabled Mil- 
waukee to enter the competitive struggle for the western 
grain and flour traffic, with the result that by 1860 this city 
had achieved the distinction of being one of the great pri- 
mary grain markets of the Middle West.^^ 

The Milwaukee grain and flour market showed a steady 
growth during the period under consideration. In 1860 the 
total grain and flour receipts of this city amounted to 
11,102,000 bushels consisting of 305,000 barrels of flour, 
9,108,000 bushels of wheat, 126,000 bushels of com, 179,000 
bushels of oats, 52,000 bushels of rye, and 110,000 bushels of 
barley. In 1870, the total grain and flour receipts amounted 
to 24,858,000 bushels, consisting of 825,000 barrels of flour, 
18,884,000 bushels of wheat, 435,000 bushels of corn, 638,000 
bushels of oats, 586,000 bushels of barley, and 191,000 bush- 

Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of tlie United States, 1882, 
Appendix No. 10. For a brief account of Milwaukee as a wheat market, see 
Thompson's Bise and Decline of the Wheat Growing Industry in Wisconsin 
(Bulletin of the University of Wisconsin, Economies and Political Science 
Series, Vol. V, 1909), Ch. VII. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 443 

els of rye. In 1880 the total grain and flour receipts 
amounted to 29,883,000 bushels, consisting of 2,392,000 bar- 
rels of flour, 10,920,000 bushels of wheat, 2,149,000 bushels 
of corn, 2,032,000 bushels of oats, 3,239,000 bushels of bar- 
ley, and 779,000 bushels of rye. By 1890 the total grain 
and flour receipts had been increased to 35,739,000 bushels, 
or over three times the receipts of 1860. The flour receipts 
amounted to 2,401,000 barrels, or nearly eight times the re- 
ceipts of 1860. The wheat receipts amounted to 8,046,000 
bushels, or only a little less than the receipts of 1860. This 
represents a marked decline below the receipts of 1870 and 
1880 which is to be explained by the rise of Minneapolis and 
Duluth as the great primary wheat and flour markets of 
the Northwest. The corn receipts amounted to 844,000 
bushels, or nearly seven times the receipts of 1860. The 
oat receipts amounted to 3,905,000 bushels or nearly twenty- 
two times the receipts of 1860. The barley receipts 
amounted to 10,825,000 bushels, or nearly a hundred times 
the receipts of 1860. The rye receipts amounted to 1,312,- 
000 bushels, or twenty-five times the receipts of 1860.^'^ 

East of Chicago was Toledo which held a strategic posi- 
tion in the competitive struggle for the surplus grain and 
flour traffic of the Middle "West. Located at the western 
end of Lake Erie it enjoyed the advantage of shorter water 
and rail connections with the Atlantic seaboard than Chi- 
cago or Milwaukee or even Detroit. It was, moreover, an 
important railroad center. No less than twelve lines with 
their connections entered Toledo from the surplus grain 
areas; while fifteen competing roads connected the market 
with the Atlantic seaboard cities.^^ 

37 These statistics are taken from tables in the Eighth Census of the United 
States, 1860, Agriculture, p. cl; Annual Report of the New York Produce 
Exchange, 1873-1874, p. 348, 1881, p. 400, 1890-1891, p. 21; Annual Beport of 
the MilwauTcee Charriber of Commerce, 1920-1921, pp. 83, 88. 

38 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1882, 
Appendix No. 12. 



444 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



A review of the Toledo primary grain market during this 
period shows that in 1860 the total grain and flonr receipts 
amounted to 14,505,000 bushels, consisting of 721,000 bar- 
rels of flour, 5,273,000 bushels of wheat, 5,334,000 bushels of 
corn, 138,000 bushels of oats, 36,000 bushels of rye, and 
122,000 bushels of barley. In 1870, Toledo's grain and 
flour receipts were nearly doubled, amounting to 23,715,000 
bushels and consisting of 1,296,000 barrels of flour, 6,881,000 
bushels of wheat, 6,294,000 bushels of corn, 4,103,000 bushels 
of oats, 160,000 bushels of barley, and 94,000 bushels of rye. 
In 1880, the total grain and flour receipts were more than 
doubled, amounting to 59,070,000 bushels, and consisting of 
803,000 barrels of flour, 28,970,000 bushels of wheat, 21,- 
826,000 bushels of com, 4,241,000 bushels of oats, 255,000 
bushels of barley, and 167,000 bushels of rye. In 1890 
Toledo's total grain and flour receipts were reduced by 
more than half to 27,690,000 bushels which, however, repre- 
sented nearly two times the receipts of 1860. The flour 
receipts amounted to 950,000 barrels. The wheat receipts 
amounted to 5,776,000 bushels, which represented prac- 
tically the same amount reported for 1860. The corn re- 
ceipts amounted to 16,558,000 bushels, or three times the 
receipts of 1860. The oat receipts amounted to 870,000 
bushels or five times the receipts for 1860, The barley 
receipts amounted to 48,000 bushels, or less than one-half 
the receipts of 1860. The rye receipts amounted to 163,000 
bushels, or nearly five times the receipts of 1860. The terri- 
tory from which Toledo drew her grain and flour receipts 
included the States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, 
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, and Nebraska.^^ 

Cincinnati had by 1860 become the principal market for 

39 These statistics are taken from the Eighth Census of the United States, 
1860, Agriculture, p. cxlix; Annual Beport of the New York Produce Ex- 
change, 1873-1874, p. 346, 1881, p. 400, 1890-1891, p. 23. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 445 



the surplus grain and flour of the Ohio Valley; although 
Louisville farther down became a keen competitor for this 
traffic. The growth of Cincinnati was slow, however, for 
while it established good connections with the eastern and 
southern trunk line railroads, the westward movement of 
the areas of surplus production brought other primary 
grain markets into prominence, with the result that the 
Ciacinnati market declined in relative importance during 
the period under consideration. Even so, however, the Cin- 
cinnati market showed a consistent development, its chief 
reliance being the corn trade.'*" 

A review of the Cincinnati primary grain market during 
this period shows that in 1860 the total grain and flour 
receipts amounted to 6,368,000 bushels, consisting of 517,000 
barrels of flour, 1,057,000 bushels of wheat, 1,346,000 bush- 
els of corn, 895,000 bushels of oats, 131,000 bushels of rye, 
and 353,000 bushels of barley. In 1870, the total grain and 
flour receipts amounted to 8,770,000 bushels, consisting of 
706,000 barrels of flour, 866,000 bushels of wheat, 2,069,000 
bushels of corn, 1,216,000 bushels of oats, 801,000 bushels of 
barley, and 290,000 bushels of rye. In 1880, the total grain 
and flour receipts were more than doubled, amounting to 
18,661,000 bushels and consisting of 853,000 barrels of flour, 
2,909,000 bushels of wheat, 7,006,000 bushels of corn, 2,244,- 
000 bushels of oats, 1,877,000 bushels of barley, and 787,000 
bushels of rye. In 1890, the total grain and flour receipts of 
Cincinnati amounted to 22,035,000 bushels. This represents 
a little more than three times the receipts of 1860 and con- 
sisted of 1,423,000 barrels of flour, 1,128,000 bushels of 
wheat, 6,896,000 bushels of corn, 4,820,000 bushels of oats, 
2,201,000 bushels of barley, and 586,000 bushels of rye.''^ 

40 See the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 
1880, pp. 72-101. 

« These statistics are taken from tables in the 'Eighth Census of the United 



446 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



West of St. Louis, situated on the lower bend of the Mis- 
souri River, was Kansas City which came into prominence 
as a primary grain market in the seventies, as the result of 
the westward movement of the surplus grain area and the 
extension of railroads into the region beyond the Missis- 
sippi River. By 1882 twelve railroads entered Kansas City : 
two from the West, two from the North, two from the South, 
and six from the East. These roads with their many 
branches and connecting lines brought into the Kansas City 
market the grain of Kansas, Southern Nebraska, and West- 
ern lowa.*^ 

The rapid growth of the Kansas City grain and flour 
market dates from about 1880. In that year the total grain 
and flour receipts amounted to 9,137,000 bushels, consisting 
of 24,000 barrels of flour, 4,094,000 bushels of wheat, 4,422,- 
000 bushels of corn, 366,000 bushels of oats, 83,000 bushels 
of barley, and 65,000 bushels of rye. In 1890, the total grain 
and flour receipts were increased to 31,055,000 bushels or 
more than three times the total receipts of 1880, consisting 
of 475,000 barrels of flour, 5,795,000 bushels of wheat, 
18,035,000 bushels of com, 4,739,000 bushels of oats, and 
351,000 bushels of rye. Barley receipts were not reported.*^ 
In 1882, Kansas City had seven grain elevators in operation 
with a storage capacity of 1,560,000 bushels, and a daily 
transfer capacity of 590,000 bushels.** 

North of Minneapolis at the head of Lake Superior was 

states, 1860, Agriculture, p. civ; Annual Beport of the New YorTc Produce 
Exchange, 1875-1876, p. 259, 1881, p. 401, 1890-1891, p. 22. 

*2 Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1879, 
Appendix No. 87, 1882, Appendix, p. 50. This gives a description of the 
railroads tributary to the commercial interests of St. Louis. 

*s These statistics are taken from the Annual Beport of the New York 
Produce Exchange, 1881, p. 401, 1890-1891, p. 22. 

4* Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1880, 
Appendix, p. 216. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 447 



Duluth. The rapid ascendancy of this city as a primary 
grain and flour market was due to the northwestward move- 
ment of the surplus spring wheat area and the strategic 
position of Duluth as a shipping port. Duluth was nearer 
by lake to Buffalo than Chicago, while the St. Paul and 
Duluth-Superior Railroad gave Duluth and Superior a dis- 
tinct advantage over Chicago and Milwaukee in the com- 
petitive struggle for the wheat and flour trade of the 
northwest, with the result that a considerable portion of 
this trade was diverted to these two cities. In 1880 the total 
grain and flour receipts of Duluth and Superior amounted 
to 7,288,000 bushels, consisting of 513,000 barrels of flour, 
2,988,000 bushels of wheat, and 1,991,000 bushels of corn. 
No oats, barley, or rye receipts were reported. In 1890, the 
total grain and flour receipts of these two cities amounted 
to 28,756,000 or about four times the total receipts of 1880. 
These receipts consisted of 2,368,000 barrels of flour, 15,- 
341,000 bushels of wheat, 1,360,000 bushels of corn, 1,289,000 
bushels of oats, 105,000 bushels of barley, and 3000 bushels 
of rye. Duluth and Superior also had the advantage of 
being nearer to Buffalo by water than Chicago.^ ^ 

The shifting of the wheat and flour trade from Chicago 
and Milwaukee to Duluth and Superior was equivalent to a 
shifting of this traffic from Lake Michigan to Lake Supe- 
rior. A fairly accurate description of the grain trade on 
Lake Superior is furnished by the statistics of the flour, 
wheat, and other grain passing through St. Marys Falls 
Canal, now commonly known as the **Soo Canal". This 
statement is based on the fact that there was but very little 
local grain traffic on Lake Superior, most of it being shipped 
to the lower lake ports, and that all the grain and flour 
shipped from Lake Superior had to pass through this canal. 

♦5 Annttal Eeport of the New York Produce Exchange, 1881, p. 405, 1890- 
1891, p. 21. 

VOL. XIX — 29 



f 



448 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

It is therefore interesting to note that from 1855 to 1870, the 
flour traffic through St. Marys Falls Canal fluctuated be- 
tween 10,000 and 50,000 barrels a year. After 1870 the flour 
trade was rapidly increased to 24,000 barrels in 1880, and 
finally reached 3,239,000 barrels in 1890. The wheat traffic 
was increased from 50,000 bushels in 1870 to 2,106,000 bush- 
els in 1880 and finally reached 16,217,000 bushels in 1890. 
The trade in other grain passing through St. Marys Falls 
Canal fluctuated greatly but at no time during this period 
did it attain a volume greater than 2,547,000 bushels, the 
usual shipments amounting as a matter of fact to consider- 
ably less than 1,000,000 bushels a year.*^ 

North of Toledo was Detroit drawing its grain receipts 
largely from the States of Michigan, Illinois, and Ohio. 
Detroit became an important grain and flour market after 
the Civil War, when it established good rail connections 
with the West, the South, and the East.^^ In 1870, the total 
grain and flour receipts amounted to 14,046,000 bushels, 
consisting of 1,305,000 barrels of flour, 2,602,000 bushels of 
wheat, 3,263,000 bushels of corn, 1,399,000 bushels of oats, 
489,000 bushels of barley, and 5000 bushels of rye. By 1880, 
however, Detroit had suffered a slight decline in both abso- 
lute and relative importance, the total grain and flour re- 
ceipts for that year amounting to but 12,614,000 bushels. 
These receipts consisted of 341,000 barrels of flour, 9,835,000 
bushels of wheat, 428,000 bushels of corn, 508,000 bushels of 
oats, 300,000 bushels of barley, and 8000 bushels of rye. By 
1890, Detroit had suffered a still further decline as a grain 
and flour market, the total receipts for that year amounting 
to 10,840,000 bushels, consisting of 163,000 barrels of flour, 

*6 Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States (Bu- 
reau of Statistics, Treasury Department), January, 1900, pp. 1989, 1990. 

See the Annual Beport on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 
1882, Appendix No. 8. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 449 



4,767,000 bushels of wheat, 1,508,000 bushels of corn, 2,036,- 
000 bushels of oats, 1,626,000 bushels of barley, and 170,000 
bushels of rye.*^ Detroit's decline as a grain and flour mar- 
ket was due largely to the westward movement of the sur- 
plus wheat areas and the competition of the primary 
markets of Toledo, Chicago, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, and 
Duluth-Superior for this traffic. 



Table I 



Flour and Grain Receipts of the Five Leading Primary 
Markets of the Middle West for the Year 1860*® 


Pkimaey Maeket 


Flour 
(Barrels) 


Wheat 
(Bushels) 


Corn 
(Bushels) 


Chicago 
Toledo 
St. Louis 
Milwaukee 
Cincinnati 


713,348 
720,517 
443,196 
305,208 
517,229 


14,927,083 
5,272,690 
3,555,878 
9,108,458 
1,057,118 


15,862,394 
5,333,751 
4,209,794 
126,404 
1,346,208 




Primary Market 


Oats 
(Bushels) 


Barley 
(Bushels) 


Eye 
(Bushels) 


Total Grain, 
Including Flour 
Reduced to 
Bushels 


Chicago 
Toledo 
St. Louis 
Milwaukee 
Cincinnati 


2,198,889 
137,538 

1,789,234 
178,963 
894,515 


617,619 
122,382 
291,130 
109,795 
352,829 


318,976 
35,957 

158,974 
52,382 
131,487 


37,235,027 
14,504,903 
12,220,990 
11,102,042 
6,368,302 



4* These statistics are taken from tables in the Annual Beport of the New 
¥orJc Produce Exchange, 1873-1874, p. 352, 1880, p. 403, 1890-1891, p. 23. 

*9 The statistics used in Table I showing the relative importance of the five 
leading primary grain markets of the Middle West in 1860 are taken from 
tables in the Eighth Census of the United States, 1860, Agriculture, pp. cxlix, 
el, civ, clvi; and the Annual Beport of the Trade and Commerce of Chicago, 
1910, p. 18; Annuul Beport of the Milwaulcee Clmmher of Commerce, 1920- 
1921, pp. 83, 88. 



3 



450 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

This period witnessed the entrance, finally, of Peoria into 
the list of the great primary grain markets of the Middle 
West. Peoria was an important railroad center located in 
the heart of the grain belt about half way between Chicago 
and St. Louis. Five rail lines entered the city from the 
West and six from the East. These lines with their con- 
nections, by affording the lowest possible freight rates, en- 
abled Peoria to enter the competitive struggle for the west- 
ern grain and flour traffic, with the result that by 1880 this 
city had risen to fifth place as a primary grain and flour 
market. The geographical range of the Peoria grain mar- 
ket included the States of Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, 
and Northern Missouri, which contributed the great bulk of 
the flour, wheat, corn, oats, and rye receipts ; while the bar- 
ley receipts came principally from the States of Minnesota 
and Wisconsin. The principal competitors of Peoria for 
the surplus grain and flour trade of these States were Chi- 
cago, St. Louis, Toledo, and Indianapolis.^ 

The rapid growth of the Peoria grain market dates from 
about 1874. In that year the total grain and flour receipts 
amounted to 10,495,000 bushels, consisting of 45,000 barrels 
of flour, 631,000 bushels of wheat, 5,100,000 bushels of corn, 
3,534,000 bushels of oats, 397,000 bushels of barley, and 
610,000 bushels of rye. In 1880, the total grain and flour 
receipts amounted to 24,959,000 bushels, consisting of 
197,000 barrels of flour, 560,000 bushels of wheat, 13,551,000 
bushels of com, 8,152,000 bushels of oats, 685,000 bushels of 
barley, and 1,124,000 bushels of rye. By 1890, the total 
grain and flour receipts of Peoria amounted to 32,624,000 
bushels, or three times the receipts of 1874. The flour re- 
ceipts amounted to 124,000 barrels, or nearly three times 
the receipts of 1874; and the wheat receipts amounted to 

00 Annual Report on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1882, 
Appendix No. 5. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 451 



952,000 barrels, or nearly one-half more than the receipts 
of 1874. The corn receipts amounted to 12,912,000 bushels 
or more than two times the receipts of 1874. The oat re- 
ceipts amounted to 16,432,000 bushels, or nearly five times 
the receipts of 1874. The barley receipts amounted to 
1,462,000 bushels, or nearly five times the receipts of 1874. 
The rye receipts amounted to 309,000 bushels or a little 
more than one-half the receipts reported for 1860.^^ 

Table II 



Floub and Gbain RECiaPTS op the Six Leading Peimaby 


Markets op the Middle West fob the Yeab 1870 




Flour 


Wheat 


Corn 


Peimaby Market 


(Barrels) 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


Chicago 


1,766,037 


17,394,409 


20,189,775 


Milwaukee 


824,799 


18,883,837 


435,318 


St. Louis 


1,491,626 


6,618,253 


4,708,838 


Toledo 


1,296,260 


6,881,471 


6,294,032 


Detroit 


1,305,418 


2,602,118 


3,263,215 


Cincinnati 


705,579 




866,459 


2,068,900 














Total Grain, 




Oats 


Barley 


Eye 


Including Flour 


Primary Market 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


Eeduced to 












Bushels 


Chicago 


10,472,078 


3,335,653 


1,093,493 


61,315,593 


Milwaukee 


638,231 


585,897 


190,593 


24,857,871 


St. Louis 


4,519,510 


798,518 


210,542 


24,313,791 


Toledo 


4,103,139 


160,397 


94,171 


23,714,510 


Detroit 


1,398,672 


489,055 


5,118 


14,045,868 


Cincinnati 


1,215,794 


800,988 


289,775 


8,769,811 



61 These statistics are taken from tables in the Annual Beport of the New 
York Produce Exchange, 1875-1876, p. 259, 1890-1891, p. 22 ; Anwual Beport 
on the Internal Commerce of the United States, 1881, p. 401. 

62 The statistics used in this table showing the relative importance of the 
aix leading primary grain markets of the Middle West in 1870 are taken from 



452 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The rapid growth and relative importance of the princi- 
pal primary grain markets as competitive centers for the 
concentration and distribution of the surplus cereals of the 



Table III 



Flour and Grain Receipts of the Ten Leading Primary 


Markets op the Middle West por the Year 1880^3 




Flour 




Wheat 


Corn 


Primary Market 


(Barrels) 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


Chicago 


3,215,389 


23,541,607 


97,272,844 


St. Louis 


1,703,874 


21,022,275 


22,298,077 


Toledo 


802,816 


28,969,983 


21,825,928 


Milwaukee 


2,392,147 


10,919,954 


2,148,857 


Peoria 


197,427 




559,620 


13,550,650 


Cincinnati 


852,955 




2,908,675 


7,005,535 


Detroit 


341,334 




9,835,164 


427,976 


Minneapolis 


103,000 


10,264,100 




DULUTH-SUPERIOR 


513,348 




2,987,629 


1,990,732 


Kansas City 


23,894 


4.093,528 


4,421,760 














Total Grain, 




Oats 


Barley 


Eye 


Including Flour 


Primary Market 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


(Bushels) 


Eeduced to 












Bushels 


Chicago 


23,490,915 


5,211,536 


1,869,218 


165,855,371 


St. Louis 


5,607,078 


2,561,992 


468,755 


59,625,580 


Toledo 


4,240,679 


254,583 


166,641 


59,070,486 


Milwaukee 


2,031,878 


3,238,684 


779,211 


29,883,246 


Peoria 


8,152,205 


684,880 


1,123,625 


24,959,402 


Cincinnati 


2,243,874 


1,877,163 


787,015 


18,660,559 


Detroit 


507,797 


300,017 


7,536 


12,614,433 


Minneapolis 










10,879,100 


Duluth-Superioe 










7,288,427 


Kansas City 


366,486 


82,894 


65,267 


9,137,458 



tables in the Annual Beport of the New YorTc Produce Exchange, 1873-1874, 
pp. 346, 349, 352, 1875-1876, p. 259. 

53 The statistics used in this table showing the relative importance of the 
ten leading primary grain markets of the Middle West are taken from tables in 
the Annual Eeport of the New TorTc Produce Exchange, 1881, pp. 400-403, 
405, 406. 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 453 



Middle West during this period may now be summarized. 
It will be seen by reference to the accompanying tables that 
in 1860 Chicago already held first place in total grain and 
flour receipts, amounting to 37,235,000 bushels ; Toledo held 
second place with 14,505,000 bushels; St. Louis held third 



Table IV 



Flour and Grain Receipts of the Ten Leading Primary 


Markets of the Middle West for the Year 1890 


Peimaey Market 


Flour 
(Barrels) 


Wheat 
(Bushels) 


Corn 
(Bushels) 


Chicago 


4,358,058 


14,248,770 


91,387,754 


St. Louis 


1,229,975 


11,730,774 


45,003,681 


Minneapolis 


70,303 


45,271,910 


3,482,310 


Milwaukee 


2,401,235 




8,046,461 


844,200 


Peoria 


123,842 




951,950 


12,911,900 


Kansas City 


474,480 




5,795,400 


18,034,700 


DULUTH-SUPEEIOR 


2,368,277 


15,341,462 


1,360,376 


Toledo 


949,681 




5,776,033 


16,558,288 


Cincinnati 


1,423,080 




1,127,770 


6,896,326 


Detroit 


162,912 




4,767,085 


1,507,932 














Total Grain, 


Peimaey Market 


Oats 
(Bushels) 


Barley 
(Bushels) 


Eye 
(Bushels) 


Including Flour 
Eeduced to 
Bushels 


Chicago 


75,150,249 


19,401,489 


3,520,508 


223,320,031 


St. Louis 


12,229,955 


2,794,880 


501,054 


77,795,232 


Minneapolis 


3,568,600 


477,000 


76,200 


53,192,383 


Milwaukee 


3,904,855 


10,825,391 


1,312,471 


35,738,935 


Peoria 


16,432,000 


1,462,250 


308,550 


32,623,939 


KiNSAS City 


4,739,000 






351,000 


31,055,260 


Duluth-Superioe 


1,289,388 


104,746 


3,111 


28,756,330 


Toledo 


869,953 


48,302 


163,475 


27,689,615 


ClNONNATI 


4,820,346 


2,200,915 


585,559 


22,034,776 


Detroit 


2,035,808 


1,625,998 


170,270 


10,840,197 



The statistics used in this table showing the receipts of the ten great 
primary grain markets of the Middle West in 1890 are taken from the Annual 
Beport of the New Tori Produce Exchange, 1890-1891, pp. 21-23. 



454 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



place with 12,221,000 bushels ; Milwaukee held fourth place 
with receipts amounting to 11,102,000 bushels; and Cin- 
cinnati held fifth place with receipts amounting to 6,368,000 
bushels. 

In 1870, Chicago retained the lead in total grain and flour 
receipts amounting to 61,316,000 bushels ; Milwaukee forged 
ahead from fourth to second place with 24,858,000 bushels ; 
St. Louis retained third place with 24,314,000 bushels; 
Toledo dropped from second to fourth place with 23,715,000 
bushels; Detroit entered the list with 14,046,000 bushels; 
and Cincinnati was reduced from fifth to sixth place with 
8,770,000 bushels. 

In 1880, Chicago retained first place in total grain and 
flour receipts amounting to 166,000,000 bushels; St. Louis 
advanced from third to second place with 59,626,000 bush- 
els ; Toledo rose from fourth to third place with 59,070,000 
bushels; Milwaukee dropped from second to fourth place 
with 29,883,000 bushels ; Peoria entered the list as fifth with 
24,959,000 bushels; Cincinnati retained sixth place with 
18,661,000 bushels; Detroit dropped from fifth to seventh 
place with 12,614,000 bushels; Minneapolis entered the list 
as eighth with 10,879,000 bushels ; Duluth- Superior entered 
the list as ninth with 7,288,000 bushels; and Kansas City 
entered the list as tenth with 9,137,000 bushels. 

In 1890, Chicago continued to hold first place in total 
grain and flour receipts which were now increased to 223,- 
320,000 bushels; St. Louis retained second place with 
77,795,000 bushels; Minneapolis forged ahead from eighth 
to third place with 53,192,000 bushels ; Milwaukee retained 
fourth place with 35,739,000 bushels ; Peoria retained fifth 
place with 32,624,000 bushels ; Kansas City advanced from 
tenth to sixth place with 31,055,000 bushels; Duluth- 
Superior advanced from ninth to seventh place with 28,- 
756,000 bushels ; Toledo dropped from third to eighth place 



THE INTERNAL GRAIN TRADE 455 



witli 27,690,000 bushels; Cincinnati dropped from sixth to 
ninth place with 22,035,000 bushels; and Detroit dropped 
from seventh to tenth place with 10,840,000 bushels. 

These ten primary grain markets were, in short, the chief 
concentrating and distributing centers for the great bulk of 
the surplus grain and flour of the Middle "West which was 
destined for the consuming States of the East and South 
and the deficit countries of Western Europe. This surplus 
found its way eastward and southward via the great inte- 
rior waterways and trunk line railroads which have been 
described in this article ; and contributed to the development 
of the seaboard cities which became active competitors for 
the western grain trade. The movement of grain and flour 
from the primary markets to the Atlantic and Gulf ports 
constitutes, therefore, the next phase of this study which 
will be presented in the concluding article. 

Louis Bernard Schmidt 

The Iowa State College of 
Ageiculttjek and Mechanic Aets 
Ames Iowa 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



Recollections of Early Days in Kansas. By Shalor "Winehell 
Eldridge. Topeka: The Kansas State Historical Society. 1920. 
Pp. 235. Plates. This volume of reminiscences is issued as Volume 
II of the Publications of the Kansas State Historical Society, and 
covers the period of the conflict in Kansas for Statehood. Mr. 
Eldridge went to Kansas in 1855, partly because of a definite desire 
to assist in making the Territory a free State and was intimately 
connected with many of the events of the tragic struggle. He died 
at Lawrence, Kansas, on January 16, 1899. 

The preservation of pioneer experiences is one of the important 
functions of historical societies and the history of Territorial Kan- 
sas is of especial interest. This account is also related to Iowa 
history since there are repeated references to the share of Iowa in 
the struggle for control of Kansas, Two chapters deal with the 
overland route through Iowa for anti-slavery emigrants, and two 
others describe a trip to Iowa for supplies — chiefly powder and 
lead. Brief statements taken from a letter may be a partial expla- 
nation of the inability of State officials to locate some of the mili- 
tary equipment belonging to the State of Iowa at the outbreak of 
the Civil War. The letter was from Robert Morrow, a Kansas free- 
state agent, and one of the quotations is as follows: " 'I went to 
Iowa City, the then capital, to see Governor Grimes about getting 
some state arms. He said if I could get them without compromising 
him he had no objections. Some friends of Kansas aided me, and at 
night we loaded three wagons with arms out of the arsenal. These 
were made part of your outfit and brought into Kansas.' " 

Such reminiscences are invaluable for the sidelights they contain 
on important events and the extra-legal or illegal activities which 
characterized the struggle in Kansas present many incidents not 
recorded in official reports. The volume is provided with foot- 
notes and an index. 



456 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



457 



The Ankara Narrative of the Campaign Against the Hostile 
Dakotas, June, 1876. Edited by 0. G. Libby. Bismarck: The 
State Historical Society of North Dakota. 1920. Pp. 276. Plates, 
maps. This publication is Volume VI of the Collections of the State 
Historical Society of North Dakota and contains the story of the 
Indian scouts who were serving with General Custer at the time his 
command was defeated and annihilated at the battle on the Little 
Big Horn on June 25, 1876. The narratives of the nine surviving 
Indians were secured at a conference in the summer of 1912 at 
which Mr. Libby and Judge A. McG. Beede with the aid of an 
interpreter took down the reminiscences of the former warriors. 
In addition to the information concerning one of the most tragic 
incidents in the military history of the United States, the stories of 
the Arikara scouts reveal many interesting sidelights on the cus- 
toms and life of the Indians, Biographical sketches of a number 
of these Indian scouts add to the value of the narratives. 

Included in the volume, though in no way related to the Arikara 
narratives, is an article on The State Park System of North Dakota, 
by 0. G. Libby, and a list of the trees, shrubs, flowers, and grasses 
native to North Dakota. An index is provided and foot notes fur- 
nish some comments on the events described. 

Life and Times of Stevens Thomson Mason, the Boy Governor of 
Michigan. By Lawton T. Hemans, Lansing: Michigan Historical 
Commission. 1920. Pp. 528. Plates, This biography of Governor 
Stevens is frankly a eulogy, rather than a critical estimate of 
Governor Mason, but it is, none the less, a valuable contribution to 
the history of the Northwest, Mason was appointed Secretary of 
the Territory of Michigan in 1830 when not quite nineteen years of 
age, served for a time as Acting Governor, and was elected Gov- 
ernor of the State of Michigan in 1835 when only twenty-four, 
serving until January, 1840. He died in New York three years 
later. 

His life thus spans only a third of a century but it was a time of 
political excitement and economic adjustments. The organization 
of the new States and Territories presented innumerable problems. 
It was during the administration of Governor Mason, for example, 



458 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



that the border dispute between Michigan and Ohio occurred. 
Iowa readers may find this of especial interest for it was the stem 
Robert Lucas, later Grovemor of Iowa, who as Governor of Ohio 
opposed the "Boy Governor" of Michigan. 

The volume is interesting, also, because of the details presented 
concerning political affairs, elections, customs, and economic condi- 
tions. It is written with the touch of intimacy which denotes the 
keen personal interest of the writer in his subject. There are a 
large number of portraits, and a brief index but the volume lacks 
reference notes. 

Journal of a Fur-Trading Expedition on the Upper Missouri, 
1812-1813. By John C. Luttig, clerk of the Missouri Fur Com- 
pany. Edited by Stella M. Drumm, St. Louis : Missouri Historical 
Society. 1920. Pp. 192. Plates, map. The fur-trade, with its 
ramifications into the fields of business, Indian affairs, and inter- 
national relations is one of the romances of history ; and in publish- 
ing this diary of a fur-trader the Missouri Historical Society has 
rendered a service to all students of American development. The 
diary covers a period of less than a year — from May 8, 1812, to 
March 5, 1813 — and gives brief but vivid details of a fur-trading 
expedition in charge of Manuel Lisa which ascended the Missouri 
as far as the Mandan villages. They were driven from their head- 
quarters here by the hostility of the Indians who were under the 
influence of rival English traders. 

From the introduction written by Miss Drumm it appears that 
John C. Luttig was probably of German extraction and evidently 
a man of some education and business experience. Some two years 
before the expedition described in this diary he sued Auguste 
Chouteau for salary and commission for serving as auctioneer at 
the sale of the personal property of Julien Dubuque at the Mine 
d'Espagne (now Dubuque, Iowa), on July 28, 1810. 

Two entries will illustrate pictures of life at this remote trading 
post as they are presented in this journal. The record for Septem- 
ber 23, 1812, was as follows: "Wednesday the 23 fine and clear 
weather, set 2 hens with 22 Eggs, traded the horse in the Evening 
another arrived to trade a horse and also his Wife, a handsome 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



459 



Squaw he found trade for the horse but not for the Wife, a Mandan 
arrived, no news from above." On December 20, 1812, Luttig 
wrote : ' ' Sunday the 20th, clear and moderate, our hunter say Rees 
went out and Killed 20 Cows .... purchased a fine Dog of 
the Chajennes, this Evening the "Wife of Charbonneau a Snake 
Squaw, died of putrid fever she was a good and the best Women 
in the fort, aged abt 25 years she left a fine infant girl." This 
Snake woman was Sacajawea — or Sakakawea, as her name is 
given by Miss Drumm — one of the guides of the Lewis and Clark 
expedition. 

Copious foot notes and an appendix contain a great amount of 
information concerning the persons, places, and events mentioned in 
the diary and reveal the painstaking research of the editor, A 
bibliography and index complete the volume which is attractively 
printed and bound. 

A History of the Constitution of Minnesota with the First Veri- 
fied Text. By William Anderson, in collaboration with Albert J. 
Lobb. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota. 1921. Pp. 323. 
Maps. This volume is issued as number fifteen in the Studies in the 
Social Sciences. It is a comprehensive study of the constitutional 
history of Minnesota and, indeed, contains much information on 
other phases of State history. Chapter one presents the pre-Terri- 
torial period and relates largely to boundaries. The second chapter 
describes the period of the Territory, including the Organic Act 
and Territorial politics. The preliminary steps toward Statehood 
are considered in the third chapter. Four chapters are devoted to 
the constitutional convention, and the drafting and adoption of the 
constitution. Chapter eight traces the development of the consti- 
tution since its adoption, and the ninth and last chapter gives the 
history of the various amendments. In the appendix is the text of 
the constitution, a table of proposed amendments, and various acts 
relating to the organization and admission of Minnesota. Foot- 
notes, a bibliography, and an index add to the usefulness of the 
volume which is a valuable contribution to students of political and 
constitutional history. It is of interest to lowans because of the 
close relation between the histories of the two Commonwealths. 



460 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Recent Explorations in Northwestern Texas, by Warren K. 
Moorehead, and Words for Tohacco in American Indian Languages, 
by Roland B. Dixon, are two of the papers in the January-March 
issue of the American Anthropologist. 

Government War Contracts, by J. Franklin CroweU, has been 
issued as number twenty-five of the Preliminary Economic Studies 
of the War, published by the Carnegie Endowment for Interna- 
tional Peace. 

William Thornton and Negro Colonization, by Gaillard Hunt, 
and An Early Account of the Establishment of Jesuit Missions in 
America, by Henry F. DePuy, are the principal articles in a recent 
number of the Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. 

Among the articles and papers in the April issue of Americana 
are Valparaiso University, by Daniel Russell Hodgdon; and 
Alexander Hamilton as a Promoter, by Charles A. Shriner. 

The Nature of Canadian Federalism, by W. P. M. Kennedy, 
The Literature of the Peace Conference, by R. Hodder Williams, 
and The Brandy Parliament of 1673, by William Bennett Munro, 
are three of the articles in The Canadian Historical Review for 
June. 

Government Control and Operation of Industry in Great Britain 
and the United States During the World War, by Charles Whiting 
Baker, is a monograph published by the Carnegie Endowment for 
International Peace as number eighteen of the Preliminary Eco- 
nomic Studies of the War. 

Federal Reserve Policy, by A. C. MiUer, Marketing of Agricul- 
tural Products, by James E. Boyle, Farmers' Co-operative Associa- 
tions, by Asher Hobson, Grain Standardization, by H. Bruce Price, 
and Stahilization of Prices, by B. H. Hibbard, are among the arti- 
cles and papers in The American Economic Review for June. 

The Present State of the Study of Politics, by Charles E. Mer- 
riam, and The Constitutional Convention of Massachusetts, by 
Lawrence B. Evans, are two of the articles in the May number of 
The American Political Science Review. The Legislative Notes and 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



461 



Bevieivs, edited by Walter F. Dodd, includes a discussion of recom- 
mendations in governors ' messages for 1921 by W. A. Robinson. 

Making West Virginia, a Free State, by A. A. Taylor, Canadian 
Negroes and the John Brown Raid, by Fred Landon, The Negro 
and the Spanish Pioneers in the New World, by J. Fred Rippy, and 
The Ecanomic Condition of the Negroes of New York Prior to 1861, 
by Amett G. Lindsay, are the four articles which appear in The 
Journal of Negro History for April. 

Iowa Legislature Violates Constitutional Mandate, by Frank E. 
Horack, The Small Town Awakens, by Richard B. Watrous, The 
Direct Primary Weathers the Storm, by Ralph S. Boots, A New 
Civic Army (The League of Women Voters), by R. S. Childs, and 
Ohio Reorganizes, by D. C. Sowers, are among the papers in the 
National Municipal Review for June. 

Research Work in the Historical Branch of the General Staff, by 
0. L. Spaulding, Jr., and a Syllabus for Ninth Grade Study of 
American Industries, prepared by Frances M. Morehouse for the 
Committee on History and Education for Citizenship of the Amer- 
ican Historical Association, are two articles in the April number of 
The Histoncal Outlook. In the number for May, R. C. McGrane 
writes of the Rise and Fall of the Independent Treasury, D. C. 
Ejnowlton contributes a Syllabus for Modern History in the Tenth 
Grade, and H. 0. Rugg discusses the question How Shall We Re- 
construct the Social Studies Curriculum? Education for Citizen- 
ship, by J. G. de R. Hamilton and E. W. Knight, a Syllabus for 
United States History in the Eleventh Grade, by Frances M. More- 
house, and Civics in Schools with Special Reference to Grades Nine 
and Ten, by Arthur W. Dunn, are among the papers in the June 
issue. 

The International Trade Situation is the general title of the 
March number of The Annals of the American Academy of Political 
and Social Science, edited by G. B. Roorbaeh. Among the papers in 
this collection are the following : The Foreign Trade of the United 
States Since the Signing of the Armistice, by Simon Litman; Im- 
ports, the Tariff, and American Foreign Trade, by George E, Rob- 



462 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



erts; and The Probable Future Development of Grain Trade of 
the United States, by Julius H. Barnes. The number for May is 
concerned with. Taxation and Public Expenditures. Sources of 
Revenue of the States with a Special Study of the Revenue Sources 
of Pennsylvania, by M. L. Faust, The State Tax Commission and 
the Property Tax, by H. L. Lutz, Problems of a Model State Income 
Tax, by Henry Herrick Bond, and State Supervision of Local As- 
sessments, by Frank B. Jess, are among the papers. 

WESTERN AMERICANA 

Indian Music, by Frances Densmore, and God's Country, by 
Elizabeth Shepley Sergeant, are two of the articles in El Palacio 
for June 15, 1921. 

A Hundred Years of Latter Doaj Saintism is the title of a pageant, 
by Margaret Davis, which is published in the May issue of Autumn 
Leaves. 

Volume thirty of the Filson Club Publications is The Story of a 
Poet: Madison Cawein, by Otto A. Rothert. 

The following papers and articles of historical interest are found 
in The Quarterly Journul of the University of North Dakota for 
April : The Dakota-Minnesota Interstate Drainage Suit, by Elwyn 
F. Chandler; and The Dust Storm of January, 1921, by Leonard P. 
Dove. 

Chipped Flint and Quartzite Knives, by Charles Edward Brown, 
and a sketch of the life of Publius V. Lawson, by the same author, 
are among the papers and reports in The Wisconsin Archeologist 
for February. In the number for April, George R. Fox writes of 
Effigy Mound Photographs, and Alanson Skinner contributes Recol- 
lections of an Ethnologist Among the Menominee Indiams. 

The Book of Mormon, by Walter W. Smith, Harper's Criticism — 
a survey reprinted from Harper's New Monthly Magazine for Octo- 
ber, 1851, and James W. Gillen, a biography by H. 0. Smith, are 
the three articles published in the Journal of History for January. 

Congregational Work of Minnesota, 1832-1920, edited and partly 
written by Warren Upham, is a contribution to the religious history 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



463 



of Minnesota. It is of interest to the people of Iowa as well because 
of the similarity in the church organizations in the two States, and 
because of the specific references to events and persons connected 
with Iowa. 

Charles Edward Russell is the author of a volume entitled The 
Story of the Nonpartisan League. This account of the political dis- 
content in the Northwest in recent years has much of interest for 
the student of politics and economics, for it tells how a political 
organization grew out of the difficulties of the farmers in marketing 
their wheat. 

The Rising Tide of Color, by Charles W. Dahlinger, an article on 
the negro question, is one of the contributions to the April number 
of the Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. Over the Old 
Roads to Pittshurgh, by John S. Ritenour, another of the articles in 
this issue, presents an interesting picture of travel in the early days. 
The Pilgrims in America, by Samuel B. McCormick, and the first 
installment of The Pittsburgh Blues, by John H. Niebaum, are two 
other articles in this number. 

lOWANA 

The State of Iowa Is a Thirty-five Million Acre Farm, by D. P. 
Hogan, is one of the articles in the May issue of The Northwestern 
Banker. 

Local Medical Societies, the story of the origin and development of 
medical organizations in various counties of the State, is an article 
of historical interest by D. S. Fairehild, published in The Journal of 
the Iowa State Medical Society for April. 

The Price of Our Heritage, compiled by Winfred E. Robb, con- 
tains brief biographical sketches of the six hundred and fifty mem- 
bers of the One Hundred and Sixty-eighth Infantry who lost their 
lives during the "World War, and pictures, if obtainable. This regi- 
ment was the old Third Iowa and contained a large number of men 
transferred from the other National Guard regiments. A brief 
historj- of the Iowa military organizations preceding the war is 
included. 



VOL. XEX — 30 



464 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Wanted: A National Policy on Race Relations, by Bolton Smith, 
A Bit of Frontier Story, by Robert Y. Kerr, and Knowing the Jap- 
anese, by Eleanor Lowden, are three of the papers in The Grinnell 
Review for April. The May issue contains a symposium on the 
question Should We Have a New U. S. Constitution. The subject is 
discussed by Frederick A. Cleveland, Walter George Smith, Victor 
J. West, and Nicholas Murray Butler. Progress Toward Peace, by 
John Holland Rose, is one of the contributions to the June number. 

SOME RECENT PUBLICATIONS BY IOWA AUTHORS 

Brigham, Johnson, 

The Westward Course of Literature (Iowa Library Quarterly, 
January-March, 1921). 

Briseo, Norris Arthur, 

Retail Salesmanship. New York: Ronald Press. 1921. 
Brown, Bernice, 

Emperor Hadrian (Collier's Magazine, April 23, 1921). 

Her Thousand Dollars (Collier's Magazine, June 18, 1921). 

The Meeting (poem) (McCall's Magazine, May, 1921). 

By field, Albert Henry, (Joint author) 

Paranasal Sinus Disease in Children. Iowa City: The State 
University of Iowa. 1921. 

Campbell, Macy, 

Growth of Iowa Consolidated Schools (The Iowa Homestead, 
March 10, 1921). 

Chamberlin, Edward H., 

Glimpses of the Michigan Union (The Iowa Alumnus, April, 
1921). 

Clark, Donald H., 

How Bankers Are Organizing and Arming to Fight the Robber 
(The Northwestern Banker, May, 1921). 

Cole, Cyrenus, 

A History of the People of Iowa. Cedar Rapids: The Torch 
Press. 1921. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



465 



Crowley, LiUian May, 

A Lesson in Art (The International Studio, May, 1921). 
Davis, Margaret, 

A Hundred Years of Latter Day Saintism (Autumn Leaves, 
May, 1921). 

Dean, Lee Wallace, (Joint author) 

Paranasal Siniis Disease in Children. Iowa City: The State 
University of Iowa. 1921, 

Devine, Edward Thomas, 

Ourselves and the Irish (The Survey, May 7, 1921). 
Welfare Federations (The Survey, May 14, 28, June 4, 18, 
1921). 

Ensign, Forest Chester, 

Compulsory School Attendance and Child Labor. Iowa City: 
The Athens Press. 1921. 
Evers, Helene M., 

The Song of Gold (The Grinnell Review, June, 1921). 
Fairchild, D. S., 

Local Medical Societies (The Journal of the Iowa State Medical 
Society, April, 1921). 
GaUaher, Ruth Augusta, 

A Colored Convention (The Palimpsest, June, 1921). 

Icaria and the Icarians (The Palimpsest, April, 1921). 
Gesler, Earl E., 

Military Training for the Engineer (The Iowa Engineer, April, 
1921). 
Griffith, Helen Sherman, 

The Ladies' Strike. Philadelphia: Penn Publishing Co. 1921. 

Haines, Austin P., 

Persecuting the Poor Steel Trust (The New Republic, Jime 29, 
1921). 
Hansen, Marcus Lee, 

Official Encouragement of Immigration to Iowa (The Iowa 
Journal of History and Politics, April, 1921). 



466 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Haines, Ella Wister, 

Bach to the Land for Women (The Woman's Weekly, June 4, 
1921). 

A Mile of Window Boxes (The Woman's Weekly, June 18, 
1921). 

A Public Health Leader (The Woman's Magazine, June 11, 
1921). 

The Woman's Community Council (The Woman's Weekly, 
April 23, 1921). 

Hanson, Leslie, 

The Investment Banker Is Vitally Affected hy Farm Conditions 
(The Northwestern Banker, May, 1921). 
Helmiek, Paul S., 

The Blackening of a Photographic Plate as a Function of In- 
tensity of Light and Time of Exposure (The Physical Review, 
February, 1921). 
Henderson, Rose, 

The Sun God (poem) (Everybody's Magazine, June, 1921, and 
El Palacio, June 15, 1921). 
Herriott, Frank Irving, 

A Neglected Factor in the Anti-Slavery Triumph in Iowa in i 
1854 (Jahrbueh der Deutch-Amerikanisehen Historischen > 
Gesellschaft von lUinois, Vol. XVIII-XIX). 
Hoover, Herbert Clark, 

Central European Belief (International Conciliation, March, 
1921). I 

Belief for Europe (International Conciliation, March, 1921). 

What America Faces: A Review and Forecast of the Funda- 
mental Relationship between Employer and Employee (In- 
dustrial Management, April, 1921). 

Horack, Frank Edward, 

The Government of Iowa (Revised edition, 1921). New York: 

Charles Seribner's Sons. 1921. 
Iowa Legislature Violates Constitutional Mandate (National i 
Municipal Review, June, 1921). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



467 



Hrbkova, Sarka B., 

Americans of Czecho-Slovak Descent (The Survey, June 11, 
1921). 

Hughes, Rupert, 

Beauty. New York: Harper & Bros. 1921. 

Jessup, Walter Albert, 

The Greatest Need of the Schools — Better Teaching (Journal 
of the National Educational Association, April, 1921). 

Kay, George Frederick, 

The Significance of the Relation of Proboscidian Remains to 
the Surface of Nehraskan Gumbotil (Bulletin of the Geolog- 
ical Society of America, 1921). 

Some Large Boulders in the Kansan Drift of Southern lowp, 
(Iowa Geological Survey, Vol. XXVII, pp. 34&-354). 

Leme, Maud, 

Our Garden. Published by the author. 1921. 

Lowden, Eleanor, 

Knowing the Japanese (The Grinnell Review, April, 1921), 

McMurry, Donald LeCrone, 

The Pacific City Fight (The Palimpsest, June, 1921). 

Marston, Anson, 

What is Engineering (The Iowa Engineer, May, 1921). 

Merriam, Charles Edward, 

The Present State of the Study of Politics (The American Po- 
litical Science Review, May, 1921). 

Mingus, Edna, (Joint author) 

Visual Education (Oregon Normal School Bulletin, Salem, 
1921). 

Muilenburg, Walter J., 

Peace (The Midland, April, 1921). 

Newton, Joseph Port, 

Religious Basis of a Better World Order. New York : Fleming 
H. Revell Co. 1920. 



468 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 

'Grady, Rose, (Mrs. W. B. Kerr) 

Shorn Lamb and Russian Cat (Smith's Magazine, July, 1921). 
Parish, John Carl, 

Michel Ago — Squaw-Man (The Palimpsest, June, 1921). 

The Bipple (The Palimpsest, April, 1921). 
Phelps, Arthur L., 

Poems. Mount Vernon: English Club of ComeU College. 
1921. 

Piper, Edwin Ford, 

In the Potato Field (poem) (The Midland, April, 1921). 
Joe (poem) (The Midland, May, 1921). 
Preston, Howard H., 

The Federal Farm Loan Case (The Journal of Political Econ- 
omy, June, 1921). 
Raymond, William Gait, 

Value Versus Investment as a Ba^is for Utility Service Rates 
(Journal of the American Water Works Association, Janu- 
ary, 1921). 

Reynolds, Arthur, 

What I Consider the Most Important Thing in Business (The 
American Magazine, July, 1921). 

Rice, Merton S., 

Dust and Destiny. New York : The Abingdon Press. 1921. 

Robb, Winfred E., 

The Price of Our Heritage. Des Moines: American Litho- 
graphing and Printing Co. 1919. 

Roberts, George Evan, 

Financing Foreign Trade (The American Review of Reviews, 
May, 1921). 

Imports, the Tariff, and American Foreign Trade (The Annals 
of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 
March, 1921). 

The Stupendous Fall in Prices (The American Review of Re- 
views, February, 1921). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



469 



Eosenbaum, Benjamin, 

My Purple Gown from Tyre (poem) (Poetry, January, 1921). 

Koss, Edward Alsworth, 

The Russian Bolshevik Revolution. New York: Century Co. 
1921. 

Russell, Charles Edward, 

The Story of the Nonpartisan League. New York: Harper 
& Bros. 1920. 

Schmidt, Louis Bernard, 

The Internal Grain Trade of the United States, 1860-1890 
(The Iowa Journal of History and Politics, April, 1921). 

Sergei, Eoger L., 

Glare of Circumstance (The Midland, June, 1921). 

Shaw, Albert, 

Torto Ricans as Citizens (The American Review of Reviews, 
May, 1921). 

Smertenko, Clara M., 

The Sin of Being Intelligent (The Grinnell Review, May, 
1921). 

Smith, Grace Partridge, 

The Quarter Centennial of Alpha of Iowa (Phi Beta Kappa 
Key, March, 1921). 

Smith, Hulda Keller, 

A Vacation in Burma (The Iowa Alumnus, May, 1921). 

Springer, Frank, 

The Crinmdia Flexihila. Washington: Smithsonian Institu- 
tion. 1920. 

The Fossil Crinoid Genus Dolatocrinu^ and its Allies (Bulletin 
No. 115, United States National Museum, 1921). 

Stapp, Emilie B., 

Water on the Moon (poem) (People's Popular Monthly, April, 
1921). 



470 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Starch, Daniel, (Joint author) 

The Test and Study Speller, Books 1, 2, and 3. Boston : Silver, 
Burdett & Co. 1921. 

Stefansson, "Vilhjalmur, 

Plover Land and Border Land (The Geographical Review, 
April, 1921). 

Steiner, Edward A., 

The Story of the Steerage (The Independent, May 14, 1921). 

Suckow, Ruth, 

The Resurrection (The Midland, June, 1921). 
Retired (The Midland, April, 1921). 

Thompson, Elbert N. S., 

Mysticism in the Literature of the XVII Century in England 
(Studies in Philology, April, 1921). 

Town, Clara H., 

Analytic Study of a Group of Five and Six-Year-Old Children. 
Iowa City: The State University of Iowa, 1921. 

Van Ek, Jacob, 

The Underground Railroad in Iowa (The Palimpsest, May, 
1921). 

Vance, Thomas F., 

Mental Tests in Vocational Guidance (National School Digest, 
January, 1921). 

Vant Hul, J. G., Jr., 

Across the Great Divide with Boy Scouts of Clinton, Iowa (The 
Northwestern Banker, June, 1921). 

Wallace, Henry C, 

Farm Situation Presents Big Problem for New Administration 
(The Northwestern Banker, April, 1921). 

Wilson, I. B., 

Banking as a Career for Young Men (The Northwestern Bank- 
er, May, 1921). 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 471 

SOME RECENT HISTORICAL ITEMS IN IOWA NEWSPAPERS 

Grave of first white person to die in Montgomery County, in the 
Shenandoah Post, April 1, 1921. 

Narrow gauge railroad from Waukee to Adel, by A. C. Hotchkiss, 
in the Perry Chief, April 1, 1921. 

Pioneer days in Albia, in the Alhia Union, April 2, 1921. 

The life and adventures of Captain Stephen B. Hanks, a cousin of 
Abraham Lincoln, edited by Fred A. Bill, in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, April 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, May 7, 14, 21, 
28, June 4, 11, 18, and 25, 1921. 

Across the plains in 1864, by John S. CoUins, in the Burlington 
Saturday Evening Post, April 2, 9, 16, 23, 30, May 7, 14, 21, 28, 
June 4, 11, 18, and 25, 1921. 

Early ideas of Iowa, in the Des Moines Register, April 3, 1921. 

Early speech of Black Hawk, in the Des Moines Register, April 3, 
1921. 

Customs of the Tama Indians, by Fred D. Fleming, in the Des 
Moines Register, April 3, 1921. 

Humorous reminiscences of Bloomfield pioneer days, by Dillon H. 
Payne, in the Bloomfield RepuUican, April 4, 7, 21, May 5, 12, 
19, 26, June 2 and 9, 1921. 

"W. Scott Newcomer — pioneer printer, in the Marshalltown Times- 
Reputlican, April 5, 1921. 

Eeminiscences of Coming, by H. E. Baker, in the Coming Union 

Republican, April 6, 1921. 
The old Aasgaard buildings in Lake Mills, in the LaTte Mills 

Graphic, April 6, 1921. 
Hard times in 1896, in the Britt News, April 7, 1921. 
Pioneer days in Iowa, in the Monticello Express, April 7, 1921. 
Early history of Bancroft, in the Swea City Herald, April 7, 1921. 
The bUzzard of 1870, by Nate Wright, in the Stuart News, April 7, 

1921. 



472 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

At the "Winnebago Indian Mission, in the Alton Democrat, April 9, 
1921. 

The Spirit Lake Massacre, in the Corning Free Press, April 9, 1921. 

Johnson Brigham and John Burroughs, in the Des Moines Register, 
April 10, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Mary Hager, the first woman to practice 
law in Iowa, in the Des Moines Capital, April 11, 1921. 

Sketch of the career of C. R. Marks, in the Sioux City Tribune, 
April 11, 1921, and the Sioux City Journal, April 12, 1921, 

Early twine binder in Benton County, by August Schuitz, in the 
Waterloo Courier, April 11, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Henry Sindt, in the Davenport Times, April 
11, 1921. 

Early days on the lower Mississippi, in the Fort Madison Demo- 
crat, April 12, 1921. 

Farm conditions in the sixties, by J. J. Berkley, in the Waterloo 
Courier, April 13, 1921. 

Early railroad building, by E. H. Talbot, in the Traer Star-Clipper, 
April 13, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Elizabeth Connolly, in the Chariton 
Leader, April 14, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of James Wilson, in the Toledo Chronicle, April 
14, 1921. 

First white child bom in Decatur County, in the Leon Reporter, 
April 14, 1921. 

Early settlers on the Des Moines River, in the Madrid News, April 
14, 1921. 

Memories of early Dubuque, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
April 17, 1921. 

William Shannon, Henry County's earliest settler, in the Burling- 
ton Eawk-Eye, April 17, 1921. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



473 



Early history of Dubuque, in the Dubuque Times-Journal, April 17, 
1921. 

Council Oak at Sioux City, in the Des Moines Register, April 17, 
1921. 

Some incidents in the history of Cascade, in the Cascade Pioneer, 
April 18, 1921. 

The ancient road opposite Nauvoo, in the EeokuJc Gate-City, April 

20, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of E. H. Sehmitten, in the Sahula Gazette, April 

21, 1921. 

Log cabins and Indians at Waterloo, in the Waterloo Courier, April 
21, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of John Alex Young, in the Washington Demo- 
crat, April 21, 1921, and the Davenport Democrat, April 24, 
1921. 

Iowa's State flag, in the Iowa City Press-Citizen, April 22, 1921. 
Sketch of the life of Mrs. Jane Kirkwood, in the Dubuque Herald, 
April 22, 1921, and the Des Moines Register, April 24, 1921. 

"When clothing and food were cheap, in the Dubuque Times-Journal, 
April 24, 1921. 

Sixty years in business — the Schmidt Music Company of Musca- 
tine and Davenport, in the Davenport Democrat, April 24, 
1921. 

Mississippi River traflSe, by Stephen Hanks, in the Dubuque Times- 
Journal, April 24, 1921. 

Early experiences in Iowa, by W. H. Lewis, in the Winterset Madi- 
sonian, April 27, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Wilson Daubney, in the Decorah Journal, 
April 28, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Jane Kirkwood, in the Iowa City Press- 
Citizen, April 28, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Rock Rapids, by H. G. McMillan, in the Rock 
Rapids Review, April 28, 1921. 



474 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Boys and religion in early days, in the Osceola Sentinel, April 28, 
1921. 

Jacob Cretsinger and early times in Coon Rapids, in the Crurst 
Standard, May, 1921. 

Fifty years of education, a pageant at Iowa State College, in the 
Ames Tribune, May 1, 1921. 

Experiences of Billy Scott at Coming, in the Corning Union- 

Republican, May 4, 1921. 
lowans at Shiloh and Corinth, in the Bloomfield Republican, May 5, 

1921. 

First white child in Decatur County — Asa Burrell, in the Leon 
Journal, May 5, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Bloomfield, by Henry C. Ethell, in the Bloomfield 
Republican, May 5, 1921. 

Early settlers in St. Charles, Madison County, in the St. Charles 
News, May 5, 1921. 

Ephraim Huntington, resident of Council Bluffs for seventy years, 
in the Council Bluffs Nonpareil, May 8, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Mary Bradley, oldest resident of Clinton 
County, in the Clinton Herald, May 14, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Joseph Reynolds, the founder of the Diamond 
Jo packet line, in the Duhuque Telegraph-Herald, May 15, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of J. M. Knott, in the Sioux City Journal, May 
15, 1921. 

Reminiscences of early days in Bloomfield, by E. A. Deupree, in 
the Bloomfield Republican, May 19, 1921. 

Pioneer experiences in Boone County, in the Madrid News, May 19, 
1921. 

Pictures of Storm Lake, in the Storm Lake Tribune, May 20, 1921. 
Hard times in 1857, by E. R. Zeller, in the Winterset Madisonian, 
May 25, 1921. 



SOME PUBLICATIONS 



475 



Sketch of Henry Van Maren, pioneer of Marion County, in the 
Knoxville Journal, May 26, 1921. 

Iowa in 1856, in the Forest City Republican, May 26, 1921. 

Reminiscences of Bloomfield, in the Bloomfield Republican, May 26, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of J. 0. Crosby, in the Duhuqus Telegraph- 
Herald, May 29, 1921, the Lansing Mirror, June 2, 1921, and 
the Madrid News, June 9, 1921. 

Pioneer hard times, in the Winterset Madisonian, June 1, 1921, 
and the Indianola Herald, June 3, 1921. 

Indian remains at Fertile, in the Des Moines Tribune and the 
Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, June 8, 1921, and the Marshall- 
town Times-Republican, June 28, 1921. 

The first Americans killed in the World War, in the Des Moines 
Tribune, June 8, 1921. 

Oldest cemetery in Hardin County, in the Eldora Herald, June 9, 
1921. 

Sketch of the life of J. L. Kennedy, in the Sioux City Tribune, 
June 11, 1921. 

Memorial of John F. Dillon, in the Dubuque Telegraph-Herald, 
June 11, 1921. 

Reminiscences of the Civil War, by J. S. M'Kee, in the Cedar 
Rapids Gazette, June 13, 1921. 

Early history of Jefferson Township, Harrison County, in the 
Davenport Times, June 16, 1921. 

Sketch of the life of Mrs. Mary Summers, in the Davenport Times, 
June 16, 1921. 

Wild rice as an Indian food, in the Perry Tribune, June 16, 1921. 

Anniversary of discovery of Mississippi River, in the Davenport 
Democrat, June 17, 1921, and the Fort Madison Democrat, 
June 18, 1921. 



476 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Some of Polk County's oldest citizens, in the Des Moines Register, 
June 19, 1921. 

Madison County in early days, by Mrs. Charlotte Clark Gordon, in 

the Winterset Madisonian, June 22, 1921. 
Burial place of Ma-Ko-Ke-Ta, the daughter of a Winnebago chief, 

in the Des Moines Register, June 26, 1921. 
Recollections of a pioneer schoolmaster, by W. H. Lewis, in the 

Burlington Hawk-Eye, June 26, 1921. 
Mastodon jawbone found at Woodbine, in the Des Moines Register, 

June 28, 1921, and the Cedar Rapids Republican, June 29, 

1921. 



HISTOEICAL SOCIETIES 



PUBLICATIONS 

Grant Harris on Payne, by T. E. Beck, and Historic Oklahoma, 
by Ruth B. Jesse, are short articles in the April number of 
Historia, published by the Oklahoma Historical Society. 

The Boston and Maine Railroad, by Francis B. C. Bradlee, is 
concluded in the April issue of The Historical Collections of the 
Essex Institute. 

Early Powder Horns, by Charles D. Cook, is one of the articles 
in the April number of the Rhode Island Historical Society Col- 
lections. 

A comparatively new field of research is covered in the mono- 
graph. One Hundred Years of Putlic Health in Indiana, by Dr. 
"W. F. King, which is published in a recent number of the Indiana 
Historical Society Collections. 

Francis J. Swayze is the author of an Epitome of the Constitu- 
tional Convention of 1844 which appears in the April number of 
the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. 

The Biennial Report of The State Historical and Natural History 
Society of Colorado for the years 1918-1920 has just been issued. 

The April, 1920, number of The Louisiana Historical Quarterly 
contains a single monograph, A History of the Foundation of New 
Orleans (1717-1722), by Baron Marc de Villiers, translated from 
the French by "Warrington Dawson. 

The March number of the Indiana Magazine of History contains 
the following articles: Methodism in Southwestern Indiana, by 
John E. Iglehart ; The Savage Allies of the Northwest, by Elmore 
Barce ; and The Quick Family in America, by Rachel I. Buttz. 

Oregon — Its Meaning, Origin and Application, by John E. Rees, 
The Early Explorations and the Origin of the Name of the Oregon 

477 



478 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Country, by "William H. Galvani, and The Strange Case of Jona- 
than Carver and the Name Oregon, by T. C. Elliott, are the three 
articles in The Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society for De- 
cember, 1920. 

Donelson's Mission to Texas in Behalf of Annexation, by Annie 
Middleton, Some Precedents of the Pershing Expedition into Mex- 
ico, by J. Fred Rippy, and a sixth installment of A. K. Christian's 
Mirdbeau Buonaparte Lamar are three articles in the April num- 
ber of The Southwestern Historical Quarterly. 

The Jahrhuch der Deutch-Amerikanischen Historischen Gesell- 
schaft von Ulinois has recently appeared after an interval of some 
three years. The present volume is a double number covering the 
years 1918-1919, and bears the volume numbers XVIII and XIX. 
Among the articles included is one by Frank I. Herriott entitled 
A Neglected Factor in the Anti-Slavery Triumph in Iowa in 18S4. 
The factor emphasized is the foreign — particularly the German — 
vote. 

The April Blizzard, 1873, is an account by Albert Watkins of an 
early day experience with winter storms in the spring which is 
published in the Nebraska History and Record of Pioneer Days for 
July-September, 1920. There is also a paper on Nebraska Society 
Daughters of the American Revolution, by Clara S. Paine. 

The January issue of The Virginia Magazine of History and 
Biography contains a report by the Virginia War History Com- 
mission on Source Material from Virginia Counties Collected for 
the Virginia War Archives. There is also the final installment of 
the Preston Papers and Documents Relating to Early Projected 
Swiss Colonies in the Valley of Virginia, 1706-1709, in addition to 
other historical papers and reports. 

The April number of The Americo/n Historical Review contains 
an account of the meeting of the American Historical Association at 
Washington, D. C, in December, 1920. There are two papers re- 
lating to American history : The American Civil War Through the 
Eyes of a Russian Diplomat, by Frank A. Golder; and Troop 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



479 



Movements on the American Railroads During the Great War, by 
Ross H. McLean. 

One of the articles in The Register of the Kentucky State His- 
torical Society for May is "The Old Kentucky Home", by Willard 
Rouse Jillson. It is a description of Federal Hill, the house near 
Bardstown, Kentucky, which was the inspiration for the song "My 
Old Kentucky Home", composed by Stephen C. Foster in 1852. 
The Religious Development of Early Kentucky and a fifth install- 
ment of Woodford County, by Wm. E. Railey, are other articles in 
this number. 

The four numbers of The Journal of American History for 1920 
have been published as one volume. The First Repuhlican-Demo- 
cratic Presidential Campaign, by Charles Nevers Holmes, and three 
installments of A History of the Origin and Development of Banks 
and Banking and of Banks and Banking in the City of New York 
by W. Harrison Bayles and Frank Allaben, are articles of general 
historical interest in these numbers. 

Joseph Lane McDonald and the Purchase of Alaska, by Victor J. 
Farrar, Bibliography of Railroads in the Pacific Northwest, by 
Marian Cordz, and a continuation of the Origin of Washington 
Geographic Names, by Edmond S. Meany, are the three articles 
which appear in the April number of The Washington Historical 
Quarterly. Another installment of The Nisqually Journal, edited 
by Victor J. Farrar, is also included. 

The Ohio Company: A Colonial Corporation is the title of a 
monograph by Herbert T. Ley land published in the January-March 
number of the Quarterly Publication of the Historical and Philo- 
sophical Society of Ohio. This company, also known as ' ' The Ohio 
Land Company ' ', existed ' from 1748 until about 1769 and was 
composed of prominent Virginians and British merchants. The 
company was interested in the territory just west of the Alleghany 
Mountains. 

The Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming State His- 
torical Department, 1919-1920, contains the first report of the State 

VOL. xrx — 31 



480 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Historian for 1919 to 1920. This office was created in 1919. The 
articles and papers include the following : Reminiscences of a Pio- 
neer, 1857-1869, given by E. W. Whitcomb to his daughter Mrs. 
E. I. Rivenburg; Constitution Making, by Melville C. Brown; Fort 
Bridger, written in 1870 by Albert G. Braekett ; The Development 
and Evolution of the Union Pacific Railroad in Wyoming, by "W. E. 
Chaplin; How Woman Suffrage Came to Wyoming, by Grace Ray- 
mond Hebard ; Early Oil Discovery in Wyoming, by John Hunton ; 
and Wyoming as a Literary Field, by Mrs. Martin H. Hartung. 

The Rise of the Methodist Episcopal Church in Illinois from the 
Beginning to the Year 1832, by John D. Bamhardt, Jr., is one of 
the articles in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 
for July, 1919. The Pioneers of Wahash County, by Theodore G. 
Risley, and The Harrison Festival in Fremont, Illinois, in 1840, by 
Mary Gaither, are other contributions to this number. In the 
issue for October, 1919, are the following articles : The War Work 
of the Women of Illinois, by Mrs. Joseph T. Bowen; War Diary of 
Th-addeus H. C apron, 1861-1865 ; Sketch of the Life aTid Services 
of Col. Theodore S. Bowers, former Adjutant General, on the 
Staff of General U. S. Grant, by Theodore G. Risley; Abraham 
Lincoln's Early Visits to Chicago, by J. Seymour Currey; and 
Will County, Illinois, Baptist History, contributed by J. Stanley 
Brown. 

ACTIVITIES 

Plans have been made for the organization of a Montgomery 
County historical society. The committee to draft a constitution 
was composed of Clifford Powell, Mrs. Nora Collard, and Miss 
Sarah Palmer. A committee was also appointed to arrange for 
marking the grave of the first white person to die in the county. 

An organization of the Pioneer Society of Sioux Trailers, Tribe 
of Sioux City, has been effected at Sioux City, and plans are being 
made to celebrate June 14th — Flag Day. Persons who have re- 
sided in Sioux City's trade territory since 1885 are invited to be- 
come members. The officers of the new organization are : G. W. 



HISTORICAL SOCIETIES 



481 



Kingsnorth, president; John M. McDonald, vice president; D. A. 
MaGee, secretary-treasurer ; C. R. Marks, historian; and P. A. 
McCornack, flag custodian. It is the intention of the society to 
mark the Sioux trail, compile a director^" of the pioneers, and 
commemorate the Louisiana Purchase. 

The annual meeting of the Madison County Historical Society 
-was held at Winterset on April 26, 1921. A biographical sketch 
of E. H. Conger, by Mrs. Conger, was read by H. A. Mueller; a 
paper on his early experiences in Iowa was presented by Judge 
W. H. Lewis; Professor Benj, F. Shambaugh, the Superintendent 
of The State Historical Society, delivered the annual address on 
the work and importance of historical societies ; and A. B. Garret- 
son gave some reminiscences of Winterset. Officers were elected 
as follows : H. A. Mueller, president ; J. B. Anderson, vice presi- 
dent; and Mrs, T. M. Scott, secretary-treasurer. 

THE STATE HISTOBICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 
A volume entitled Welfare Work in Iowa, by Marcus Lee Hansen, 
is now in press. This is the second volume in the series Iowa 
Chronicles of the World War planned by The State Historical So- 
ciety. The first volume in the series was Welfare Campaigns in 
Iowa, also by Mr. Hansen, published in 1920. 

A meeting of members of The State Historical Society of Iowa 
was held in the rooms of the Society at Iowa City on June 27, 1921. 
The most important business transacted was the election of nine 
resident Curators. The following men were chosen: Arthur J. 
Cox, Marvin H. Dey, Henry G. Walker, S. A. Swisher, Charles M. 
Dutcher, Morton C. Mumma, W, 0. Coast, W. L, Bywater, and 
Thomas Farrell. Together with the nine members appointed by 
the Governor, these men form the Board of Curators of the Society. 

The following persons have recently been elected to membership 
in the Society: Mr. David B. Allen, Arlington, Iowa; Mr. L. B. 
Anderson, Guthrie Center, Iowa; Mr. Frederick F. Faville, Fort 
Dodge, Iowa; Mr. G. E. Held, Hinton, Iowa; Mr. H. E. Hutchin- 
son, Sioux City, Iowa; Mrs. Clarence Knutson, Clear Lake, Iowa; 
Miss Mary Nicholson, Ames, Iowa ; Mr. F. C. Robinson, West Union, 



482 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Iowa; Mr. R. E. Shaw, Indianola, Iowa; Mr. E. S. Wells, Chariton, 
Iowa; Miss Minnie Beals, Earlham, Iowa; Mr. Charles W. Chap^ 
man, Waterloo, Iowa; Mrs. C. T. Haskett, New Hampton, Iowa; 
Mr. Carl Fritz Henning, Boone, Iowa ; Mr. W. R. Orchard, Council 
Bluffs, Iowa ; Mr. Alonzo Pruitt, Holstein, Iowa ; Mr. C. L. Robbins, 
Iowa City, Iowa ; Mr. R. R. Roberts, Britt, Iowa ; Mr. Lee 0. Wolfe, 
Titonka, Iowa ; Mr. 0. L. Evans, Winterset, Iowa ; Mr. Chas. Flan- 
ery, Jr., Guthrie Center, Iowa; Mr. J. J. Goheen, Lawler, Iowa; 
Mr, T. A. Moore, West Branch, Iowa; and Mr. Jacob Van Ek, 
Iowa City, Iowa. The following persons have recently been en- 
rolled as life members: Mr. J. K. Ingalls, Oak Park, Illinois; 
Mrs. F. F. Jones, Villisca, Iowa; Mr. H. A. Mueller, St. Charles, 
Iowa ; and Mr. L. B. Schmidt, Ames, Iowa. 



I^OTES AND COMMENT 

The old settlers' picnic of Hancock County was held at Maben's 
grove, near Forest City, on June 29, 1921. The chief address was 
delivered by Glenn C. Haynes, the State Auditor. 

A pageant depicting the history of Storm Lake was presented at 
a point near that place on May 25, 1921. Grace Russell planned 
the episodes. 

A National Park Conference was held at Des Moines on January 
10-12, 1921. Representatives from many States were present. 

The annual meeting of the Iowa Conservation Association was 
held at Ames, January 7 and 8, 1921, President H. S. Conard 
presiding. 

Ralph E. Twitchell has been appointed a special attorney of 
the Bureau of Mines of the Department of the Interior. In con- 
nection with this work he will write a history of the Puebla Indians 
and a treatise on Indian land titles in New Mexico. 

Publius V. Lawson, vice president of the Wisconsin Archeo- 
logical Society, died at Menasha, Wisconsin, on December 1, 1920. 
He was born at Corning, New York, on November 1, 1853, and 
came to Wisconsin in 1855. Mr. Lawson was the author of a num- 
ber of papers and monographs on archeology, particularly in 
Wisconsin. 

Survivors of the battles of Shiloh and Appomattox Court House 
held a meeting at Washington in commemoration of these events on 
April 7, 1921. Short talks were given by Elliott Grayson, repre- 
senting the American Legion; Mrs. Sadie Hollinger, of the Wom- 
en's Relief Corps and the Woman's Auxiliary of the American 
Legion; S. K. Coats, of the Grand Army of the Republic; and 
Smith Brookhart, for the Spanish-American War veterans. 

A meeting was held at Calmar in April, 1921, for the purpose of 
organizing an association to preserve and improve the "Old Mili- 

483 



484 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



tary Trail" which ran from Port Crawford, at Prairie du Chien, to 
Fort Atkinson. The "Old Military Trail Association" was the 
name chosen for the organization and the following officers were 
selected : Geo. A. Beeber of Fort Atkinson, president ; T. H. Goheen 
of Calmar, vice president; T. F. Sehmitz of Ossian, secretary; and 
Eugene Malloy of Castalia, treasurer. The site of old Fort Atkin- 
son is one of the chief points of historical interest along the trail. 

MRS. JANE KIBKWOOD 

Jane Clark, who as Mrs. Samuel J. Kirkwood was known and 
loved in Iowa for more than sixty years, was bom in Richland 
County, Ohio, on September 1, 1821. After teaching school for a 
short time she became the wife of one of the young lawyers at 
Mansfield, on December 27, 1843. In 1855, Mr. and Mrs. Kirkwood 
came to Iowa, where Mr. Kirkwood became a miller and farmer at 
Coralville near Iowa City. When the will of the people of Iowa 
called Mr. Kirkwood from his business to the chief place of respon- 
sibility in the State during the Civil War, Mrs. Kirkwood accepted 
the responsibilities placed upon her and extended her sympathy 
and care from her family to the soldiers and their families. 

Later when Governor Kirkwood became Senator and then Secre- 
tary of the Interior, Mrs. Kirkwood devoted herself to making a 
home at Washington just as she had at Mansfield and Iowa City. 
Indeed one of Mrs. Kirkwood 's most attractive characteristics was 
this devotion to her home. Without children of her own she gave 
largely of affection and care to the young people of her family and 
the community. 

Her interests, however, extended far beyond the immediate circle 
of her home, and she watched with keen interest the progress of 
national affairs. It is indicative of the length of her life and of the 
brief history of Iowa as a Commonwealth, that the five wars which 
have directly concerned Iowa as a settled community occurred 
during the span of her life. As a young girl of eleven she must 
have listened to stories of the Black Hawk War which opened Iowa 
to white settlers ; as the wife of the Governor of the State, she was 
in close contact with the Civil War ; and she was still knitting for 



NOTES AND COMMENT 



485 



the soldiers of the World War. Between these came the Mexican 
"War and the Spanish- American War. 

Although Mrs. Kirkwood had no ambition for public life except 
for her husband, she was an early believer in equal suffrage and in 
November, 1920, she went to the polls to cast her first vote. 

Her many friends hoped that she might at least round out the 
century but she died on April 28, 1921, at Iowa City where she had 
lived quietly since the death of Mr. Kirkwood on September 1, 
1894. 



CONTRIBUTORS 



Clakence Bay Aurner (see The Iowa Journal of History 
AND Politics for April, 1919, p. 296). 

Louis Bernard Schmidt, Professor of History in the Iowa 
State College of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts. (See The 
Iowa Journal op History and Politics for October, 1912, p. 
593.) 

John Ely Briggs, Assistant Professor of Political Science 
in the State University of Iowa. Author of William Peters 
Hepburn. (See also The Iowa Journal of History and 
Politics for July, 1915, p. 471.) 



486 



IHE STATE HISTOEICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

ESXABUSHBD BT LaW IN THB YKAB 1857 

iNOOBPOBATao : 1867 and 1898 

LOCATBD AT lOWA CiTY lO^VA 



FOKMER PRESIDENTS 

JAMES W. GRIMES, First President 
nOWE ROBEET HirTCHINSON 

TOOD M. J. MOR>SMAN 

WILLIAM G. HAMMOND 
fN CLARKE GEORGE G, ^VRIGHT 



JOSIAH L. PICKAKD 
PETER A, DET 
EUCLID SANDERS 



OFFICEES 



BENJAMIN P. SHAME AtJGH Supebintendent 



H.-, DET , , , .PfiESIDENT 

A. KOBAB , _ TaEAsuRm 



BOARD OF CURATORS 



Elected ty the Society 

irs, J. Cox Chablbb M. Butcher 
viK II. Dey Moeton C. Mtjmma 
fRT G. Walker W. O. C!oast 

SwiSHEE W. L. BYWAa?ER 

Thomas Faerbsll 



Appointed ijf tlw Governor 

A. Y. Allen John M. Lindly 

J. P. CKTiiKsiiANK John T. Moffit 

Charles J. Fulxon W. P. Moobe 

John M, G;u.vrM Chas. E. Pickett 

H. O. "Weaves 



MEMBERSHIP 

Any person may beeome a member of The State Histobicajj Society of 
electi<m by the Board of Curators and the payment of an entrance f eo 



ip in thia Society may be retained after the first year upon the 
lent of ^.00 annually. 

[embers of the Society shall be entitled to receive the quarterly and all other 
iona of the Society during the continuance of their membership, 

Address all Cfynmwnicttiions to 

Thb State Hibtoeical Society Iowa City Iowa 



THE 

Iowa Journal 

Misto^y^dPolitics 



OCTOBER 1921 




PublisKed Quao^erjyby 

THE STATE HISTORICAL SOCIETY OF IOWA 

Iowa. City Iowa. 



Eot«Tcd Dee«oib«r 26 1903 at Iowa City Iowa ss u^cjnd^dMD iBBttcr DCiler (ct of Congreil of Jnly 10 1894 



EDITOR 
BENJAMIN F. SHAMBAUGH 
Associate Editor, JOHN C. PARISH 





Vol XIX 


OCTOBER lOSl 


No 4 



CONTENTS 



The Legislature of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly 

of Iowa JohnE. Briggs 

Some Publications • ... 
WeBtern Americana 

lowana . . • ■ • ' 

Historical Societies 

Notes and Comment 

Contributors . . - ■ ■ 

Index . . . • • 



489 
06 

074 

on 
o;> 

70 
7<». 



Copyright 19S1 ly The State Eistorical Society of Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 

Published Quabteelt 
at iowa city 

SUBSCHIPTION PKIOE: $2.00 SINGLE NUMBEE: 50 CtV 

Address all Communications to 
Tub Statk Histouical Society Iowa City Iowa 



THE IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTOEY AND POLITICS 

OCTOBER NINETEEN HUNDRED TWENTY-ONE 
VOLUME NINETEEN NUMBER FOUR 



VOL. XIX — 32 



THE LEGISLATION OF THE THIRTY-NINTH 
GENERAL ASSEMBLY OF IOWA 

In accordance with a constitutional provision^ the 
Senate and House of Representatives of the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly convened on J anuary 10, 1921 ; and both 
houses adjourned eighty-nine days later on April 8th. This 
is the shortest regular session since 1909 when the period 
consumed by the Thirty-third General Assembly also in- 
cluded eighty-nine days. Both houses of the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly were in actual session only sixty-seven 
working days : besides the twelve Sundays, recesses were 
taken on January 14th, 15th, and 17th at the end of the first 
week and again from February 26th to March 5th inclusive 
to permit the members to attend to business matters at 
home. On the basis of the number of days employed the 
compensation of members of the Thirty-ninth General As- 
sembly amounted to approximately fifteen dollars a day.^ 

Some notion of the work of the Thirty-ninth General 
Assembly may be obtained from a summary of the number 
of bills considered. During the session 1147 measures were 
introduced. Of these, 529 bills and 10 joint resolutions 
originated in the Senate, and 606 bills and 2 joint resolu- 
tions in the House of Representatives. The House took 
action upon 463 of its own measures, and 257 of these were 

1 Constitution of Iowa, Art. Ill, See. 2. 

2 Most of the statistical information contained in the following paragraphs 
was compiled and verified by Mr. Jacob Van Ek. The facts were obtained 
from the bill files and Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, the House 
Journal and Senate Journal of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, and the 
Index and History of Senate and House Bills, 1921. All tabulations and sum- 
maries were carefully checked. 

489 



490 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



also acted upon by the Senate ; ^ the Senate took action upon 
408 of its own measures and 225 of these were also acted 
upon by the House. In all, 404 acts and 7 joint resolutions 
passed both houses and were approved by the Governor — 
150 of them receiving the executive signature after the date 
of adjournment, all but two being signed during the follow- 
ing week. One measure, the Springer Public Utilities Bill, 
was vetoed. 

Two hundred and five of the measures that gained enact- 
ment originated in the Senate, and 207 in the House. There 
were 43 Senate bills and 2 joint resolutions which failed to 
pass the House; while 103 House bills failed to pass the 
Senate. This is in marked contrast to the Thirty-eighth 
General Assembly in which nearly twice as many Senate 
bills failed to pass the House as House bills failed in the 
Senate. Like the previous Assembly, however, the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly enacted approximately thirty-six 
per cent of the bills introduced. The House passed nearly 
fifty-two per cent of its own measures, and the Senate 
passed more than forty-six per cent of the Senate bills. 
This again is almost the exact reverse of the situation in 
the Thirty-eighth General Assembly. It appears, there- 
fore, that in the Thirty-ninth General Assembly the House 
was able to dispose of business with more expedition than 
the Senate. Perhaps this was due to the installation of the 
electrical voting mechanism. No less than 191 acts — over 
46 per cent — were deemed to be of immediate importance 
and were declared to be in effect upon publication in desig- 
nated newspapers. This is 75 more than were deemed of 
immediate importance by the Thirty-eighth General As- 

8 Action in this case is construed to mean that a bill has come to or beyond 
the stage of being placed on the calendar. This means, in most cases, that a 
committee report has been adopted or rejected, which implies that the iiThole 
house has expressed an opinion on the measure. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 491 



sembly. The remaining 220 measures became effective 
July 4, 1921. 

In regard to the measures that failed of passage, by far 
the greater number were defeated in the chamber in which 
they originated. For example, of the 401 House files which 
failed of enactment 294 were lost in the House, 103 were 
lost in the Senate, one was lost in a conference committee, 
one was vetoed, and one was recalled from the Governor by 
both houses. Of the Senate files which failed of enactment 
289 were lost in the Senate, while only 45 were lost in the 
House. The manner in which the bills were defeated con- 
stitutes an enlightening commentary on the methods of 
legislation. No less than 217 of the 735 propositions that 
failed were withdrawn. More measures were disposed of 
adversely by this method than in any other way. This 
practice has the parliamentary advantage of disposing of a 
bill without prejudice and leaving the way open for its re- 
introduction at a more auspicious time in the same or 
future sessions. There were 204 bills which failed of enact- 
ment by being indefinitely postponed and 174 measures 
were lost in committee. Indefinite postponement was often 
recommended by committees on the theory that the matter 
would be handled during a special session on code revision. 
A surprisingly small number of bills — only 69 — were de- 
feated by an adverse vote on the question of passage. It 
appears that the chances of passage are good if a bill can 
be brought to the stage of the final vote. A few bills were 
lost by being passed on file and forgotten, and the career of 
others ended with the substitution of another bill on the 
same subject. There were only eight instances of bills be- 
ing killed by striking out the enacting clause. 

As in the Thirty-eighth General Assembly the number of 
bills introduced by individual members is, roughly speak- 
ing, inversely proportional to the size of the house. The 



492 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



average number of bills per member introduced in the 
Senate of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly was approxi- 
mately ten and four-fifths, while the average number intro- 
duced in the House was five and two-thirds. The largest 
number of bills introduced in the Senate by any one mem- 
ber was 38 by Addison M. Parker. Mr. Parker holds the 
record for the Thirty-eighth General Assembly also, having 
introduced 38 measures. In the House the largest number 
of bills introduced was 22 by A. 0. Hauge. Mr. Hauge 
like Mr. Parker lives in Des Moines and represents Polk 
County. Another coincidence is that J. B. Weaver, also of 
Des Moines, was sponsor for 18 bills, the third highest 
number introduced in the House. There were eight Repre- 
sentatives who did not present a single bill.* Seven bills 
were introduced in the Senate by request, none of which 
passed that chamber; while in the House thirty bills were 
introduced by request, four of which became law.^ The 
journals show that 105 measures were introduced by com- 
mittees. 

As in the case of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, 
most of the legislation of the Thirty-ninth was passed be- 
fore the last week of the session.^ Before April 4th, action 
up to the stage of enrollment had been taken by both houses 
on 232 measures — a little over fifty-six per cent of the 
total number of enactments. This is not as good a record 
as the Thirty-eighth General Assembly made with nearly 
sixty-eight per cent of its enactments passed before the 

* Among the number who did not introduce any bills is Eepresentative D. 0. 
Stone, who became ill at the end of the first month of the session and died on 
Tebruary 18th. 

5 The bills here referred to as introduced ' ' by request ' ' are formally desig- 
nated as so introduced. Of course many other bills not so designated were 
introduced upon the request of individuals or groups of individuals. 

6 The last week is taken to include the five working days from Monday, 
April 4th, to Friday, April 8th, inclusive. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEIilBLY 493 



last week. While the Thirty-ninth General Assembly- 
passed 179 measures during the last week of the session, 
only 45 of these acts passed both houses during this time. 
Furthermore, of the 179 measures upon which one or both 
houses took final action during the last week of the session, 
16 were introduced in January, 67 in February, 82 in 
March, 4 on the first and second of April, and 10 during the 
last week of the session. Of the 134 measures which passed 
one house during the last week, 6 were passed by the other 
house in February, 101 in March, and 27 on the first two 
days of April. Although it appears that one or both houses 
took final action upon nearly half of the legislation of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly during the last five days, 
it is also obvious that the great majority of measures had 
been under consideration for some weeks before the final 
vote. 

A sifting committee was appointed in the Senate on 
March 28th and in the House the following day. The ex- 
pedient of sifting committees is resorted to for the pur- 
pose of selecting those bills for further consideration which 
are most important, which are supported by public opinion, 
and which are not apt to require protracted debate. Bills 
which have reached the calendar are seldom referred to the 
sifting committee, and appropriation bills never are. 
Usually the measures that have already passed one branch 
of the legislature are favored by the sifting committee. 
For example, the Senate Sifting Committee in the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly considered 143 bills and reported 
out 55 of them. Of those reported 50 were House bills 
while only 5 were Senate files. A two-thirds affirmative vote 
in the committee is generally required for reporting out a 
bill, though the sifting committee is free to adopt any rule 
it pleases. 

There is nothing especially unusual about the character 



494 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



of the legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly. 
Only 163 enactments may be considered new legislation in 
the sense that they do not specifically repeal or amend 
existing statutes. Of this number 68 are legalizing acts, 
30 are appropriation acts, and 7 are joint resolutions. Most 
of the appropriations are for purposes already provided by 
law. Moreover, practically all of the 59 remaining acts are 
in the nature of additional legislation (not amendatory) on 
subjects upon which there was previous legislation. Thus 
the absolutely new legislation is limited almost entirely to 
appropriations to settle claims and to legalizing acts. 
While the number of legalizing acts is nearly double that 
of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly the total is still 35 
short of the number passed by the legislature in 1917. 

Slightly more than sixty per cent of the acts of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly — 248 to be exact — specif- 
ically amended or repealed existing statutes. Probably a 
more accurate impression of the amount of change may be 
obtained by summarizing the number of sections that were 
altered or repealed. 

Of the Code of IB 97, it appears that 13 sections were 
repealed, 18 were amended by adding new clauses, 21 were 
amended by striking out parts, 19 were amended by substi- 
tuting new words, phrases, or clauses, and 55 sections were 
struck out and new sections substituted — a total of 126 
sections. 

Of the Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 1913, 33 sections 
were repealed, 82 were amended by adding new clauses, 
55 were amended by striking out parts, 44 were amended by 
substituting new words, phrases, or clauses, and 50 sections 
were struck out and new sections substituted — a total of 
264 sections. 

Of the Supplemental Supplement to the Code of Iowa, 
1915, it is noted that 2 sections were repealed, 20 sections 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 495 



were amended by adding new clauses, 21 were amended by 
striking out parts, 18 were amended by substituting new 
words, phrases, or clauses, and 37 sections were struck out 
and new sections substituted — a total of 98 sections. 

Of the legislation of the Thirty-seventh General Assem- 
bly, 16 sections were repealed, 7 were amended by adding 
new clauses, 2 were amended by striking out parts, 11 were 
amended by substituting new words, phrases, or clauses, 
and 39 sections were struck out and new sections substi- 
tuted — a total of 75 sections. 

Of the legislation of the Thirty-eighth General Assem- 
bly, 6 sections were repealed, 41 were amended by adding 
new clauses, 13 were amended by striking out parts, 54 
were amended by substituting new words, phrases, or 
clauses, and 19 sections were struck out and new sections 
substituted — a total of 133 sections. 

Moreover, the Thirty-ninth General Assembly repealed 
one section and made slight additions to two other sections 
in one of its own acts (chapter 38), and repealed a section 
in another previous act (chapter 2) for the purpose of 
substituting a new section (chapter 210). Both of these 
acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly had previously 
gone into effect upon publication. Chapter 57 is super- 
seded by chapter 152, and section one of chapter 327 which 
was approved on February 24th is practically identical 
with section five of chapter 163 which was approved on 
April 8th. 

All together 700 sections of existing statute law were 
repealed or amended in some manner by the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly.'^ This appears to be an unusually large 

1 There Tvere a few instances of a particular section of the law being 
amended more than once by the Thirty- ninth General Assembly, so that the 
figure 700 represents a slight duplication in the actual number of sections 
amended. 



496 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



number — the total number of sections repealed or amend- 
ed by the Thirty-eighth General Assembly being 426, while 
the Thirty-seventh General Assembly repealed or amended 
only 364 sections. 

The favorite method of amendment used by the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly was to repeal the section and enact 
a substitute — one of the better forms, though not the best. 
This form was used in more than 200 instances. The next 
most prevalent practice in effecting changes in the law was 
to add or insert new matter without altering what already 
existed. There are over 140 instances of substituting new 
words, phrases, or clauses wdthin particular sections. In 
more than 100 cases sections were amended by striking out 
particular words, phrases, or clauses without substituting 
others in their place. Only 71 entire sections were repealed, 
and of these the substance was in some instances retained 
by rewriting the statute of which they were a part though 
corresponding new sections were not specifically substituted. 

CODIFICATION OF THE LAWS 

During the past three years a new codification of Iowa 
statute law has been an ever present legislative problem. 
The Thirty-eighth General Assembly created a Code Com- 
mission which produced the Compiled Code of 1919 and 
drafted a series of bills, known as Code Commission Bills, 
which were to be considered at a special session of 
that Assembly. The Governor, however, failed to call a 
special session in 1920 as requested; and so when the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly convened the work of code 
revision was uppermost in the minds of the members. 

On November 16, 1920, an informal meeting of members- 
elect was held at the Savery Hotel in Des Moines. Seventy- 
eight Eepresentatives and thirty-seven Senators, at their 
own expense of time and money, attended this preliminary 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEIklBLY 497 



caucus. A committee composed of six members from each 
house was appointed to consider the problem of code re- 
vision and to recommend to the General Assembly a plan 
of procedure. Accordingly, on January 10, 1921, the first 
day of the session, this committee submitted a report which 
suggested that code revision be postponed to a special ses- 
sion. This recommendation was based upon the experience 
of other Iowa General Assemblies in connection with the 
codes of 1873 and 1897. The committee, however, wishing 
to expedite as much as possible the work of the proposed 
special session, offered a resolution, which was adopted, 
providing that as much of the work of revision as possible 
be done during the regular session and that a Joint Com- 
mittee on Code Revision be appointed to supervise the 
work. Governor Harding, in his biennial message stated 
that "about 90 per cent of the work of every legislative 
session is code revision" and that he did not believe the 
task of adopting a new code was impossible if the legis- 
lature would properly systematize its work.^ 

With a view to devoting as much time as possible to code 
revision a concurrent resolution was passed fixing the sec- 
ond legislative day in March as the final date for the intro- 
duction of all bills except appropriation and committee 
bills, and providing that only as many code bills be brought 
upon the calendar for passage on that date as was believed 
could be passed, lest there be prejudice to those which 
might not be reached.^ In accordance with a recommen- 
dation of the Joint Committee on Code Revision eight spe- 
cial committees were appointed in each house, comprising 

8 House Journal, 1921, pp. 21-24, 30. 

8 In anticipation of code revision a concurrent resolution was adopted the 
first day of the session whereby the bill file numbers in each house from one to 
two hundred and seventy inclusive were reserved for Code Oommission bills, so 
that the regular biU numbers began with two hundred and seventy-one. — House 
Journal, 1921, p. 13; Senate Journal, 1921, pp. 12, 13. 



498 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



all members of the Assembly, and these committees, under 
the direction of the Joint Committee on Code Eevision, 
proceeded to verify the Compiled Code. Their reports were 
made on mimeographed forms and filed with the Code Edi- 
tor who transferred the data to a set of books prepared for 
the purpose so that by a system of marks the approval or 
disapproval of a particular section by the legislative check- 
ing committee may be observed at a glance. A great deal 
of time was consumed in this work, and fourteen of the 
sixteen committees entirely completed their assignments.^" 
By the time the Assembly reconvened after the March 
recess it appears that the hope of doing more than verify- 
ing the Compiled Code during the regular session had been 
abandoned. On March 8th Senator John R. Price otfered a 
concurrent resolution providing for a special session to 
revise the code, to be called for the first Monday in June, 
1921. This proposition was never considered and on March 
21st it was withdrawn by the author. In the House, Eepre- 
sentative J. H. Van Camp offered a concurrent resolution 
which provided for a special session to meet not later than 
November 28, 1921. This resolution was before the House 
on March 17th, when further consideration was deferred 
until March 22nd, but on that date the resolution failed to 
be called up. On March 28th, however, a concurrent reso- 
lution was introduced in the House and adopted, after 
amendment on April 5th, which declared that a special ses- 
sion to revise and codify the laws was necessary and ad- 
visable. Furthermore, to facilitate the work of the extra 
session the organization of the regular session was to be 
retained and prior to the adjournment of the regular ses- 
sion, in compliance with the terms of the concurrent reso- 

10 House Journal, 1921, pp. 21-24, 25, 26, 232, 233, 287, 289, 296; Senate 
Journal, 1921, pp. 207, 208, 218, 269, 270, 271, 272, 295, 296, 300, 301, 339, 
345, 367. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 499 



lution, all code bills were assigned to standing committees 
and referred to sub-committees with a view to having re- 
ports ready at the beginning of the special session.^^ 

It appears that the members of the General Assembly 
were fairly well convinced from the beginning that a special 
session would be necessary to take care of the work of code 
revision, but they thought there was a possibility of accom- 
plishing something during the regular session. As time 
passed, however, it seems that the idea of deferring the 
task to a special session found general approval, of which 
the concurrent resolution that was finally adopted is the 
e\T.dence. Since the adjournment of the G-eneral Assembly, 
however, Grovernor Kendall has let it be known that he does 
not intend to call the special session which the Assembly 
planned. 

After it had become evident that code revision would not 
be attempted at the regular session of the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly an act was passed which provided for 
keeping the work of codification up to date. Besides pub- 
lishing the legislation of the last Assembly in the usual 
form of session laws, the Supreme Court Reporter was 
directed to prepare a supplement to the Compiled Code 
containing this legislation arranged according to the titles, 
chapters, and sections of the Compiled Code. Moreover, 
the Committee on Retrenchment and Reform was author- 
ized to provide for and supervise the revision of the Code 
Commission Bills so as to harmonize them with the 
legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly. The 
Code Commissioners have been called upon to do this work, 
and the Committee on Retrenchment and Reform has 
power to employ any other assistance necessary. A sum 
sufficient to cover all expenses was appropriated.^^ 

11- Senate Journal, 1921, pp. 739, 1046, 1604; House Journal, 1921, pp. 871, 
872, 1113, 1114, 1577, 1604, 1876. 

12 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 333. 



500 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Another act closely related to code revision extended the 
time for the preparation of the book of annotations for the 
Code until the General Assembly should adopt a new code. 
The Thirty-eighth General Assembly had directed that the 
first book of annotations should be ready by January 1, 
1920, unless the Supreme Court should extend the time. 
The Supreme Court on November 22, 1919, extended the 
time until July 1, 1920, and on June 30, 1920, until sixty 
days after the convening of the Thirty-ninth General As- 
sembly. A considerable part of the book of annotations 
has already been prepared.^^ 

A sidelight on the status of the Compiled Code is seen in 
an act which states that all parenthetical references in bills 
of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly to the Compiled 
Code are to be deemed to have been inserted solely as cross 
references, unless otherwise specified, and do not consti- 
tute any part of the final act.^^ 

Two Iowa statutes, the Soldiers' Bonus Law and the 
Blue Sky Law, were considered of such importance that 
the Thirty-ninth General Assembly provided by joint reso- 
lution for separate publication and distribution of two 
thousand copies of the former and one thousand copies of 
the latter. Copies of the Bonus Law are distributed 
through the Governor's office, while the Blue Sky Law is 
distributed by the Secretary of State.^^ 

CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENT AND EEVISION 

The Constitution provides that, beginning in 1870, the 
question of calling a constitutional convention shall be sub- 
mitted to the voters of the State every ten years. In 1920 
for the first time those voting "Yes" on the proposition 
were in the majority, the official vote being 279,652 in the 

13 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 323. 

14 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 324 
16 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 410 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 501 



affirmative and 221,763 against the proposition — one of 
the most decisive of the six votes that have been taken 
since 1857.^® The Constitution further provides that when 
the question is decided in the affirmative "the General As- 
sembly, at its next session, shall provide by law for the 
election of delegates to such Convention." 

Although some doubt was expressed as to the advisabil- 
ity or necessity of holding a convention at this time, a bill 
providing for a partisan convention to meet in 1923 passed 
the House on March 15th. The Senate passed a substitute 
on March 30th which the House refused to accept. A con- 
ference committee report in favor of the House bill with 
slight modifications was adopted in the House by a vote of 
78 to 8. The question was immediately reconsidered and 
on the second vote the proposal to adopt this report lost 
by a vote of 24 to 66. A second conference committee was 
appointed, but before it reported the House adopted a reso- 
lution during the last hours of the session whereby the bill 
was to be retained in the possession of the chief clerk until 
the time of the final adjournment, was not to be enrolled, 
and was not to be signed by the Speaker. This appears to 
give substance to the report that the purpose of the House 
in insisting upon the adoption of its own bill was to kill the 
measure. The General Assembly adjourned without ful- 
filling the wishes of the people as expressed at the general 
election in 1920 and without complying with the provisions 
of the Constitution.^^ 

16 The votes on the question, ' ' Shall there be a Convention to revise the 
Constitution, and amend the same?" are as follov7s: in 1870, 24,846 for and 
82,039 against; in 1880, 69,762 for and 83,784 against; in 1890, 27,806 for 
and 159,394 against; in 1900, 176,337 for and 176,892 against; and in 1910, 
134,083 for and 166,054 against. Thus the narrowest majority was 555 against 
in 1900 while next to the largest majority was 57,789 for in 1920 — the 
largest majority on the question being 131,588 against in 1890. 

IT Constitution of Iowa, 1857, Art. X, Sec. 3; Bouse Journal, 1921, pp. 1043, 
1976, 2209, 2213, 2220; Senate Journal, 1921, pp. 1422-1426, 1915; House 
Pile No. 307. 



502 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



The Constitution provides that a law contracting a State 
debt in excess of $250,000 — except to repel invasion, sup- 
press insurrection, or defend the State in war — must be 
approved by a majority of the votes cast on the proposition 
at a general election. For the first time in the history of 
the State that clause is to be brought into use in connection 
with raising funds to pay soldiers' bonuses. The passage 
of the Soldiers' Bonus Law thus made it necessary to re- 
write the Code provisions regulating the compulsory refer- 
endum, which in this State has hitherto functioned only in 
case of constitutional amendments. The only changes in 
the procedure of submitting amendments is the additional 
duty of the Secretary of State to transmit a copy of the 
amendment and a sample ballot to the auditor of each 
county twenty days before the election, and the provision 
authorizing judges of election, county boards of canvassers, 
and other election officials to canvass the vote and make 
returns of the result. These provisions apply also to the 
public measures like the Soldiers' Bonus Law which are 
subject to the compulsory referendum. Such measures, 
unlike constitutional amendments, can not according to a 
constitutional provision be submitted at a special election: 
if no general election is specified in the act they are sub- 
mitted at the one first ensuing. Instead of being published 
in two newspapers in general circulation in each congres- 
sional district of the State, as in the case of amendments, 
public measures must be published in at least one such 
newspaper in each county. The proof and record of publi- 
cation provisions are identical with those for constitutional 
amendments.^® 

PUBLIC PRINTING 

From the earliest times the public printing in Iowa has 

^8 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, <Jh. 283; Constitution of Iowa, 
Art. VII, Sec. 5. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 503 



been a subject of mucb criticism and investigation. For 
more tban fifty years the work was done by a State Printer 
and a State Binder without competition and at exorbitant 
prices. Year after year bills to have the work done by con- 
tract in open competition were defeated until 1917 when the 
offices of State Printer and State Binder were abolished 
and a Board of Public Printing and Binding was created 
to supervise printing on a competitive basis. This board 
was composed of the Governor, Secretary of State, State 
Auditor, and State Treasurer, with the Document Editor, 
whose office was established in 1915, acting as secretary. 
Since the establishment of the offices of State Printer and 
State Binder the prices for State printing and binding had 
been rigidly fixed by law, and the revised law of 1917 in- 
cluded a provision requiring the Printing Board to estab- 
lish the existing schedule of maximum charges within which 
the competitive bids were required to come. Originally 
these prices were very generous, but by 1920 printing costs 
had advanced so much that no publisher could afford to do 
the work.^^ 

When the Thirty-ninth G-eneral Assembly convened none 
of the reports of State officers had been printed, and special 
legislation was necessary before the legislative printing 
could be done. Accordingly, a bill was introduced on the 
first day of the session, passed, and approved on the third 
day authorizing the Board of Printing and Binding to 
contract for emergency printing at prices above the sched- 
ule of maximum rates and at an unlimited total cost. 
Formerly the Board had been limited to $100 for emer- 
gency work and required to keep within the maximum rates. 
Furthermore, the Board was later empowered to contract 
for the printing of reports, documents, and job work pro- 
vided by law or needed in the conduct of State business 

18 Acts of the Thirty-seventh General Assembly, Ch. 183. 



VOL. XIX — 33 



504 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



notwithstanding any provisions of the existing law to the 
contrary. Both of these measures — the latter a joint reso- 
lution — terminated upon the adjournment of the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly.^'' 

Before the Assembly adjourned, however, the entire law 
relating to public printing and binding, publication and 
distribution of State documents, the office of Document 
Editor, and the Board of Public Printing and Binding was 
repealed and rewritten. The new law is the longest act 
passed by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, and in some 
respects the most important. It constitutes one of the few 
successful attempts at constructive legislation by the ses- 
sion under review. Senator Ed. M. Smith and Representa- 
tive E. P. Harrison, both experienced newspaper men, 
devoted themselves earnestly to establishing a thorough- 
going system of regulating the State printing which would 
ensure competent supervision and at the same time prevent 
a recurrence of the recent experience. The competitive 
plan was of course retained; but many regulations which 
had previously been specified by law were left to adminis- 
trative discretion.2^ 

The new act creates a State Printing Board composed of 
the Secretary of State, the State Auditor, the Attorney 
General, and two residents of the State of good moral 
character with at least five years actual experience in the 
printing trade.^- The term of office is two years, one ap- 
pointive member being selected by the Governor each year. 
The compensation is ten dollars and expenses for every day 
actually employed. 

20 Jndea; and History of Senate and Bouse BiUs, 1921, p. 34; Acts of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 322, 330. 

21 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 286. 

22 The Board as first organized consists of W. C. Ramsay, Glenn C. Haynes, 
Ben J. Gibson, W. R. Orchard, and James C. Gillespie. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 505 



The duties of the Printing Board are to let contracts for 
the printing ''for all state offices, departments, boards and 
commissions" when paid for out of funds collected for 
State purposes; to direct the ''manner, form, style and 
quantity of all public printing"; to employ, discharge, and 
fix the compensation of necessary assistants; to prescribe 
rules for the conduct of its business ; to keep a record of all 
its meetings and actions ; to hear and determine complaints 
against any official action of the Superintendent of Print- 
ing; to make biennial reports to the Governor; and to 
perform any other duties required by law. 

Potentially the Board is very powerful. While the law 
includes many specific regulations there is little encroach- 
ment upon administrative discretion. Private printers are 
protected against the competition of printing plants at 
various State institutions. All printing bills will be paid 
from one fund and then charged to the departments for 
which the printing was done, thus furnishing a check on all 
State printing which, it is hoped, will obviate much of the 
criticism that has customarily been made. 

To facilitate handling the printing of State institutions 
and departments located outside of Des Moines, the Board 
has authority to appoint assistants and authorize them to 
issue orders for printing. Furthermore, the Board may 
authorize the managing board, head, or chief executive 
officer of such State institutions to contract for printing 
with the approval of the Board. In some instances the 
chief executive officer will probably be made an assistant 
to the Board, so that the direction of printing for that 
particular institution may remain practically as at present. 

The general administrative officer of the State Printing 
Board is the Superintendent of Printing who in a sense 
takes the place of the former Document Editor. He is ap- 



506 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



pointed by the Board for an indefinite period and must be 
a resident of Iowa, of good moral character, and with at 
least five years experience as a printer.^^ His office is 
located in Des Moines and he is required to devote all his 
time to office duties which comprise having charge of the 
equipment and supplies of the Printing Board, exercising 
general supervision of all matters pertaining to the print- 
ing contracts, keeping detailed records of the proceedings 
of the Board and the award of contracts, preparing specifi- 
cations and advertisements for printing, directing the docu- 
ment department, editing the manuscripts of all reports, 
documents, or books printed by the State, and performing 
any other functions incident to the position. As director of 
the document department he is responsible for the distribu- 
tion of State publications, except that the reports of the 
geological survey are at the disposal of the State Geologist 
and the codes, supplements, and session laws are turned 
over to the Secretary of State for distribution. The Super- 
intendent of Printing is responsible for the publication of 
the bills and daily journals of the General Assembly and is 
required to compile and print weekly a cumulative bulletin 
containing a history of each bilL^"* 

Another change in the law relating to State printing is to 
be found in chapter 165. In the past the Reports of the 
Iowa Supreme Court have not come within the scope of the 
statute regulating other State printing, but have been 
printed under contracts let by the Supreme Court — though 
the Court had authority to have the Reports published by 
the State. This arrangement, somewhat amended, still ob- 
tains under the new printing law. Formerly, the printer of 
the Supreme Court Reports was required by law to deliver 

23 The first incumbent of this office is the former State Printer, Eobert 
Henderson. 

2* Jets of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 286. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 507 



the first three hundred and fifty copies to the Secretary of 
State free of charge, for distribution to the district judges, 
deposit in various libraries, and exclmnge with other States. 
Inasmuch as only about fifteen hundred copies were printed, 
this practice increased the cost of copies sold to private 
purchasers approximately thirty per cent. Moreover, the 
Court experienced much difficulty in making satisfactory 
contracts according to the terms of this statute. The law 
was therefore amended to allow the Court to make contracts 
whereby the State would pay for its copies of the Reports 
and the number printed for the State, not exceeding three 
hundred and fifty, will now be determined by the Court.^^ 

SUFFEAGE AND ELECTIONS 

It was to have been expected that the adoption of the 
equal suffrage amendment to the Constitution of the United 
States and the consequent doubling of the electorate would 
necessitate readjustments of the law regulating suffrage 
and elections in Iowa. It will be recalled that in 1919 an 
act was passed permitting the women in Iowa to vote for 
presidential and vice presidential electors. This statute 
having been rendered obsolete by the adoption of the Nine- 
teenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution in 1920, the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly repealed the act of 1919. 
While the suffrage provisions in the Iowa Constitution and 
several statutory regulations have been nullified by the 
Nineteenth Amendment, no effort was made by the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly to thoroughly amend the suffrage 
statutes in this connection or to correct the State Consti- 
tution by passing the pending equal suffrage amendment. 
While this neglect may be explained by the confident antici- 
pation of code revision and of a constitutional convention, 
the business of harmonizing the Iowa Constitution with the 

25 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 165. 



508 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Nineteenth Amendment has been delayed for at least four 
years.^^ 

By doubling the electorate the task of counting votes was 
greatly augmented, resulting in delayed returns and an 
excessive amount of work on the part of election officials. 
To remedy this situation the board of supervisors was 
authorized by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly to ap- 
point a bipartisan election ''counting board" consisting of 
three judges and two clerks at each primary and general 
election in any precinct polling three hundred votes or 
more. The judges and clerks of election previously pro- 
vided for are now known as the ''receiving board". The 
counting board begins work at one o'clock and is assisted 
by the receiving board after the polls have closed. The 
place occupied by the counting board must be policed in 
such a way as to prevent anyone 's gaining information re- 
garding the progress of the count until the polls are closed. 
Anyone violating the secrecy of the ballot may be fined as 
much as five hundred dollars, or imprisoned not over six 
months, and disfranchised for five years. The act does not 
apply to school or municipal elections or in precincts where 
voting machines are used.^^ 

The act of 1919 restoring the party circle to the ballot in 
Iowa caused much difference of opinion as to the use of 
voting machines not equipped with party levers. There 
were more than twenty counties which owned such ma- 
chines. In August, 1920, the Attorney General rendered an 
opinion to the effect that the use of voting machines with- 
out party levers would not invalidate the vote; and while 
he strongly advised the equipment of such machines with 
party levers before the general election, he thought it 
would be proper to use them as they were, though county 

20 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 19. 
27 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 60. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 509 



officials who attempted to do so would run the risk of being 
enjoined. Toward the end of September, after several con- 
ferences and when it became known that injunction actions 
were threatened in several counties, the Attorney General 
withdrew his former opinion. Voting machines without 
party levers were, nevertheless, used in some counties with- 
out protest. To settle the question and to prevent the 
money invested in such machines from being wasted or to 
save the expense of having them equipped with party levers 
the Thirty-ninth General Assembly legalized voting ma- 
chines not so equipped if purchased before April 1, 1921.^^ 

In 1920 there arose in a number of places a question re- 
garding the propriety of recording upon the voting machine 
the ballots cast by absent voters. In order to dispel any 
doubt on this procedure an act was passed by the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly specifically providing that hence- 
forth two election judges of ditferent parties shall register 
the absent voters ' ballots on the voting machine during the 
time that the polls are open on election day.^° 

The usual effort to change the law regulating primary 
elections occurred during the Thirty-ninth General Assem- 
bly. Eepresentative L. H. Mayne was the sponsor of a bill 
to return to the convention system of nominations, while 
another bill by Senator George S. Banta proposed to mod- 
ify the primary election system by first nominating at con- 
ventions the candidates to be voted on at the primary. 
Other House bills proposed changing the date of the pri- 
mary and modifying the requirement that a candidate must 
receive thirty-five per cent of the vote cast for the office in 
order to be nominated. None of these bills passed the 
house in which they originated. The only change that was 
made in the primary law fixed the final date for filing nomi- 

28 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 266. 

29 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assemily, Ch. 279. 



510 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



nation papers twenty days prior to the primary election 
instead of fifteen days as formerly.^" 

The Thirty-eighth General Assembly changed the law 
regulating the withdrawal of candidates by fixing the time 
limit for filing the written request with the auditor at fifteen 
or with the county clerk at twelve days before the election. 
Now the Thirty-ninth General Assembly has extended the 
time limit for filing the request to withdraw with the audi- 
tor at twenty days before the election, but such a request can 
still be filed with the clerk as late as twelve days before the 
election. This will allow ten days for the auditor to pre- 
pare and have the ballots printed before he is required to 
furnish them to absent voters.^^ 

Since 1907 candidates for practically all elective offices 
in Iowa have been required to file a statement of campaign 
expenses within ten days after the election. An act of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly requires the filing of subse- 
quent statements covering campaign contributions received 
after the regular report has been made. Moreover, lest 
public office become a commodity to be purchased by the 
expenditure of unseemly sums for campaign purposes, a 
candidate for public office in Iowa is now forbidden to spend 
in a campaign more than the annual salary of the position 
sought. Not more than fifty per cent of the amount of the 
annual salary can be spent to secure the nomination and 
not more than fifty per cent to win the election.^^ 

COMPENSATION OF PUBLIC OFFICIAjLS 

The enormous increase in the cost of living caused a 
general salary raise in 1919 for practically all public offi- 

30 House File Nos. 281, 629, 729, 747; Senate File No. 395; Acts of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 75. 

SI Acts of the Thirty-eighth General Assemlhj, Ch. 100; Acts of the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly, Ch. 105. 

32 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 197. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 511 



cials in Iowa. Although there was some demand in 1921 
for further increases of compensation, the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly did not provide for another general 
raise. At the same time there were many instances of 
salary increases by this Assembly. There were very few 
reductions in compensation. The members of the Pharmacy 
Commission, instead of receiving $1500 annually and ex- 
penses, will now receive $10 per day, not to exceed ninety 
days, plus expenses. A reduction of $500 was effected in 
the case of one of the Assistant Attorney Generals.^^ 

The list of State officers who will receive more compen- 
sation than in the past is long.-''* Thus the salary of the 
Deputy Secretary of State was raised from $2200 to $2400 ; 
the Superintendent of the Bond and Investment Depart- 
ment in the office of Secretary of State now receives a sal- 
ary of $3000 instead of $2400. In the Treasurer's office 
there were two officers who received an increase in their 
pay — the Deputy Treasurer of State and the Cashier. The 
salary of the former was raised from $2400 to $2700, and 
that of the latter from $1800 to $2100. Two Assistant At- 
torney Generals received a raise — one from $3500 to $3600, 
and the other from $3000 to $3600 — while the salary of 
another was reduced $500. In the office of the Board of 
Control there seems to have been a general increase. The 
Architect was raised in salary from $3000 to $3600, the 
Accountant from $2100 to $2200, one of the Assistant Ac- 
countants from $1600 to $1800, another Assistant Ac- 

33 The Des Moines Register, January 27, 1921; Acts of the Thirty -ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly, Ch. 340. 

34 These changes are as indicated by a comparison of the general salary acts 
of 1919 and 1921. Inasmuch as the Committee on Eetrenchment and Reform 
may increase or reduce an officer's salary at any time, several of these in- 
creases were actually in effect before the new salary act was passed, and some 
changes have been made since. All salaries listed are annual unless otherwise 
indicated. 



512 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



countant from $1500 to $1600, the Purchasing Agent from 
$2000 to $2500, and the Draftsman from $1500 to $1700. 
The salaries of both the Supreme Court Reporter and his 
deputy were raised from $3500 to $4000 and from $2000 to 
$2400 respectively. Nine of the more important employees 
in the reorganized ofi&ce of Custodian of Public Buildings 
and Grounds had their pay raised : the Assistant Custodian I 
and Engineer from $2200 to $2420, the First Assistant En- | 
gineer from $1500 to $1725, the Second Assistant Engineer j 
from $1400 to $1610, the Machinist and Electrician from 1 
$1500 to $1725, the Assistant Machinist from $1400 to i 
$1610, the Carpenter from $1500 to $1725, the Extra Engi- ! 
neer from $1400 to $1610, the Florist from $1400 to $1610, \ 
and the Painter from $1500 to $1900. The salaries of Inspec- | 
tors in the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction i 
were raised from $2400 to $2700 ; and the Secretary for the , 
Board of Educational Examiners received an addition of 
$200 to his former pay of $1800. Two assistants in the State 
General Library had their pay increased, one of them from 
$1500 to $2000 and the other from $1400 to $1700. In this 
same department the Cataloguer's pay was raised from 
$1400 to $1900 and that of Accountant and Bookkeeper 
from $1400 to $1600. In the State Law Library the Assist- 
ant Librarian's salary was fixed at $1800 as compared with 
$1400 previously, and the Research Assistant for this libra- 
ry now receives a salary of $2000 instead of $1800. The Sec- 
retary of the Librarj^ Commission receives $2400 instead of 
the former salary of $1800. The three Assistant Curators 
in the Historical Department received a raise of $300 each, 
so that two of them now receive $2400 and the other $1700. 
The Thirty-ninth General Assembly made a large number 
of increases in the salaries of employees in both the office 
of Railroad Commissioners and the office of Insurance 
Commissioner. The salary of the Secretary to the Rail- 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 513 



road Commissioners was raised from $2700 to $2820, the 
Chief Rate Clerk's compensation was increased from $2400 
to $2520, the Reporter's from $2000 to $2400, the Chief 
Clerk's from $1800 to $1920, one of the Assistant Rate 
Clerk's from $1600 to $1920, and the Statistician's from 
$1800 to $2000. In the office of the Insurance Commissioner 
the following increases in salaries were made : the Insur- 
ance Commissioner from $3600 to $4000, the Deputy In- 
surance Commissioner from $2400 to $2700, the Security 
Clerk from $2100 to $2400, the Fee Clerk from $1400 to 
$1800, and the General Clerk from $1400 to $1600. The 
compensation of the Assistant Commerce Counsel was in- 
creased from $2400 to $2700 and that of the Law Clerk in 
the office of the Commerce Counsel from $1800 to $2100. In 
the office of the Commissioner of Labor the Deputy Commis- 
sioner's salary was increased from $1800 to $2000, while 
three Factory Inspectors, the Chief Clerk of the Employ- 
ment Service, and the Statistician were all raised from 
$1500 to $1800. The compensation of three officials in the 
office of the Industrial Commissioner were increased as fol- 
lows : the Industrial Commissioner from $3300 to $3600, the 
Deputy Industrial Commissioner from $2400 to $2700, and 
the Secretary for this office from $1800 to $2000. The 
Chief Clerk in the Dairy and Food Department will receive 
$2000 instead of $1800 as formerly while the Secretary for 
the Geological Survey received a raise of $200 making his 
present salary $1600. The compensation of three Mine 
Inspectors is to remain at $2700, but they are to be allowed 
a sum up to $750 each year for travelling expenses. Finally 
the salary of the Fire Commissioner was raised from $2500 
to $2700 and that of the Warden of the Fish and Game 
Department from $2400 to $2700.^5 

From the above enumeration it appears that the great 

35 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 340. 



514 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



majority of increases in salaries were in behalf of deputies 
and assistants, particularly those of whom some special 
training is required. Only five heads of departments were 
given a raise. These are the Supreme Court Reporter, the 
Insurance Commissioner, the Industrial Commissioner, the 
Fire Commissioner, and the Fish and Game Warden. Thus 
it would seem that the salaries of the officers of greatest 
importance and those of least importance were in the main 
not changed. By far the larger number of increases was in 
sums of two hundred or three hundred dollars. Of the 
changes enumerated there were five six hundred dollar 
raises, four of five hundred dollars, six of four hundred 
dollars, twenty-two of three hundred dollars, twenty-one of 
two hundred dollars, and six of one hundred dollars. 

The most notable work of the Thirtj^-ninth General As- 
sembly on the subject of compensation was to definitely 
establish the practice of fixing the salaries and compensa- 
tion of State officials every two years. Before 1919 it was 
the custom to determine the salaries of many of the State 
officers by joint resolution and then provide the funds to 
pay them in an appropriation act. In addition to the sal- 
aries fixed by such resolution there were many others pre- 
scribed by law as found in the Code and Supplements. Not 
infrequently it occurred that salary provisions in the Code 
would be changed for a particular officer without regard to 
what other officers holding similar positions were paid. 
Moreover, it was not impossible to increase the salary of 
an officer whose compensation was already fixed by in- 
cluding an item for him in the joint resolution. Thus the 
whole subject of compensating State officers was confusing, 
unfair, haphazard, and conducive to petty politics. 

The Thirty-eighth General Assembly inaugurated a new 
plan. A general salary act in the form of an ordinary law 
was passed which not only designated the salaries of State 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 515 



officers but also appropriated the money to pay them. 
Moreover, many officials were included whose salaries were 
already fixed by law, and a clause was inserted which in 
effect amended all such conflicting provisions. At that 
time, however, the salary provisions in the statute concern- 
ing the various officers were not specifically repealed and 
continued to be permanently prescribed, presumably as 
amended. 

In order to clear up this matter, the Thirty-ninth General 
Assembly continued the policy of the Thirty-eighth As- 
sembly by passing a general salary act and specifically 
repealing nearly all of the former salary provisions in the 
Code and Supplements. Thus the salaries of practically 
all State officers will now be determined every two years. 
In most instances where the appropriation for support 
formerly included salaries, the two were separated and the 
appropriations for maintenance of State offices and institu- 
tions are made in the omnibus bill or in separate acts. 
Besides repealing the existing salary provisions, the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly placed the appointment of 
extra assistants in the hands of the Committee on Retrench- 
ment and Reform so that it is no longer necessary to give 
departments that power. The fact that several acts of the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly do contain provisions for 
new offices prescribing definite salaries for the appointment 
of additional assistants by heads of departments, and for 
the determination of salaries other than by the Committee 
on Retrenchment and Reform or in the general salary act, 
may be explained as oversights or due to the unfamiliarity 
of some of the legislators with the new policy in regard to 
salaries.^^ 

The Thirty-eighth General Assemlbly provided a new 
schedule of salaries for all of the county officers except the 

9« Acts of the Thirty-ninth General AssemWy, Ch. 209. 



516 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



coroner, and for most of the deputy county officers. In 
most cases this new schedule provided for an increase in 
salaries. In anticipation of possible lower costs of living 
the legislature at that time provided that the increases 
should not apply after June, 1921.^'^ When the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly met, the period of lower costs of 
living had not yet arrived and as there was no reason to 
expect it immediately the increases in the salaries of county 
officers and deputies as provided by the Thirty-eighth Gen- 
eral Assembly were continued until June, 1923. The bill 
relating to the salaries of county officers as originally intro- 
duced provided that the increases of 1919 be made perma- 
nent, but the committee to which it was referred reported 
in favor of extending the increases only until 1923.^* 

In fixing the salaries of the county auditor and county 
treasurer the Thirty-eighth General Assembly provided an 
extra three hundred dollars for each of these officers in 
Scott, Muscatine, and Clinton counties if the auditor made 
up the tax books for the special charter city in those coun- 
ties and if the treasurer collected the taxes of those cities. 
The Thirty-ninth General Assembly amended this provi- 
sion by providing that these officers in counties having a 
population of twenty-five thousand and containing a special 
charter city shall receive the extra compensation only when 
the special charter city has five thousand inhabitants or 
more. By virtue of the fact that Camanche, the special 
charter city in Clinton County, has only six hundred and 
ten inhabitants the effect of the change is to deprive the 
auditor and treasurer in Clinton County of the extra $300 
compensation they were formerly entitled to receive.^*. 

S7 The Act granting increases of salary to countv officers expired June 30, 
1921, and that for deputy county officers on June 1, 1921. The new legislation 
extended these increases to June 30th, 1923, and June 1st, 1923, respectively. 

88 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 74, 97. 

39 Acts of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, Ch. 293; Acts of the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly, Ch. 74. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 517 



The schedule of salaries for deputy county officers fixed 
by the Thirty-eighth General Assembly provided in the 
cases of the deputy clerks, the deputy county auditors, the 
deputy county treasurers, and the deputy county recorders 
that in counties having within their limits a city of 60,000 
or over the salary of the first and second deputy shall be 
65% of that of the principal, and the salary of the third and 
fourth deputy shall be 50% of that of the principal, and in 
case additional deputies and clerks are needed the salary 
of such additional deputies and clerks shall be fixed by the 
board of supervisors.*^ This provision was changed so as 
to apply to counties which have within their limits a city of 
forty-five thousand or over, thus adding Scott and Linn 
counties to the category of Polk and Woodbury. That part 
of the former act which related to the appointment and 
salaries of deputy sheriffs was rewritten. The duty of the 
sheritf to appoint one or more deputies was made optional 
instead of mandatory, and the bond of deputy sheriffs may 
now without question be approved by the board of super- 
visors. Deputy sheriffs are now required to take the same 
oath as the sheriff. Salary provisions were also changed 
in a few particulars so that the board of supervisors may 
not pay the deputy sheriffs more than $1500, except that in 
counties with a population of fifty thousand or over the 
first deputy shall receive a compensation equal to sixty-five 
per cent of that of his principal but not over $1800.*^ 

The act of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly which 
makes the above changes in the salaries of deputy county 
clerks, auditors, treasurers, recorders, and sheriffs is 
amendatory to chapter 278 of the Acts of the Thirty-eighth 
General Assembly which contains nearly all other salary 
provisions pertaining to deputy county officers. This same 

*o Acts of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, Ch. 278. 
41 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 260. 



518 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



chapter 278 was previously amended by the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly, however, continuing the effect of its pro- 
visions until J une, 1923. The provisions of the later act of 
the Thirty-ninth General Assembly alfecting the deputy 
clerks, auditors, treasurers, recorders, and sheriffs will 
also become ineffective after that date. 

Changes made in the compensation of township and 
municipal officials will be discussed in connection with the 
topics of township government and municipal legislation. 

THE STATE LEGISLATUEE 

An amendment of the Iowa Constitution adopted in 1904 
requires that the General Assembly at the next session 
following each State and national census shall apportion 
the State Senators and Eepresentatives among the several 
counties or districts according to population. This was 
done in 1906 and 1911, but the Thirty-seventh General 
Assembly failed to make any reapportionment, and the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly readjusted only the repre- 
sentative districts. The only problem in redistricting the 
State for the election of Eepresentatives is in determining 
the nine largest counties which shall have two Eepresenta- 
tives. According to the 1906 apportionment they were Lee, 
Des Moines, Pottawattamie, Polk, Scott, Clinton, Linn, 
Woodbury, and Dubuque. Since 1911 Black Hawk County 
has displaced Des Moines County, while Wapello County 
took the place of Lee County in 1911 and retained it until 
1921 when Lee County was again placed among the nine 
counties entitled to two Eepresentatives. 

Bills were introduced in the Thirty-ninth General As- 
sembly to reapportion the senatorial districts, and although 
the matter was considered neither of these bills passed the 
house in which it was introduced, despite the fact — or 
perhaps on account of it — that the senatorial districts 
have not been changed since 1886 and the representation of 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 519 



the cities and counties in the western part of the State is 
entirely inadequate while the older counties in eastern Iowa 
have a much larger representation in the Senate than they 
deserve on the basis of population.'*^ 

During the session of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly 
the usual number of extra janitors and other assistants 
were employed. A research assistant in the State Law 
Library, two electricians to operate the House voting ma- 
chine, and an assistant sergeant-at-arms in the House 
should be mentioned particularly. The compensation of 
officers and employees of the Thirty-ninth General Assem- 
bly was fixed at the same wages as that provided by the 
previous Assembly, with one exception. After heated de- 
bate extending over a period of three weeks, during which 
numerous parliamentary tangles were encountered, the per 
diem compensation of the enrolling clerk in the House was 
increased a dollar and a quarter a day.*^ 

The statute governing the organization and authority of 
the Joint Committee on Retrenchment and Reform was 
repealed and rewritten. Heretofore the law required that 
two members of this committee in each house should be 
members of the minority party or parties. In the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly there were only two Democrats in 
the Senate and all the other Senators were Republicans, 
while in the House there were only six Democrats. Many 
members of the legislature felt that the minority was over- 
represented on this important committee and there was 
some anxiety lest the time should come when, for lack of 
any minority party members in one branch of the legis- 
lature, the organization of the committee would be pre- 
vented. In view of these considerations the new law is so 
worded that in addition to the chairmen of the Ways and 
Means, Judiciary, and Appropriations committees in each 

42 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assemhly, Ch. 331. 
i3 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assemhly, Chs. 406, 407, 408. 
VOL. XIX — 34 



520 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



house the two appointive members may also be of the 
majority party if no minority party is represented, or if 
there is but one representative of a minority party in either 
house the other appointive member shall be of the ma- 
jority party. Furthermore, members of this committee 
are now to receive ten dollars a day compensation, in addi- 
tion to their travelling expenses, for meetings when the 
legislature is not in session.** 

An act in the interest of uniformity in State legislation 
provides for the appointment by the Governor of three 
members of the Iowa bar to constitute a Commission on 
Uniform State Laws. The commissioners are to serve for 
a term of four years and without compensation except 
actual expenses. They are required to hold at least one 
meeting once in two years, attend the meetings of the Na- 
tional Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State 
Laws, promote uniformity in State laws, report recommen- 
dations to the legislature, and urge uniform judicial inter- 
pretation of uniform State laws. This measure was 
proposed by the National Conference of Commissioners on 
Uniform State Laws.*-^ 

The Legislative Reference Bureau in connection with the 
State Law Library was established in 1911 and has been of 
constantly increasing service to the General Assembly. No 
provision has ever been made, however, for the employ- 
ment of a scientific bill drafter. While many laws in the 
past have been well drawn by experts there has been no one 
to whom any legislator might go for impartial and scientific 
aid in drafting a measure. Indeed, some members of the 
General Assembly have been inclined to hold aloof from 
any such service. With the stimulus of code revision there 
has been a definite tendency on the part of the legislature 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 218. 
Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 201. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 521 



to seek expert advice in the drafting of bills. A slight be- 
ginning was made in the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, 
but the inauguration of scientific bill drafting as a common 
practice in Iowa probably dates from the Thirty-ninth Gen- 
eral Assembly, Realizing the advantage of careful prep- 
aration of measures, committees and members of the 
legislature frequently consulted the Code Editor and his 
assistants for advice in bill drafting. The result is ap- 
parent in several of the more important acts. 

THE STATE ADMINISTEATION 

When the Thirty-ninth General Assembly convened there 
was considerable talk of changes in State administrative 
organization. Governor Kendall recommended the merg- 
ing of the Board of Parole with the Board of Control, and a 
bill to that etf ect was introduced in the Senate but failed to 
pass. Then came the incident involving the appointment 
of a woman to membership on the Board of Control. Twice 
the Governor submitted the name of a woman, but the 
Senate steadfastly refused to ratify his nominations. Two 
bills were introduced in the Senate requiring that one mem- 
ber of the Board of Control be a woman, but neither of 
these measures passed the Senate. At the same time two 
women members were appointed to the Board of Education. 

The State Highway Commission was the subject of some 
criticism and bills were introduced making the Commis- 
sioners elective, limiting their authority to primary roads, 
depriving them of the authority to relocate primary roads, 
and removing the headquarters of the Commission from 
Ames to Des Moines — none of which passed the house in 
which they were introduced. 

Efforts were made also to reorganize the State Board of 
- Agriculture and have the elective members selected by con- 



522 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



gressional district caucuses instead of chosen by the State ^ 
agricultural convention as a whole, but a bill to that effect 
which passed the House failed of consideration in the 
Senate. 

A long bill containing a hundred and ten sections pro- 1 
posed to create the office of Commissioner of Land Titles, i 
The measure was introduced by Senator E. H. Campbell I 
but was never reported out of the committee. 

Senator Milton B. Pitt proposed the establishment of a i 
central purchasing bureau to be composed of the Superin- 1 
tendent of Banking, the chairman of the Board of Control, 
and the chairman of the Board of Education, but nothing 
came of his bill.*" i 

In connection with the law regulating the annual settle- 
ment of accounts of all State officials handling State funds 
with the Executive Council, a new provision forbids the 
State Auditor to draw warrants reimbursing any State ' 
officers, except the Governor, Attorney General, Eailroad 
Commissioners, Commerce Counsel, and those under the ! 
supervision of the Board of Control or Board of Education, 
for expenses incurred by attending conventions or confer- 
ences outside the State, unless a permit from the Executive 
Council is filed with the Auditor. This measure was 
prompted by the disclosure that many State officers were 
traveling extensively at public expense.*'^ 

The Governor was made responsible for the certification 
of Commissioners for Iowa in other States, the publication 
of a list of them, the keeping of a record of all appoint- I 
ments of such Commissioners, and the preserving of certifi- ' 
cates of commissioners of other States in Iowa. Formerly, \ 
the Governor was charged only with the appointment of the i 

"House File Nos. 452, 488, 531, 727, 811; Senate File Nos. 417, 422, 519, 
520, 578, 651, 680; House Journal, 1921, p. 165. 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 221, 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 523 



Commissioners, while the functions mentioned were per- 
formed by the Secretary of State : now the entire adminis- 
trative supervision of the Commissioners for Iowa in other 
States and the commissioners of other States in Iowa is 
centered in the Governor's office.** 

The services of Commissioners in other States are of the 
same general character as those of notaries public. The 
jurisdiction of a notary public in Iowa extends only to the 
county of his residence and the adjoining counties in which 
he files a certified copy of his certificate of appointment. 
Notaries have, however, sometimes acknowledged instru- 
ments outside of their jurisdiction and on account of the 
impossibility of having many of these instruments re- 
acknowledged the Thirty-ninth General Assembly legalized 
all acknowledgments heretofore taken by notaries outside 
of their jurisdiction. The fee for a commission as notary 
public was definitely fixed at five dollars.*^ 

The schedule of fees which the Secretary of State may 
collect was revised. For issuing a commission to Commis- 
sioners in other States the fee was changed from $5 to $15 ; 
for a certificate the charge was raised from $1 to $2; and 
for a copy of a law or record for a private person the cost 
was increased from ten cents to twenty-five cents for every 
hundred words.™ 

A bill to alter the personnel of the Executive Council by 
making the Attorney General a member passed the Senate 
but was lost in the House Sifting Committee. Another act 
relating to the Executive Council gives that body authority 
to summon witnesses and require the production of evi- 
dence. A person failing or refusing to comply may be 

•*8 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 233. 

Code of 1897, Sec. 377 ; A(^s of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 
80, 151. 

Ads of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 80. 



524 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



punished for contempt. There was no law on the statute 
books previous to 1921 which specifically granted the 
Executive Council this authority, and inasmuch as the 
Committee on Departmental Affairs turned over to the 
Executive Council certain unfinished investigations it was 
thought advisable that they should be able to procure the 
necessary witnesses.^' 

The organization of the State Board of Audit, which was 
established in 1915, was changed by excluding the first 
assistant secretary of the Executive Council, who might 
have been a member under the former statute, and naming 
as secretary of the Board the State Auditor instead of the 
secretary of the Executive Council or his first assistant. 

An attempt was made to have the accounts of the Board 
of Education and the Board of Control brought under the 
jurisdiction of the Board of Audit, but the suggestion was 
not approved by the Senate Committee on Departmental 
Affairs. Warrants on the State Treasurer for money ap- 
propriated for the support of the Iowa National Guard not 
in active service are now subject to check by the State 
Board of Audit.^^ 

For many years the Governor of Iowa has had the 
authority to appoint a commission to examine the accounts 
of any State officer with a view to suspending, the officer if 
the findings warrant. Such a commission, according to the 
legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, may now 
be appointed to investigate any State board, commission, 
or other person spending State funds.^^ 

Since April 15, 1921, the State Treasurer has been re- 

61 Senate File No. 454; Acts of the Thirty-'ninth General Assembly, Ch. 158. 
^2 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 171, 226; Senate File 
No. 452. 

ssActs of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 171. In the first section of 
this act as printed in the session laws there is a typographical error, the word 
"of" at the end of line five appearing in place of the word "or". 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 525 



quired to keep a daily balance sheet which shows the bal- 
ance or deficit of each fund and the total amount of money 
in the treasury.^* 

The so-called crime wave of the past two or three years 
is probably responsible in part for the act of the Thirty- 
ninth General Assembly which authorizes the Attorney 
General to establish a Bureau of Criminal Investigation 
composed of the State special agents and all other peace 
officers in Iowa. This measure was endorsed by the Iowa 
Bankers Association. The Attorney General has inaugu- 
rated under this law a system of criminal identification, for 
which purpose all sheriffs and chiefs of police are required 
to furnish criminal identification records. The expenses of 
the Bureau are to be paid out of the contingent fund of the 
office of Attorney General. The object of this act is to 
centralize criminal investigation. Thus the Bureau will 
make the work of local peace officers more effective, afford 
a means of cooperation with officers of other States and the 
Federal government, and provide a clearing house for the 
detection of automobile thieves, the recovery of stolen 
property, and the accumulation of information relative to 
criminal activities. The establishment of this system may 
obviate the organization of a State police force.^^ 

Another act relating to the apprehension of criminals 
amends the law pertaining to rewards offered by the Gov- 
ernor. Such rewards will no longer be offered for the 
arrest and delivery of persons "charged" with a crime but 
rather for those "committing" a crime. Moreover, the 
State is protected against the payment of unearned rewards 
by the stipulation that no reward is to be paid until the 
person arrested and delivered has been convicted and the 

^*Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 185. 
86 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 186. 



526 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



conviction affirmed in case of an appeal to the Supreme 
Court.s^ 

The bond of the Supreme Court Reporter was reduced 
from $10,000 to $1000, because he handles no State funds 
so that there seemed to be no good reason for requiring the 
larger bond.^^ 

The statute relating to the office of Custodian of Public 
Buildings was repealed and a new law enacted providing 
for a Custodian of Public Buildings and Grrounds. For- 
merly, the Adjutant General was ex officio in charge of 
State buildings and grounds at the capital, but for some 
time the work of organizing the National Guard has made 
it impossible for him to attend to the duties of the Custo- 
dian's office. The new act provides for the appointment of 
a Custodian by the Executive Council. When the bill was 
passed there was an understanding that the Assistant 
Custodian, who had served the State efficiently for many 
years, would be elevated to that position. The compensa- 
tion for the office of Custodian, however, was inadvertently 
omitted from the salary act, so it appears that the Execu- 
tive Council has appointed itself Custodian, leaving the 
Assistant Custodian to continue doing the work. More- 
over, the Soldiers Preference Law seems to have interfered 
with the retention of the former Assistant Custodian in that 
position. Except for the changes noted and the addition 
of a penalty clause against the Custodian's having any 
pecuniary interest in any contracts for supplies or busi- 
ness enterprises involving expenditure by the State, the 
new act is almost identical mth the Code Commission 
Bill on this subject which restates the provisions of the 
former statute in simpler and clearer language.^® 

58 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 250. 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 4. 
58 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 108; Code Commission 
Bill No. 13. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 527 



The annual appropriation for the support of the State 
Library Commission was doubled by fixing the amount at 
$12,000 exclusive of the $9000 which formerly came out of 
the $15,000 appropriation for maintenance. Salaries will 
now be taken care of in the general salary act.^^ 

To the personnel of the Board of Educational Examiners 
was added a third appointive member to represent the 
privately endowed colleges of the State which maintain 
teachers' training courses.^" 

The term of office of the State Veterinary Surgeon and 
the other members of the Commission of Animal Health 
was extended from three to four years.^^ 

A new statute which applies to all public officers, boards, 
commissions, departments, and institutions of the State, 
county, township, municipality, school corporation, and to 
public libraries requires that on or before December 1, 
1921, and every year thereafter these officials shall file an 
inventory, verified by oath, of all real and personal public 
property under their charge, care, custody, control, or 
management. These inventories remain on file in the office 
wherein they have been prepared for public use and in- 
spection. Moreover, State officials are required to file 
duplicates with the State Auditor, except that inventories 
of property under the Board of Control and Board of Edu- 
cation are filed with these boards, and all other public 
officials must file duplicate inventories with the county 
auditor. It is the duty of the State and county auditors to 
see that these duplicate inventories are filed in their offices. 
A series of forms will be furnished by the State Auditor. 
Failure to file the inventories is punishable by removal 
from office.^2 

«9-dct» of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Gh. 235. 
«« Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 248. 
«i Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 146. 
«2 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 177. 



528 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



In addition to the changes made in the State adminis- 
trative offices by acts designed especially for that purpose 
it appears that a few new officials were authorized by the 
general salary act. Moreover, no salary seems to have been 
provided for some well established offices — an assistant 
county accountant in the office of State Auditor, a lecturer 
on tuberculosis, and one inspector in the office of Superin- 
tendent of Public Instruction.^^ 

THE STATE INSTITUTIONS 

Support. — The cost of maintaining State institutions has 
continued to rise and even the substantial increases in the 
monthly support which were granted by the Thirty-eighth 
General Assembly were not adequate to meet present de- 
mands. 

At the Soldiers' Home in Marshalltown the monthly 
support was increased from $22 to $28 for each inmate. 
The law now provides that in case there are less than seven 
hundred and fifty inmates any one month the support for 
that month shall be $21,000 as compared with a minimum 
of $18,700 for eight hundred and fifty inmates in 1919. The 
amount allowed for each employee was increased from $10 
to $15 per month. 

The monthly support for each inmate of the Institution 
for Feeble-minded Children at Glenwood was increased 
from $17 to $21. 

The minimum monthly support of the Iowa Soldiers' 
Orphans' Home was changed from $9000 in any month 
when there might be less than three hundred and sixty 
inmates to $10,000 monthly if the number of inmates should 
fall below four hundred. 

The support for each patient in the Sanatorium for Tuber- 
culosis at Oakdale was increased from $50 to $65 per month. 

83 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Asserribly, Ch. 340. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 529 



For the Colony for Epileptics the total minimum monthly 
support was changed from $7000 for three hundred patients 
to $10,000 for four hundred and fifty, but no increase was 
made in the per capita monthly allowance which, therefore, 
remains at $24 as fixed by the Thirty-eighth General As- 
sembly. 

A comparison of the work of the last two General As- 
semblies is interesting. Thus, no further change was made 
in the allowances provided by the Thirty-eighth General 
Assembly for support of the hospitals for the insane at 
Mount Pleasant, Clarinda, Cherokee, and Independence, for 
the Men's Eeformatory at Anamosa, or the Penitentiary at 
Fort Madison. The support funds of the Training School 
for Boys, the Training School for Girls, and the Industrial 
Eeformatory for Women also remains as fixed by the 
Thirty-eighth General Assembly. It is to be observed, 
however, that the institutions for which the per capita sup- 
port was not increased are those which engage in agri- 
culture or manufacture, the income from which supplements 
the appropriations. The per capita increase of $6 monthly 
for the Soldiers' Home at Marshalltown was equal to the 
increase made by the Thirty-eighth General Assembly in 
1919 as was also the $4 per month increase for each inmate 
of the Institution for Feeble-minded Children at Glenwood. 
In case of the Tuberculosis Sanatorium, however, the $15 
per capita increase in the monthly support was three times 
the increase allowed for the same purpose by the Thirty- 
eighth General Assembly.^* 

Educational Institutions. — With one exception all of the 
legislation of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly relative 
to the three State educational institutions is in the nature 
of appropriations. Besides the usual appropriations neces- 

6* Acts of the Thirty -ninth General Assembly, Ch. 297. 



530 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



sary for the maintenance the legislature yielded to the 
irrgent requests for appropriations that would enable these 
institutions for higher education in the State to construct 
new buildings which they needed to satisfy the demands 
imposed upon them by the increased enrollment of the past 
few years. Because of the desire to practice economy and 
to keep expenditures as low as possible, the General As- 
sembly did not see its way clear to appropriate all that was 
asked for building purposes. To the State University of 
Iowa $500,000 was granted for the purpose of purchasing 
land and constructing buildings. An equal amount for 
similar purposes was appropriated to the Iowa State Col- 
lege of Agriculture and Mechanic Arts, while a sum of 
$230,000 was voted to the Teachers College for the specific 
purposes of purchasing land and constructing a home eco- 
nomics laboratory and an additional section to the women's 
dormitory.^^ 

In connection with the Iowa State College, the Board of 
Education was authorized to transfer a certain tract of 
land to the City of Ames so that the north end of Lynn 
Avenue could be re-aligned in accordance with the plans of . 
the city to make that thoroughfare safer.^*' 

The establishment of three more normal schools was pro- 
posed, but nothing came of the suggestion.*''^ 

The State Historical Society of Iowa on account of the 
nature of its activities is closely related to the educational 
institutions of the State. By the addition of $20,500 an- 
nually for support the permanent annual appropriation for 
this institution was nearly doubled."^ 

65 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 287, 289, 292. 
00 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly^ Ch. 334. 
6T Senate File No. 612. 

OS Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 294. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 531 



Medical Institutions. — In 1904 the bacteriological lab- 
oratory of the medical department of the State University 
of Iowa was established with a rather modest appropriation 
of $1000 for equipment and $5000 biennially to pay the 
salaries and all other expenses connected therewith. In 
the year 1915 this institution was allowed an annual appro- 
priation of $6000, and the Assembly of that year also made 
the $5000 annually it had previously appropriated for the 
epidemiology laboratory available for the bacteriological 
laboratory. The Thirty-seventh General Assembly in- 
creased the appropriation for the bacteriological laboratory 
to $8000 annually, and in 1921 the annual appropriation 
was raised to $15,000.69 

A State Psychopathic Hospital was established at Iowa 
City in connection with the State University of Iowa by an 
act of the Thirty-eighth General Assembly, carrying an 
appropriation of $175,000 for the erection and equipment of 
a building to be used for that purpose. Accordingly the 
hospital was established with temfjorary quarters on the 
upper floors of what had previously been the homeopathic 
hospital at the State University, and the construction of 
the new building was begun. It was necessary, however, 
for the Thirty-ninth General Assembly to appropriate an 
additional sum of $97,000 to complete this hospital — 
$35,000 to be used to finish the building and $62,000 for 
equipment.'^" 

Not only did the Thirty-ninth General Assembly appro- 
priate additional funds for the Psychopathic Hospital, but 
it also paid some attention to its administration. The med- 
ical director, the assistant medical director, and one other 
member of the medical staff of the Sfete Psychopathic 
Hospital now constitute a board of insanity commissioners 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 293. 
'0 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 291. 



532 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to decide whether patients referred to the board by the 
medical director are fit subjects for observation and treat- 
ment in a State hospital for the insane. This board is given 
practically the same powers as those possessed by other 
commissioners of insanity and provision is made for its 
organization and for appeal from its decisions. Formerly, 
power to transfer patients rested with the medical director 
who was required to appoint some person to accompany the 
patient from Iowa City to the proper State hospital. As 
the law now reads the appointment of an attendant seems 
to be optional with the board. Provisions for the pay and 
expenses of attendants remain practically the same. 

The Thirty-eighth General Assembly made provision for 
the transfer of patients from the Psychopathic Hospital to 
the general University Hospital and for the manner of pay- 
ing the expenses. These provisions were extended to cover 
the transfer of patients afflicted with abnormal mental 
conditions from the general hospital to the Psychopathic 
Hospital, with special reference to public patients. The 
law relating to the discharge of patients was somewhat 
simplified so that now only the committing judge need be 
notified by the medical director of the discharge of a 
patient, and a provision was added which requires the 
judge to appoint an attendant, or authorize the medical 
director to do so, to accompany a discharged patient to a 
place which the judge may designate. A section was added 
which makes it possible for a private patient to become a 
public patient after commitment. Finally, provision was 
made for the payment of expenses resulting from death 
and transportation of bodies of persons who may die while 
at the Psychopathic Hospital in the case of public patients, 
and for the collection of such expenses when the person 
was a private patient.'^ ^ 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 245. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 533 



In order that the students of the Nurses Training School 
at the University may be properly housed while receiving 
instruction, particularly in connection with the Children's 
Hospital and the Psychopathic Hospital, the Thirty-eighth 
General Assembly appropriated $150,000 for a nurses' 
home in the vicinity of these two institutions, but it was 
necessary for the Thirty-ninth General Assembly to appro- 
priate $25,000 additional for its completions^ 

Institutions for Defectives. — Emergency appropriations 
were made for the College for the Blind and for the School 
for the Deaf. The former institution received for this pur- 
pose the sum of $16,000; while $25,000 was voted for the 
latterJ^ 

The replacement of property destroyed by fire at the 
Institution for Feeble-minded Children was made possible 
by the appropriation of $35,000 for the construction and 
equipment of an industrial building/^ 

The sum of $2000 was appropriated to meet the deficiency 
in funds for paving and improving the highway at the 
Hospital for the Insane at Cherokee. Although there was 
a deficit of $4745, the difference will be made up by taxation 
of the city of Cherokee inasmuch as this paving is adjacent 
to the Cherokee cemetery.'^ ^ 

In accordance with the act of the Thirty-eighth General 
Assembly ordering the State Hospital for Inebriates at 
Knoxville to be abolished, the Executive Council was 
authorized to sell several plots of ground containing about 
three hundred and forty-five acres upon which the institu- 
tion was located.''^ 

72 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assemily, Ch. 290. 

73 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 288. 
''iActs of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 299. 
75 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 336. 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 326. 



534 IOWA JOURNAL OP HISTORY AND POLITICS 



Institution for Delinquents. — The Board of Control was 
authorized to purchase a farm of about two hundred and 
sixty acres in Jones County in connection with the Re- 
formatory for Men at Anamosa, for which purpose a sum 
not to exceed $52,000 w^as appropriated^"^ 

The Flynn farm, owned by the State of Iowa and used as 
a prison farm, was ordered to be soldJ® 

Institutions for Dependents. — The purpose for which the 
Iowa Soldiers' Home at Marshalltown is maintained was 
restated so as to include any dependent honorably dis- 
charged United States soldier, sailor, marine, army or navy 
nurse, or their dependent widows or wives otherwise quali- 
fied. Formerly, the Home was open only to those who had 
served in the Union army and their dependent widows, 
wives, fathers, and mothers. Thus, the new statute ex- 
cludes the fathers and mothers, but adds the veterans of 
recent wars and navy nurses. A change in rules for admis- 
sion was also made to include among those eligible, persons 
who were residents of Iowa when they enlisted or were 
inducted into service, as well as those who served in Iowa 
regiments or batteries, or were accredited to Iowa. Women 
who are the lawful wives of honorably discharged soldiers, 
sailors, or marines at the time they are admitted to the 
home may also be admitted.'^ ^ 

The customary appropriations were made for the main- 
tenance and repair of charitable, correctional, educational, 
and penal institutions of the State, and these may be found 
in the table of appropriations given below on pp. 655-664. 

77 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 300. 

78 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 325. 
10 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 148. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 535 



COUNTY OFFICEES AND GOVEENMENT 

Several acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly af- 
fected incidentally the functions of the county board of 
super\dsors, but only two had to do primarily with their 
activities. The time for the regular June meeting was 
changed from the first to the second Monday of that month 
to avoid a conflict with the date of the primary election. 
This measure was introduced upon the suggestion of the 
County Auditors Association. To the general powers of 
the board of supervisors was added that of leasing or sell- 
ing to school districts any county real estate not needed 
for county purposes.^" 

Bills were introduced in both houses to change the term 
of the supervisors to two years and elect them at large, but 
none of these measures passed the chamber in which they 
originated, though the proposition of a two year term for 
all county officers lost in the Senate by a vote of only 
twenty to twenty-seven. Among other bills relating to 
county officers which failed of enactment was a proposal to 
increase the mileage that a sheriff may collect, a bill to 
increase the general fees of the recorder, and a measure to 
require the recorder to keep a plat book showing incum- 
brances.^^ 

All county officers are now required to file annually an 
inventory of the public property under their control. This 
act is discussed above under the topic of State Adminis- 
tration. 

The compensation of county officers has been discussed 
above under the topic dealing with the compensation of 
pubhc officials. The only change of salary occurred in the 
case of the superintendent of schools. That county officer 

80 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 239, 321. 

81 Senate File Nos. 580, 654, 655; House File Nos. 291, 656, 681, 725; 
Senate Journal, 1921, p. 1380. 

VOL. XIX — 35 



536 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



I 



has been relatively underpaid for several years, so that the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly by increasing the maximum 
salary simply raised the superintendent to the level of the 
other county officers. The salary of the county superin- 
tendent as fixed by the Thirty-eighth General Assembly 
ranged from $1600 to $2500 according to the population of 
the county, but the new act specifies a salary of $1800 in all 
counties and allows the board of supervisors to provide 
additional compensation up to $3000 a year,^^ 

Two acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly extend 
the powers of the county in connection with the maintenance 
of county public hospitals. Chapter 95 doubles the amount 
of the tax that may be raised for the support of a county 
hospital by increasing the maximum levy from one to two 
mills. Furthermore, by virtue of chapter 83 the county 
board of supervisors, in counties where there is no county 
hospital, now have authority to establish one or more 
county wards in any public or private hospital in the 
county. The rules relating to the occupancy of such wards 
are determined by the board of supervisors. The tax levy 
for this purpose is limited to one-half mill.^^ 

TOWNSHIP OFriCERS AND GOVEENMENT 

Nearly all of the legislation of the Thirty-ninth General 
Assembly relating to township government concerns the 
two offices of assessor and justice of the peace. The statute 
regulating the venue of justices of the peace — which pro- 
vides that action may be commenced in an adjoining town- 
ship if there is no justice in the proper to"svTiship — was 
amended to cover the contingency of there being no justice 
in the adjoining township, by adding that if such should be 
the situation then the case could be taken to the justice in 

82 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 112. 

83 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Chs. 83, 95. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENEEAL ASSEMBLY 537 



the same county nearest to the township in which the de- 
fendant resides. The same amendment applies in cases of 
forcible entry and detention of real property except that 
such actions are taken to the township in the same county 
nearest the one in which the subject of the action is situ- 
ated.s^ 

Three acts deal with the compensation of township offi- 
cers. Assessors who attend the annual meeting at the office 
of county auditor to receive instructions are now allowed 
ten in place of six cents a mile to cover traveling expenses.®^ 

In accordance with an act of the Thirty-eighth Greneral 
Assembly the board of supervisors of Polk County was 
allowed to fix the compensation of the Des Moines assessor 
at not over $2500 a year and the pay of two head deputy 
assessors at not over $1500 a year each. The Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly extended this privilege to all commission 
governed and special charter cities with a population ex- 
ceeding forty-five thousand — Des Moines, Sioux City, 
Cedar Eapids, and Davenport.^^ 

Chapter 101 of the acts of the Thirty-ninth General As- 
sembly purports to extend the salary basis of compensation 
for justices of the peace and constables to townships having 
a population over ten thousand. Formerly, these officers 
were paid a salary from the county treasury only in town- 
ships mth over twelve thousand inhabitants. For the pur- 
pose of harmonizing this change with another part of the 
existing statute, the number of townships in which justices 
of the peace and constables are allowed to retain part of 
the civil fees collected was increased by including all with 
a population exceeding ten thousand instead of twelve 

Si Acts of the Thirty -ninth General Assembly, Ch. 193. 
^'i Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 121. 
S8 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 23. 



538 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



thousand as before. These officers, however, must still pay 
into the county treasury all criminal fees collected in town- 
ships having a population of twelve thousand or more. 
Another part of the existing statute, which was allowed to 
remain unchanged, now appears to be inconsistent with 
the amended provisions. Justices of the peace and con- 
stables in townships having under twelve thousand popu- 
lation must pay into the county treasury all fees collected 
above stipulated amounts which they are allowed to retain 
as compensation. Thus in a township with eleven thousand 
population the justices of the peace and the constables are 
ordered in one part of the law to pay into the county treas- 
ury all fees except $800 and $600 respectively which they 
may retain; in another place they are authorized to pay 
into the county treasury all civil fees except what the 
county board of supervisors may allow them to retain; 
while in a third place they are to receive salaries of $1000 
and $800 respectively in full compensation for their services 
in criminal cases.^'' 

MUNICIPAL LEGISLATION 

Legislation relating to cities and towns, as usual, occu- 
pied much of the attention of the General Assembly. The 
thirty-eight acts dealing directly with municipal govern- 
ment contain some important developments. In addition 
to these acts, thirty legalizing acts were required to validate 
the actions of cities and towns about which doubts of legal- 
ity had arisen. 

City Officials. — One of the most noteworthy changes in 
municipal government is the act, sponsored by Representa- 
tive A. 0. Hauge of Des Moines, which requires candidates 
for nomination and election to commissions in certain com- 

87 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 101. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 539 



mission governed cities to announce the department of 
wliicli they desire to be the superintendent. The act, which 
repeals the existing regulations, applies only to those cities 
which adopt the commission form of government hereafter, 
and to the cities now operating under that plan in which 
the voters approve of the change at an election. Thus, 
apparently there is no law determining whether candidates 
for the office of commissioner in the nine commission gov- 
erned cities shall run for a particular department or not, 
until the voters decide that they shall. Where the scheme 
is adopted the names of candidates will be printed on both 
the primary and regular election ballots under the title of 
the office to which they seek election, and only the two 
highest candidates for each office in the primary will be 
nominated. 

This act has the effect of emphasizing the administrative 
functions of the commissioners above their activities as a 
council. Heretofore the mayor has been the only commis- 
sioner elected to a particular administrative office, while 
the other superintendents of departments were elected to 
the commission and appointed to the department. The 
original method tended to secure a commission composed of 
men possessing such general qualifications as business 
ability, good judgment, and political sagacity; while the 
new arrangement seeks more expert administration by at- 
tempting to place at the head of each department the com- 
missioner who is best fitted for that office. Some of the 
arguments against the measure were that it would cause 
the formation of "slates", that the ablest candidates might 
be rivals by running for the same office, and that the com- 
mission should be a council rather than a group of adminis- 
trative officials. 

Three acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly refer 

88 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 109. 



540 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



to officials of manager governed cities. Chapter 103 makes 
the law regulating pensions for retired and disabled fire- 
men and policemen applicable to cities that have or may 
hereafter adopt the city manager plan.®^ Two acts, how- 
ever, were passed providing for a civil service commission 
in manager governed cities. Chapter 102, which was ap- 
proved on April 2, 1921, proposed to make the law pro- 
viding for a civil service commission in commission gov- 
erned cities applicable to all cities which may hereafter 
adopt the city manager plan. The only alterations deemed 
necessary in transplanting the scheme were that the powers 
and duties of the mayor and superintendent of public 
safety in connection with the civil service commission were 
to devolve upon the city manager.^" Ten days later an- 
other act was approved which provides for a civil service 
commission for all manager governed cities, and supersedes 
the first act. While this measure is based upon the civil 
service commission law for commission governed cities it is 
reworded in a number of places and two sections are en- 
tirely omitted, thus adapting it to manager governed 
cities.^^ 

Two technical changes were made in the law regulating 
the selection and tenure of library trustees, the more im- 
portant of which was to the effect that the mayor can no 
longer fill vacancies on the board without the approval of 
the city council. Contracts of library trustees with school 
corporations, townships, counties, or municipalities for the 
free use of the library by residents of any such govern- 
mental area must hereafter pro^dde the rate of tax to be 
levied during the period of the contract, and instead of 
remaining in force for five years as formerly such contracts 

»s Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 103. 

90 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 102. 

91 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 216. 



THE THIRTY-NINTH GENERAL ASSEMBLY 541 



will be terminated now only by a majority vote of the elec- 
tors in the district using the library.^^ 

A noteworthy bill which passed the House but was lost in 
the Senate Sifting Committee, authorized cities to appoint 
city planning commissions. These commissions were de- 
signed to investigate and report on zoning and districting, 
improvements in city parks, streets, and recreation places, 
the plotting of additions, the location and design of works 
of art and public buildings, the location of transportation 
lines and terminals, and formulate a comprehensive plan 
for the development of the city. The bill was introduced by 
Eepresentative L. B. Forsling of Sioux City.^^ 

Ordinances. — For many years municipalities have been 
required to publish certain ordinances in a local newspaper ; 
or if there was no such newspaper then the ordinance could 
be published by posting it in three public places, two of 
which should be the post office and the mayor's office. As 
amended in 1921 the mayor's office and the post office are 
not designated as two of the public places in which ordi- 
nances must be posted.^* 

Municipal Courts. — Officers of the municipal court were 
granted an appreciable raise in salary by the Thirty-ninth 
General Assembly. Each municipal judge in cities with 
less than thirty thousand inhabitants will receive $3000 
instead of $2000 a year, while the judges in cities with a 
population between thirty thousand and seventy-five thou- 
sand will receive $3400 instead of $2500, and those in cities 
with a population above seventy -five thousand will receive 
$3600 instead of $2500. Clerks, whose former salary 

62 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assemhly, Chs. 234, 265. 
93 House File Xo. 599. 

Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly, Ch. 84. 



542 IOWA JOURNAL OF HISTORY AND POLITICS 



ranged from $1000 to $1750, were raised to $1800, $2200, 
and $2600 according to the size of the city. Bailiffs, who 
were formerly paid the same salaries as clerks, will now 
receive $1500, $1750, and $2000, depending upon the size of 
the city.''^ 

The jurisdiction of a municipal court ordinarily includes 
all civil townships in which the city is located and all other 
inferior courts therein are abolished. An exception was 
made by the Thirty-ninth General Assembly in case an- 
other town is situated in the same township. Such a town 
will retain its mayor's court with exclusive jurisdiction 
over violations of its own ordinances. The immediate occa- 
sion for this act was the existence of such a condition in 
connection with the municipal court in Waterloo — the 
town of Cedar Heights being in the same township.^^ 

The superior court of Cedar Rapids has in the past been 
the subject of considerable special legislation, and the 
Thirty-ninth General Assembly continued the practice. 
The salary of the judge of that court was increased from 
$3000 to $3700. Moreover, the description of the city to 
which the special provisions for the superior court apply 
was changed by raising the population specification from 
forty thousand to forty-five thousand, and omitting the 
clause limiting it to commission governed cities. This re- 
moved all immediate likelihood of Council Bluffs being 
required to pay the increased salary to its superior court 
judge.^' 

«5 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assevihly, Ch. 61. 

96 Acts of the Thirty-ninth General Assembly